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Journal of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal 

Asiatic Society of Bengal 

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VOL. V. 



" It will flourish, if naturalists, chemists, antiquaries, i 
science, in different parts of Asia, will commit their observations to writing^ 
them to the Asiatic Society at Calcutta ; it will languish, if such communicafl 
shall be long intermitted ; and will die away, if they shall entirely cease." 

Sir Wm. Jones. 




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VOL. V. 

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Our aspirations on launching a fifth annual volume of the 
Journal into the ocean of literature are no longer tremulous 
from a diffident anxiety as to its reception ; the tide of popular 
fevor, or at least the diminutive wave of it which reaches the 
secluded estuary of oriental research, has buoyed us up with the 
most flattering encouragement, and an increasing body of con- 
stituents has still pressed forward to freight our humble bark 
with the productions of their industry and talent. To extract 
any of the too complimentary phrases of our correspondents 
in Paris, Vienna, and London, would be egotism ; and we must 
not forget that a proportion of their praise may be merely 
stimulatory— inciting us to take advantage of the golden op- 
portunities commanded by our position at the emporium, to 
amass a rich cargo for their more deliberate and erudite dis- 
cussion hereafter. Our errors also have not escaped their due 
measure of criticism, but even thus they have been productive 
of a good effect in drawing- forth more correct information 
from other sources. The commerce in which we are engaged, 
to continue the metaphor in the terms of a late French prospec- 
tus, " multipliera le capital de la science comme Tautre com- 
merce multiplie celui du numeraire." 

However we may thus+oast of having added to the stock 
of knowledge, we fear the « capital du numeraire" has but little 
connection, beyond the analogy, with the out-turn of our spe- 
culation ; although, if the pecuniary prospects of the Journal 
are not much bettered this year, we have none to blame but 
ourselves for the unpromising aspect of our account current ! 

By increasing the letter-press more than 100 pages, and the 
plates in proportion, we felt we were exceeding the bounds of 
caution ; yet we could not resist the attempt to keep pace with 
the communications entrusted to us for publication, even at 

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some sacrifice and risk. Had our edition been sufficiently ex- 
tensive to allow a large reserve for future sale, there might 
have been hopes of retrievement — but the 500 copies have all 
disappeared, and of our early volumes it is almost impossible 
now to procure a copy. The only method, then, left to meet 
this difficulty, is to levy a heavier assessment on our supporters 
for the future; and to this step, however reluctantly, we shall 
be obliged to resort from the beginning of the year 1837, still 
always adhering to our engagement of giving the maximum 
of matter for our'means, and reminding our subscribers that 
we are not in fact heightening our charge, but enlarging our 
work ; seeing that from 38 pages we have gradually augment- 
ed the monthly quota to 80, a quantity which experience has 
proved to be more than can be covered by a rupee subscrip- 
tion. Our rates from 1837, therefore, will be l£ rupee per 
number to subscribers, and two rupees to others. The pecuni- 
ary details on which this measure is founded are as follows : 

Payments. 1836. Receipts. 

Co.* IU. A. P. Co.* Rm. a. p. 

To Balance due lit Jan... 675 3 7 By Collections in 1836,.. 4319 Oft 
To Establishment one year, 175 7 By Asiatic Society for co- 

To Postages, 143 14 3 pies supplied to Mem- 

To Binding 209 47 bers in 1835, 1088 00 

To Printer's Bill dis- By sale in England, 336 8 

charged, 4277 9 6 

To Engra? ings and Litho- 
graphs, 1566 5 

7047 12 5743 9 1 

Outstandings. Drpenobncies. 

To printing Bills unpaid By Subscriptions due for 

for 1836, 5221 1836, in Calcutta, .... 960 13 3 

Ditto Mofussil, 1100 

Ditto Memb. As. Soc. .. 1284 

Ditto Madras, 777 15 

Ditto Bombay, 830 3 9 

Ditto Ceylon, 183 10 7 

12,268 12 10,880 3 8 

Loss, tuppeting all the ouittanding claim* realizable, 1,388 8 

If, in our last volume, we could not refrain from noticing, as 
the most prominent object of interest in its contents, the sus- 
pension of oriental publications by the British Indian Govern- 
ment, and the general discouragement under which oriental 
studies were doomed to languish ; we must not on the present 
occasion omit to make honorable mention of the patronage and 

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favor which has once more dawned upon science and literature 
in India under the present administration. The proceedings 
of the Asiatic Society, last year so full of painful discussion 
and unsuccessful appeal, this year shine forth with tokens of 
distinguished consideration. Consulted on the merit of pro- 
positions connected with historical research in the Peninsula 
and in Ceylon, its recommendations have met that attention 
which dignifies its proceedings, and tends more than any thing 
else to render it a substantive and useful institution. The 
sanction of its auspices has been courted, and has been ex- 
tended beneficially to publications of great magnitude and im- 
portance. It has itself engaged in a new sphere of operations, 
devolved upon it by the discussions of last year, which pro- 
mises, by a judicious combination with the sister Societies 
of France and England, to become equally advantageous to 
the European scholar, and profitable to itself. The Society 
of Paris has been the foremost to volunteer its co-operation in 
the completion of the series of suspended oriental works; but we 
have reason to know that the Royal Asiatic Society of London 
has not espoused their cause less warmly or less successfully, 
although the unavoidable delays of references to high autho- 
rities have prevented our yet reaping the fruits of their influ- 
ence and intercession. 

Many will consider with ourselves that the publication of 
a full edition of the oriental classics is a perfectly legitimate 
branch of labour for an Asiatic Society, and they may hope 
to see it permanently continued under endowment and protec- 
tion of the Government itself. — It may indeed be regarded 
as a judicious modification of one of the earliest intentions of 
the institution promulgated in July, 1806, but hitherto left a 
dead letter on its minutes, " that a series of volumes, to be 
entitled Bibliotheca Asiatica, be published by the Society 
distinct from the Asiatic Researches, containing translations of 
short works in the Asiatic languages, and extracts and de- 
scriptive accounts of books of greater length, gradually extend- 
ing to all Asiatic books deposited in the Society's library, and 
even to all works extant in the languages of Asia." 

The translation and critical examination of Oriental works at 
the present day can be better undertaken by the distinguished 

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professors and philologists of Europe, and the only department 
of which Tire can hope to relieve them, with any chance of 
success, is the collection and correct printing of original texts 
through the supervision of our native Pandits and Manlavis. 
We therefore hope to see fresh volumes put in hand now 
that the series transferred by the Committee of Education is 
so nearly completed ; and we would respectfully suggest, that 
the Government should make over to the Society all of the 
Sanscrit, Arabic, and Persian works that have hitherto issued 
from the Education Press, in order that one system of distri- 
bution and sale may be regulated for the whole series ; and 
that, under the name of the Bibliothbca Asiatica, this body 
of Indian classical lore may be encouraged and regarded in the 
light of a national undertaking, entrusted merely to the vigi- 
lant superintendence of the Society as the appropriate organ 
of their publication. 

But we are dwelling too long on a favorite project, and have 
but little space left to allude to the equally prosperous for- 
tune of the natural sciences during the present year. The 
sincere votary of science cannot have witnessed without plea- 
surable anticipations the introduction, altogether novel in this 
country, of the delightful and instructive experiments of na- 
tural philosophy among the social recreations of Government 
House. At these parties may be kindled into action many 
a dormant disposition to cultivate the sciences that has hither- 
to but wanted such a stimulus; and the community at large 
may learn to appreciate the studies they have been accustom* 
ed to eschew as vain or recondite, by witnessing their practi- 
cal application and attractions. We have heard it suggest- 
ed as an improvement on the plan adopted by the illustrious 
Patron of the Society, to hold these soirees directly at the Socie- 
ty's museum, where the objects to be explained or exhibited might 
be prepared more at leisure, and where they would remain 
classified with others in the same collection ; — others again 
have advocated the giving of a more decidedly lectural character 
to the evening's exposition. In London, where the President of 
the Roval Society holds similar meetings, his visitors are already 
well grounded in the subjects treated of, and need but a glance at 
any new invention or experiment to comprehend its drift : but 

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in India the majority have Dot enjoyed the same opportunities! 
and their curiosity is merely raised without hope of entire 
satisfaction. But against this view it may be urged that a 
monthly lecture would be but a tardy mode of communicating 
knowledge, more especially if the subject were to be changed 
on each occasion. A course of lectures might be a good suc- 
eedaneum to the system, but the spirit of the monthly re-union 
must be general and exhibitory, to answer the object intended^ 

Again we are insensibly falling into a review of matters be- 
yond the proper scope of a Preface, which should confine itself 
to the contents of the volume it precedes, or to the mutual 
concerns of the editor and his constituents. 

On the cover of more than one monthly Journal we have 
already explained to what extent we have been enabled to 
increase the number and accuracy of our lithographed plates 
this year, by putting in requisition the talents of our mofussil 
friends. When the facilities of drawing on transfer paper for 
lithographic printing become more generally known, we may 
expect still further advantage from its adoption by travellers, 
engineers, botanists, and naturalists, who are, or ought to be, 
artists also. It is now known from actual experience that a 
transfer drawing, packed in a tin roll, may be subjected to a 
journey of 1000 miles, either in the hottest or the dampest 
period of the year with impunity. Most of the imperfections 
in the plates of the Sewalik fossils are due to want of care in 
passing them on to the stone, rather than to imperfections in 
the original drawings. 

Some confusion has arisen this year, in the numbering 
and placing of the plates, from continual and unavoidable 
postponements which it is needless to particularize. One 
plate (of the Bhitari inscription) has been reserved for the 
ensuing volume, that full justice may be done to the able 
elucidation of its important contents. And here we may be 
allowed a moment's exultation at the highly curious train of 
discovery, connected with this monument, which has been 
developed in the pages of the Journal. Not only has a dynasty 
before wholly unknown to the Indian historian, been traced by 
coins and inscriptions through seven generations in its own 
line, but two collateral alliances with other reigning princes 

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hare been brought to light : while extracts from ancient Chinese 
authors, independently scrutinized in Europe, have helped to 
determine their exact chronological epoch. 

In numismatic research discovery has been no less rife. The 
theory of a Grecian origin has been extended to various other 
series of Hindu coins — and the only one (the Varaha series) 
which remained of a doubtful source, has recently been traced 
in a most satisfactory manner to the Sassanian coinage of Per- 
sia, as will hereafter be shewn. We may here correct an ignorant 
error into which we have fallen in describing the legend of 
Doctor Swiney's coin of Agathoclea — giving the epithet 
Ocorpoiru, as if derived from -rpcyw instead of rpcirw ; to this our at- 
tention has been called by several correspondents — and we there- 
fore thus conspicuously acknowledge our blunder. The true 
meaning of the epithet (written Ocorpoirou though united to 
P«j(X«7<7acs) we conceive to be " godly-dispositioued." 

We must also caution our readers against implicitly adopting 
our version of the Bactro-Pehlevi character — for we are now in 
possession of the comparative alphabet lithographed by M. 
Jacqcjrt, which differs in many respects from our system, 
grounding it upon the Syriac instead of the Zend. — Not having 
yet seen the author's memoir on the subject, we are unable to 
make known his system, although we cannot doubt its supe- 
riority to our crude attempt. 

In fossil geology one immense step has been made this year, 
by the discovery of the remains of a quadrumanous animal, 
the nearest approach to the human being that has yet been 
found in a fossil state in company with the extinct monsters 
of primeval antiquity. This important addition has enriched the 
Dadupur museum ; but no less interesting have been the addi- 
tions to its worthy rival the museum of Seharauptir. It is per- 
haps right to explain how it has happened that the papers of 
Lieuts. Baker and Duband have mostly appeared in the jour- 
nal, while those of Dr. Falconer and Captain Cautlky have 
graced the new volume of the Researches. This selection was 
made from no difference in the relative value of these most 
interesting papers, but solely to accommodate best the draw- 
ings which accompanied them. We hope at some future 
period, to see the whole series collected together into a com- 

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plete and luxurious work on the fossil osteology of the Hima- 
layan range ; but such an undertaking should await the explo- 
ration of the whole line, and should be made a national con- 
cern. At present the great fear is, lest the quantity of speci- 
mens dispersed in private collections on all sides, may deprive 
us of many fragments requisite to work out the forms of the 
curious new animals disinterred from this vast cemetery of the 
ancient world. 

We have partly redeemed our promise to our meteorological 
contributors : sufficiently so, we hope, to revive their exertions, 
and procure us a combined series of observations in different 
parts of India for the coming year, more extended than the 
comparative tables we have now published. We regret having 
been unable to supply Barometers to the numerous applicants 
who have volunteered to use them. The duty now levied on 
philosophical instruments, will tend still more to check their 

Our readers will now readily excuse the absence of articles 
on the progress of the sciences in Europe, since that depart- 
ment has been zealously pursued by another periodical of ex- 
tensive circulation, in consequence partly of our neglect of it ; 
and a third rival has recently entered the field under promis- 
ing and powerful auspices. These have so fully made known 
many local inventions of scientific interest, that we have less 
regretted our inability to find space for their re-insertion. We 
would, on no account, however, wish to confine our pages to 
subjects more strictly Indian ; on the contrary, we shall ever 
study to infuse into them a pleasing variety of original informa- 
tion on all subjects, of man's performance or nature's produc- 
tion, within the wide range prescribed to us by our allegiance to 
the Asiatic Society. 

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or THE 


[To whom the Journal is forwarded at the Society's cost.] 

The Right Honorable Gkorgb, Lord Auckland, Governor General of India, 

The Honorable Sir Charlbs Thsophilus Metcalfe, Bart. K. C. B. Lieut.- 
Governor, Western Provinces. 

The Honorable Sir Edward Ryan, Chief Justice, President, two copies. • 

The Lord Bishop of Calcutta. 

The Honorable Colonel W. Moeison. 

The Honorable T. B. Macaulay. 

The Honorable Sir J. P. Grant, Vice - President. 

The Honorable Sir B. Malkin, Vice-President. 

The Honorable Sir Henry Fane, Commauder-in-Chief. 

The Rev. W. H. Mill. D. D. Principal of Bishop's College, Vice-President. 

H. T. Prinsep, Esq. Vice-President. 

W. H. MaCNAGHTKN, Esq. Vice-President. 

Ordinary Members Resident in India. 

Adam, W. Esq. 

Anbury, Col. Sir Thos. C. B. Engineers. 

Avdall, J. Esq. 

Bagshaw, R. J. Esq. 

BaiUie, N. B. E. Esq. 

Baker, Lieut. W. E. Engineers. 

Bateman. Rev. J. 

Bell, J. Esq. 

Benson, W. H. Esq. 

Binny, C. Esq. 

Blundell, E. A. Esq. 

Briggs, CoL J. 

Bramley, Dr. M. J. 

Bruce, W. Esq. 

Burney, Col. H. 

, H. Esq. 

Bushby, G. A. Esq. 
Barnes, Lieut. A. 
Cameron, C. H. Esq. 
Canmeld, Lieut.-Col. J. 
Caotley, Capt. P. T. 
ColTin, J. R. Esq. 

, A. Esq. • 

, Lieut. -Col. J. Engineers. 

Corbyn, F. Esq. 

Cunningham, Capt. A. Engineers. 

Dent, W. Esq. 

Dobbs, A. Esq. 

D'Oyly, Sir Charles, Bart. 

Drummond, Dr. A. 

Durand, Lieut. H. M. Engineers. 

Dwarkanath Tagore, Babu. 

Egerton, C. C. Esq. 

Ellis, Capt. E. S. 

Evans, Dr. George. 

Everest, Major u. 

Ewer, W. Esq. 

Falconer, Dr. H. 

Foley, Capt. W. IretiredJ 

Forbes, Captain W. N. Engineers. 

Frith, R. J. Esq. 

Gordon, G. J. Esq. 

Grant, W. Esq. 

, J. P. Esq. 

Hare, D. Esq. 
Hodgson, B. H. Esq. 
Jackson, Dr. A. N. 
Langstaff, J. Esq. 
Lloyd, Capt. R. 
Loch, G. Esq. 
Low, Lieut.-Col. J. 
Macfarlan, D. Esq. 

Macleod, Capt. 
Macleod, J. M. Esq. 
Macqueen, Rev. J. 
McClintock, G. F. Esq. 
McClelland, Dr. J. 
Mansell, C. G. Esq. 
Manuk, M. Esq. 
Martin, C. R. Esq. 

, W. Esq. 

May, J. S. Esq. 
Melville, Honorable W. L. 
Mackenzie, W. Esq. 
Montriou, Lieut. C. 
Neave, J. Esq. 
Nott, Cans. Augustus, Esq. 
Pearson, Dr. J. 
Pemberton, Capt. R. B. 
Prinsep, C. R. Esq. 

, James, See. A. 8. 
Phayre, Lieut. A. 
Qabir Uddin, Shah. 
Radhacaunt Deb, Babu. 
Ramcomul Sen, B£bu. 
Raven* haw, E. C. Esq. 
Russomoy Dutt, Babu, 
Ross, D. Esq. 
Sage, Capt. W. 
Seppings, J. M. Esq. 
Stacy, Lieut.-Col. L. R. 
Stocqueler, J. H. Esq. 
Stroug, F. P. Esq. 
Stewart, Dr. D. 
Tahawur Jung, Nuwab. 
Taylor, Capt. E. G. 

, T. J. Esq. 

Thomason, J. Esq. 
Trevelyan, C. E. Esq. 
Trotter, J. Esq. 

, A. Esq. 

Tickell, Lt. S. 

Wade, Capt. C. M. 

Wilcox, Capt. J. R. 

Wallich, N. Esq. 

White, Capt. S. M. 

Walters, H. Esq. 

Associate Members, (Subscribers.) 

Brownlow, C. 

Piddington, H. 

Dean, E. Delhi Canal Dep. 

Dawe, W. ditto. 

Tregear, Vincent, Juanpore. 

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[Who are not Members of the Asiatic Society, 1836.) 

The Honorable the Court of Directors, (by the Secretary to Government, Geaerai 
Department.) one copy. 

Abbott, Lt. J. care of T. Ostell, Esq. 
Abercrombie, Lieut. W. Engrs. Messrs 

Watson and Co. 
Agra Book Club, Agra. 
Allen, J. Esq. Calcutta. 
Anderson, G. M". Esq. Calcutta. 
Anderson, Lt. Sehnrunpur. 
Artillery Book Club, Dum-Dura. 

Bannister, Dr W.Calcutta. 

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Batten, J. H. Esq. Ahnorah. 

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Be a* son, L : eut.-Col. W. S. Calcutta. 

Beckett, J. O.Eaq. Coel. 

Bedford. Capt. J. care of Lyalland Co. 

Bell. Dr. H. P. Calcutta. 
BengHl Club, ditto. 
Benares Book Club. 
Beresford, H. Esq. Purneah. 
Betts, C. Esq. Calcutta. 
Bird, R. M. Esq. Allahabad. 
Blake, Capt. B , care of A. Smith, Esq. 

, Lieut. M. T., 66th, Bancoornh. 

Boileau, Capt. J.T. Engineers, BareiHy. 

■ Lieut. A. H. E. Engineers, G. 

T. S. Camp near Bancoorah. 

Book Club, 24th N. I. care of Mr. T. 

Book Club, 13th Regt. care of ditto. 

Bon ham, Capt. Arracan. 

Borradaile, H. Esq. Calcutta. 

Boulderson, H. S. Esq. Futteyghur. 

, S. M.Esq. Bareilly. 

Boutrous, F. Esq. 

Bridgman, J. H. Esq. Gornckpore. 

Brown, Capt. W. Sehnranpur. 

, G. F. Esq. Juanpore. 

Brodie, Lieut. T. Assam, 

Browne, Lt. A. Meerut. 

Burkinyoung, Lt. Benares. 

Butter, Dr. D. Sultanpur, Oude. 

Byrn, W. Esq. Calcutta. 

Calcutta Periodical Book Society. 
Campbell, Dr. D. Mirzapur. 

• , Dr. A. Nipal. 

. , J. Esq. Cawnpore. 

' — , Dr. A. Mou I me in. 
Carte, Dr. W. E. Hausi. 
Conollv, Lieut. E. B. care of T. Ostell, 

Cono\lalTagore, Babu, Calcutta. 
Cope, Gunner, Meerut. 
Cordier,Capt. Governor ofChandernagore* 

Cracroft, W. Esq. Dacca. 
Crawford, W. Esq. Banda. 

, J. Esq. Calcutta. 

Crommelin, Capt. A. Engrs. Barrackpore. 
Cunningham, Lt.J.D. Eng. Be r ham pore. 
Currie, F. Esq. Ghaxipore. 
Curators of the Public Library, Calcutta. 
Chunar Book Club, care of T. Ostell, Esq. 

Cartwright, Capt. Agra. 

Davidson, Capt. J. E. Luck now, 
Debude\ Capt H. Engrs. Delhi. 
Dixon, Capt. C. G. Ajinere. 
Dorin, J. A. Esq. ditto. 
Douglas, H. Esq. Patna. 
Drummond, Capt. J. G. Allahabad. 
Dunlop, Lieut-Col. W. Calcutta* 

E<1 are worth, M. P. Esq. Ambala. 
Editor Calcutta Courier. 
Elliot, J. B. Esq. Patna. 

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Everest, Rev. R. 

Fagan, Lient. G. H. Nee much. 

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Fane, W. Esq. Allahabad. 

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Fiddes, Col. T. Muttra. 

Finck, C. C. 

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Fisher, Lieut. T. Kachar. 

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Fordyce, Lieut. J. Gorurkpore. 

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Fraser, H. Esq. Delhi. 

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. T. S. Esq. care of Messrs. Lyall, 

Matheson and Co. 

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Gerard, Capt. P. Subatoo. 
Gordon, R. Esq. Calcutta. 
Gorton, W. Esq. Benares. 
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, Dr. J. ditto. 

Gray, E. Esq. Calcutta. 
Greenlaw, C. B. Esq. ditto. 
Gubbins, C. Esq. Delhi. 

Hamilton, H. C. Esq. Bhagulpore. 
Harding, Ben. Esq. Calcutta. 
Harris, F. Esq. ditto. 
Hart, T. B. Esq. 47th Regt. England. 
Harrington, Lieut. J. care of T. OsteH, 

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Hasted, G. Esq. Benares. 

Hearsey, Major J. B. Com. 2nd Local 

Horse, Sagur. 
Homfrny, J. Esq. care of Meuri. Jessop 

and Co. Calcutta. 
Hone, Lieut. H. Secrole. 
How rah Dock Company. Calcutta. 
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Mathe«nn and Co. 
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Jenkins, Capt. Francis, Assam. 
Jones, J. T. Esq. Ban cock. 
Johnjon, W. B. Esq. Patna. 

Kali Kissen, Maharaja, Bahadur, Cal. 
Kean, Dr. Arch. Moorshedabad. 
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Kit toe, Lieut. Barrackpore. 
Kirk patrick, W. Calcutta. 

Laiog, J. W. Esq. Simlah. 
Lamb, Dr. Geo. Dacca. 
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Laughman. R. J. Esq. Dumov, 
Lindeay, Col. A.Dum-Dum. 
Liston, D. Goruckpore. 
Lloyd, Major W. A. Rungpore. 
Lowther, R. Esq. Allahabad. 
Lnmsden, Capt. J. Futteyghur. 

Macdonald, Lieut. R. Sagur. 

Macdowall, W. Esq. Rungpore. 

MacGregor, Dr. "W. L. Loodianah. 

Macleod, Col. D. Engrs. Calcutta. 

Madeod, D. F. Esq. Seeonee. 

Manson, Capt. J. Bittour. 

Marshall, Capt. G. T. Calcutta. 

Martin, Dr. J. Calcutta. 

Martin, Lieut. R. Engrs. Burdwan. 

Masters, W. Esq. Calcutta, 

Masson, C. care of C. E. Trevelyan,Esq. 

Mackay, Rev. W. S. Calcutta. 

Mackinnon, D. C. Allyghur. 

McCosh, Dr. J. Assam. 

Milner, Capt. E. T. care of Messrs. R. 

C. Jenkins and Co. 
Military Board, Calcutta. 
Money, W. E. Esq Seharunpur. 
Moore, H. Esq. care of T. Ostell, Esq. 
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Moriey, C. Esq. Calcutta. 
Morris, G. J. Esq. Patna. 
Mouat, Lt. Sir J. A. Bt. Engrs.Calcutta. 
Muller, A. Esq. Calcutta. 
Murray, Capt. H. R. Noacolly. 
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Military Library Society, Mhow. 
Mussooree Book Club. 
Mohun Lai, Munshi. 

Napier, Lieut. R. Engrs. Messrs. Cantor 

and Co. 
Nicolson, Capt. M. Jubbulpore. 

, S. Esq. Calcutta. 

Officers, 12th Regt. N. f. Kurnal. 

, 73rd N. I. Barrackpore. 

, 12th Rpjft. N. I. Allahabad. 

— — —, 22nd Regt. N.I. Nusseerabad. 
Oglander, Lieut. -Col. Ghazipore. 
Ommaney, Lieut. E. L. Engrs. Agra. 
-— . M. C. Esq. Baitool. 

Osbaughncssy^.B., Prof. Med. Col. 

Parental Academic Institution, Calcutta. 

Parker, H. M. Esq. ditto. 

Persidh Narain Sing, Babu. Benares. 

Pigg. T. Esq. Calcutta. 

Playfair, Dr. Geo. Mecrut. 

Poole, Col. C. ditto. 

Presgrave, Col. D. ditto. 

Prowett, N. H. E. Esq. Seharunpur. 

Rajkrishna Mukarjy, Haaareebagh. 
Ranken, Dr. J. Calcutta. 
Rattray, R. H. Esq. Calcutta. 
Renny, Lieut. T. Engrs. Camp near Si- 

tapore. r 

Ross, Capt. D. Gnralior. 
Row, Dr. J. Barrackpore. 
Reid, Dr. A. Booluudshuhr. 

Sale, Lieut. T. H. Allahabad. 
Sanders. Cant. E. Engrs. Calcutta. 
Sandys, T. Esq. Patna. 
Satchwell, Capt. J. Agra. 
Saunders, J. O. B. Esq. Allyghur. 
Sevestre, Robt. Esq. CalcutU. 
Siddons, Lieut. Engrs. Chittagong. 

~- , G. J. Esq. Calcutta. 

Shaw, T. A. Esq. care of Messrs. Bruce 

and Co, Calcutta. 
Sleeman, Capt. W. H. Jabbulpore. 
Sloane, W. Esq. Tirhoot. 
Smith, Col. T. P. Asrra. 

, 8. and Co. Calcutta. 

-— , Capt. E. J. Engrs. Allahabad: 
Smyth, Capt. W. H. Engrs. ditto. 
Speed, D.W.H. Esq. ditto. 
Spiers, A. Esq. care of Messrs. Colvia 

and Co. Wl 

Spier*, Col. A. Ajroere. 
Spilsbury, Dr. G. G. Jabbulpore. 
Stainforth, F. Esq. Goruckpore. 
Stevenson, Dr. W. Lucknow. 

St £J?$ "" E J"k Care of Mc88rs - Muller, 
Ritchie and Co. ' 

Stokes, Dr. J. Humeerpore. 
Swiney, Dr. J. Calcutta. 
Sylhet Light Infantry Book Club,Sylhet. 
Syttasharan Ghoshal, Calcutta. 
Stevenson, Dr. W. Malacca. 
Tandy, H. Esq. Agra Press. 
Thomas, E. T. Esq. Almorah. 
Thompson, Capt. G. Engrs. Haaaribagh 
-, Capt. J. Engrs. Calcutta. 

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Thoresby, Capt. C. Jeypore. 
Thornton, J. Esq. Azimghur. 
Tiekcll, Col. R. Eom. Barrackporc. 
Trail, G. W. Esq. Kemaon. 
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Trotter, R. Esq. Gyah. 
Turner, T. J. Esq. Futteyghur. 

Udny, C. G. Esq. Calcutta. 

Warner, Capt. J. H. Bauleah. 
Waugh, Lieut. A.H. Engrs. Dehra Doon. 

Wells, F. O. Esq. Allahabad. 
Western, Iieut. J. R. Engrs. Delhi. 
White, Rev. E. Cawnpore. 
Wilkinson, W. Esq. Pooree. 

, Capt. T. Hazaribagh. 

, L. Esq. Assistant Resident, 

Wise, Dr. T. A. care of T. OsteU, Esq. 

, J. P. Esq. Dacca. 

Wooburn, Dr. D. Sherghatty. 
Woollaston, M. W. Esq. Delhi. 

The Bombay Asiatic Society. 

Editor Bombay Literary Gaz. 

A. Burn, Esq. Assist. Surgeon,Akulcote. 

Capt. A. Burnes, Kutch. 

R. C. Chambers, Esq. Surat. 

Capt. Taos. Jervis, Engineers, Bombay. 

J. S. Law, Esq. Snrat. 

Dr. J. McNeil, with the Persian Em- 

bassy, via Bombay. 
J. J. Malvery. Esq. Bombay. 
C. Moorhead, Esq. Mahabaleshwur Hills. 
Dr. J. McLennan, Bombay. 
Capt. R. Mignan, ditto. 

Subscribers at Bombay, #c. 

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Dr. Geo. Smytton, ditto. 
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cretary's Office, Bombay. 
Hon'ble J. Sutherland, ditto. 
Captain G. Twemlow, Arungabad. • 
W. Wathen, Esq. Bombay. 
R. G. Noton, Esq. Bombay. 
Lieut. G. H. Hebbert. 
Colonel Pottinger, Kutch. 
Lieut. Ful^james, Gogo. 


Dr. Baikie, Neelgheries. 

Lieut. J. Braddock, Madras. 

Lieut. Balfour. 

R. Cole, Esq. 

Col. W. Cullen. 

Lieut. T. Ditmas. 

H. S. Fleming. Esq. 

J. M. Heath, Esq. 

Madras Club. 

Dr. Bensa. 

Lieut. J. Campbell. 

J. Dal m ahoy, Esq. 

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at Madras. 

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Subscribers in England. 

Ueut. J. S. Burt, Engineers. W. Saunders, Esq. 

Sir Charles Grey. G. Swinton, Esq. 

J. F. Royle, Esq. J. Stephenson, Esq. 

Subscribers in Ceylon. 

The Hon'ble G. Tumour. Capt. Forbes. 

The Hon'ble Granville. Rev. Mr. Clough. 

The Kandy Library. 

Periodical works with which the Journal is interchanged. 

Prof. Jameson's Edinburgh Journal of Science. 
The Philosophical Magazine. 
The Metropolitan. 
Chinese Repository. 
Asiatic Journal of London. 

Monthly Journal, edited by S. Smith and Co. Calcutta. 
United Service Journal, ditto by J. H. Stocqueler, Esq. 
Literary Journal of the Madras Asiatic Society. 
Calcutta Christion Observer. 

The Journal of the Philadelphia Natural History Society. 

The Journal is circulated to all learned Societies entitled to receive a copy of the 
Asiatic Society's Researches. 

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No. 49.— JANUARY. Pm 9 § 

I.— Second Memoir on the Ancient Coins found at Beghram, in the Kohistaa 
of Kabul. By Charles Mat son, .. \ 

II.— Quotations from original Sanserit authorities in proof and illustration 
of Mr. Hodgson's sketch of Buddhism, ..20 

III. — Siratherium Giganteum, a new Fossil Ruminant Genus, from the Valley 
of the Markanda, in the Sivalik branch of the Sub-Himalayan Mountains. 
By Hugh Falconer, M. D., Superintendent Botanical Garden, Seharanpur, 
and Captain P. T. Cautley, Superintendent Doab Csnal, . . . . 38 

IV.— Horary Observations of the Barometer, Thermometer, and Wet-bulb 
Thermometer, made at Calcutta on the 21st and 32nd of December, 1835, 
by Mr. H. Barrow, Astr. and Math. lost. -maker to the H. C. .. 51 

V. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, . . 59 

VI. — Meteorological Register, . . 50 

No. 50.— FEBRUARY. 

I.— Account of Rumbowe, one of the States in the interior of Malacca. By 
Lieut. T. J. Newbold, 03rd Regt. Madras Native Infantry, ..61 

II.— Quotations from Original Sanscrit Authorities in proof and illustration of 
Mr. Hodgson's Sketch of Buddhism, .. .. ..71 

III.— Notes explanatory of a Collection of Geological Specimens from the 
country between Hyderabad and Nagpur. By J. G. Makolrason, Assist- 
ant Surgeon, Madras Establishment, PI. V. . . . . 95 

IV.— Description of a New Species of Colamba. By B. H. Hodgson, Bsq. 
Resident in Nepal, .. .. .. .. 122 

V.— Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, .. .. .. ..134 

VI.— Meteorological Register, .. .. .. .. ..ISO 

No. 51.— MARCH. 

I.— Memoir of the Life and Writings of St. Nierses Clajensis, smrnamed the 
Graceful, Pontiff of Armenia. By Johannes Avdall, ..120 

II.— Discovery of Buddhist I mages with Deva-nagari Inscriptions at Tagoung, 
the Ancient Capital of the Burmese Empire. By Colonel H. Barney, Re- 
sident at Am, .. .. ..157 

III.— On the preparation of Opium for the China market : written in March 
1835, and then communicated to the Benares and Beh£r Agencies. By 
D. Butter, M. D. f Surgeon 53rd B. N. I., late Opium Examiner of the 
Benares Agency, . . . . . . . 105 

IV.— Catalogue of a Second Collection of Fossil Bones presented to the Asiatic 
Society's Museum, by Colonel Cohrin, .. ..179 

V.— Notice of a Visit to the Valley of Cashmir in 1835. By the Baron Hugel, 184 

VI.— Note on an Inscription at Bamian. By Mr. C. Mas son, .. ..188 

VII.— Proceeding of the Asiatic Society, ..189 

VIII.— Meteorological Register, .. .. .. ..192 

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No. 32.— APRIL. 
I.— Account of the Mountain Tribes on the extreme N.E. Frontier of Bengal. 

By J. McCosh, Civil Assistant Surgeon, GoalpAra, ... ..193 

II. — On the method employed to remove the Vaulted Roof of St. Peter's 

Church in Fort William, illustrated by a Section, (Plate V.) . . 208 

III. — Statistical, Agricultural, and Revenue Return of Muthra District, made 

up to 1st October, 1835. ByCapt. R. Wrouphton, Rev. Surveyor, .. 216 

IV. — Notes on the State of the Arts of Cotton Spinning, Weaving, Printing, 

and Dyeing in Nepal. By Dr. A. Campbell, attached to the Residency, . . 219 
V.— Summary Description of some New Species of Falconide. By B. H. 

Hodgson, Esq. .. .. .. .. .. .. 227 

VI.— Synoptical Description of sundry New Animals, enumerated in the 

Catalogue of Nipalese Mammals. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq. .. 231 

VII. — Note on the occasional existence of fresh- water on the surface of the 

ocean. By Mr. C. Brownlow, .. .. .. .. 239 

VIII. — Note on the Cervus Duvaucelii of Cuvier, or C. Elaphoides and Bah- 

raiya of Hodgion, .. .. .. .. .. .. 240 

IX.— Horary Observations of the Barometer, Thermometer, and Wet-bulb 

Thermometer, made at Calcutta on the 21st and 22nd of March, 1836. By 

Mr. H. Barrow, H.C. Mathematical Instrument-maker, .. .. 243 

X, — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, . . . . . . . . 245 

XL— Miscellaneous :— 

1.— Postscript to the Account of the Wild Goat of Nepal, printed in the 
Sept. No. of the Journal, page 490. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq. .. 254 

2.— Notice of the Basilosaurus, a new marine fossil Saurian, [discovered 
in America. By H. Piddington, Esq. .. .. .. .. <6. 

3,— The Balloon, .. .. .. .. .. .. 255 

XII.— Meteorological Register, .. .. .. .. ..25$ 

No. 53.— MAY. 
I. — Johole and its former Dependencies of Jomp6le Gominchl. By Lieut. 

J. F Newbold, A. D. C. to Brigadier General Wilson, C. B 257 

II. — Interpretation of the Tibetan Inscription on a Bhotian Banner, taken in 

Assam, and presented to the Asiatic Society by Captain Bogle. By M. 

Alexander Csoma KOrds. [See PI. VI. np. 3.] .. .. .264 

III. — Note on some of the Indo-Scytbic Coins found by Mr. C. Masson at 

Beghram, in the Kohistan of Kabul. By Johannes Avdall, Esq. M. A. S. 266 
IV.— Notes on the Geology, &c. of the Country in the Neighbourhood of 

Maulamyeng (vulg. Moulmein). By Capt. W. Foley, .. .. 269 

V.-7-On the Revolution of the Seasons. By the Rev. R. Everest, . . . . 281 

VI. — Recent Discovery of Fossil Bones in Perim Island, in theCambay Gnlph. 

By Baron Hugel and Mr. Geo. Fulljames, . . . . 288 

VII.— Table of Sub-Himalayan Fossil Genera, in the Didupur Collection. By 

Licuts. W. E. Baker and H. M. Durand, Engineers, .. .. 291 

VIII.— Note on the Teeth of the Mastodon a dents etroites of thcSiwalik 

Hills. By Captain P. T. Cautley, PI. XI. .. .. ..294 

IX. — Meteorological Register kept at Bangalore. By Dr. J. Mouat, Medical 

Surgeon, 13th Dragoons, .. .. .. .. 296 

X. — Meteorological Observations taken every hour, at Bangalore, in the Hos- 
pital of H. M. 13th Dragoons, from 6 a. m. of the 21st to 6 P. M. of the 

22nd March, J 836, inclusive, in conformity with Sir W. Herschel's in- 
structions. By the same, .. .. .. .. 293 

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XL— Horary Observations taken at Dsdupur, fn conformity with Sir John 

HemchePs Circular. By Col. CoWin, Lieut. Baker, and Lieut. Durand, 

Engineers, . . .. .. • • •• •• 299 

XII.— Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, .. .. ..302 

Xlll.— Address read before the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 

on the 27th January, 1836. By the Rev. John Wilson, President, .. 304 

XIV. — Miscellaneous : — 

1.— On the Canis Vulpes montana, or Hill Fox. By J. T. Pearson, Asst. 
Surg., Cur. Mus. As. Soc. .. .. .. .. .. 313 

2.— On the Soil suitable for Cotton, Tobacoo, Sugar, and the Tea plant. 
By H. Piddington, .. .. .. .. ..314 

3. — Action of Copper on Ink, .. ..3)7 

4. — Suspension Bridge at Fribourg in Switzerland, .. 313 

XT.— Meteorological Register, .. .. .. .. ..320 

No. 54.— JUNB. 
I.— Notes on the Buddhas from Ceylonese authorities, with an attempt to fix 
the dates of the appearance of the last four ; being those of the Maha* 

Bhadra Kalpa, (or Present Age.) By Captain J. Forbes, H. M. 78th 

Highlanders, .. .. .. .. .. 321 

II. — Memoir of a Hindu Colony in Ancient Armenia. By Johannes Avdall, 

Esq., M. A. S. .. .. .. .. 331 

111. — Facsimiles of various Ancient Inscriptions, .. .. .. 340 

IV.— Descriptive Catalogue of Terrestrial and FluviatUe Testacea, chiefly from 

the North-east Frontier of Bengal. By W. H. Benson, Esq. B. C. 8. .. 350 
V.— Description of two new species belonging to a new form of the Meruline 

Group of Birds, with indication of their generic character. By B. H. 

Hodgson, Esq. Resident in Nepil, .. .. .. .. 358 

VI.— On a New Genus of the Meropides. By the same, . . 360 

VII.— On a New Piscatory Genus of the Strigine Family. By the same, . . 362 
VJ If.— Report of the Society of Arts on Specimens of Rice, Wool, Sec. from 

Nepal and Assam, . . . . . . . . . . 365 

IX.— Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, . . • . . . . . 369 

X.— Meteorological Register, . . . . . . \ . . . 376 

No. 55.— JULY. 

I.— Translation of a Tamba Patra, which was found in a field of the Tillage of 
Piplianagar in the ShujAlpur Pargana* by a Krisan engaged in ploughing, 
and presented to Mr. L. Wilkinson, the Political Agent at B hop si by the 
Jagirdiir, .. .. .. .. .. ..377 

II.— Note on the white satin embroidered Scarfs of the Tibetan Priests. 
By Major T. H. A. Lloyd. With a translation of the motto on the margin 
of one presented to the Asiatic Society. By Alex. Csoma KdrOsi, .. 383 

III. — Note on the origin of the Armenian Era, and the reformation of the 
Haican Kalendar. By Johannes Avdall, Esq. M. A. S. .. .. 384 

IV.— Conjectures on the march of Alexander. By M. Court, an tie n £leve de 
l'ecole militaire de St. Cyr. . . . . . . . . 387 

V. — Experimental Researches on the Depressions of the Wet-bulb Hygro- 
meter. By James Prinsep, F. R. S. Sec. As. Soc. .. .. 396 

VI.— Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, .. 433 

VII.— Miscellaneous, .. 439 

VIII. — Meteorological Register, .. 440 

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No. 56.— AUGUST. 

I.— Extracts from the Mohit (the Ocean), a Turkish work on Navigation, 
in the Indian Seas. Translated and communicated by Joseph Yon Ham- 
mer, Baron Purgstall, Aulic Counsellor, and Professor of Oriental Lan- 
guages at Vienna, Hon. Memb. As. Soc. &c. etc... ..441 

II.— Extracts translated from a Memoir on a Map of Peshawar and the conn- 
try comprised between the Indus and the Hydaspes, the Pencelaotis and 
Taxila of andent geography. By M. A. Court, in the service of Mah4- 
raja Ranjit Singh, . . . . . . . . . . . . 468 

III.— Facsimiles of Ancient Inscriptions, lithographed by James Prinsep, 
Sec. &c. . . . . . . . . . . . . 489 

IV.— Sub-Him&layan Fossil Remains of the Dadupur Collection. By Lieuts. 
W. E. Baker and H. M. Durand, Engineers, .. .. 486 

V.— Note on the States of Pe>ak, Srimenanti, and other States in the Malay 
Peninsula. By T. J. Newbold, Lieut., A. D. C. to Brigadier General 
Wilson, C. B. . . . . . . . . . . . . 505 

VI.— Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, . . . . . . 509 

VII.— Meteorological Register, .. .. .. .. 620 

No. 57.— SEPTEMBER, 

I.— Examination of some points of Buddhist Chronology. By the Hon. 
George Tumour, Ceylon Civil Senrice, .. .. .. ..591 

II. —Third Memoir on the ancient Coins discovered at the site called Begh* 
ram in the Kohistan of K&bul. By Mr. Charles Mas son, . . 537 

III.— New varieties of Bactriaa Coins, engraved as Plate XXXV. from Mr. 
Masson's Drawings and other sources. By James Prinsep, Sec. . . 548 

IV.— Facsimiles of Ancient Inscriptions, lithographed by Jas. Prinsep, 
Sec 6cc. 6cc. . . . . . . . . . . . . 554 

V.— Sketch of the State of Muar, Malay Peninsula. By T. J. Newbold, 
Lieut., A. D. C. to Brigadier General Wilson, C. B. .. .. 561 

VI.— Note on the discovery of a relic of Grecian Sculpture in Upper India. 
By Lieut. -Col. L. R. Stacy. Plate XXXI. .. .. ..667 

VII. — Description of some Grasses which form part of the Vegetation in the 
Jheels of the District of Sylhet. By William Griffith, Esq. Assistant 
Surgeon, Madras Establishment, .. ..570 

VIII.— Notes on Delhi Point, Pulo-Tinghie, &c. and on some Pelagic Fossil 
remains, found in the rocks of Palo-LeViah. By Wm. Bland, Esq. Sur- 
geon, H. M. S. Wolf, ..... . .. 575 

IX. — Fossil Remains of the smaller Qarnivora from the Sub-Himalayas. By 
Lieut. W. E. Baker and Lieut. H. M. Durand, Engineers, .. .. 570 

X.— Continuation of a Paper (Journal, May, 1835), on the Heights of the 
Barometer as affected by the position of the Moon. By the Rev. R. 
Everest, .. .. .. .. .. .. 686 

XI. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, . . . . . . . . 597 

XII.— Meteorological Register, .. .. .. .. .. 600 

No. 58.— OCTOBER. 

I. — An account of some of the Petty States lying north of the Tenasserim 
Provinces ; drawn up from the Journals and Reports of D. Richardson, 
Esq., Surgeon to the Commissioner of the Tenasserim provinces. By 
E. A. Blundell, Esq. Commissioner, . .. .. .. 601 

II.— Outline of Political and Commercial Relations with the Native States 
on the Eastern and Western Coasts, Malay Peninsula* By T. J. 
Newbold, Lieut., A. D. C. to Brigadier General Wilson, C. B. ..636 

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III.— A brief account of Masud, known by the name of Farid Shakarganj, 
or Shakarbar. By Munshi Mohan Lai, , . . 635 

IT.— New varieties of the Mithraic or Indo-Scythic Series of Coins and their 
imitations. By James Prinsrp, Sec. As. Soc. &c. . . . . 639 

V. — Facsimiles of various Ancient Inscriptions, lithographed by James Pria- 
sep. Secretary As. Soc. &c. . . . . . . . . . . 657 

VI.— Sab -Himalayan Fossil Remains of the Dadtipur Collection. By Lieuts. 
W. E. B.ikerand H. M. Durand, Engineers, .. .. .661 

VII. — Note on the occurrence of Volcanic Scoria in the Southern Peninsula. 

By Lieut. J. T. Newbold, A. D. C. .. .. .. ..670 

VIII. — Postscript to the account of Ursitaxus, printed in the 19th Vol. of 
Researches As. Soc. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq. .. .. ..671 

IX.— Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, .. .. .. .. 672 

X.— A General Statement of the Labors and Proceedings of the Expedition 
to the Euphrates, under the command of Colonel Chesney, Royal Ar- 
tillery, F. R. S. .. .. .. .. .. .. 675 

XI.— The Governor General's Conversazioni, .. .. ' # .. 682 

XII. —Meteorological Register, .. .. .. . . .. 664 

No. 59.— NOVEMBER. 

I.— Notice of the Vallabhi dynasty of Saurashtra ; extracted from the Bud- 
dhist records of the Chinese. By M. Eugene Jacquet, Member of the As. 
Soc. of Paris, . . . . . . • . . . . . . 681 

II.— An account of some of the Petty States lying north of the Tenasserim 
Provinces ; drawn up from the Journals and Reports of D. Richardson, 
Esq., Surgeon to the Commissioner of the Tenasserim Provinces, By 
E. A. Blundell, Esq., Commissioner, .. .. .. 688 

III.— Notes on the Antiquities of Bamian. By C. Masson, .. .. 707 

IV.— New types of Bactrian and Indo-Scythic Coins, engraved as Plate XLIX. 
By James Priosep, Sec. 6cc .. .. ..... .. 720 

V.— Facsimiles of various Ancient Inscriptions, lithographed. By James 
Prinsep, Sec. &c. .. .. .. .. .. 72* 

VI.— Some remarks on the development of Pollen. By William Griffith, As- 
sistant Surgeon, Madras Establishment, .. .. .. 732 

VII.— Sub -Himalayan Fossil Remains of the D&dupur Collection. By Lieuts. 
W. E. Baker and H. M. Durand, Engineers, .. .. ..739 

VIII.— Descriptive Catalogue of a collection of Land and Fresh-water Shells, 
chiefly contained in the Museum of the Asiatic Society. By W. H. Benson, 
Esq. B.C. S 741 

IX.-Note on Zoological Nomenclature. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq. . . 751 

X.— Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, .. .. .. ..763 

XI.— Meteorological Register, .. .. •• ..760 

No. 60.— DECEMBER. 

I.-Geological Notes on the Northern Conkan, and a small portion of Guae- 
rat and Kattywar. By Charles Lush, M. D. . . . . . . 761 

II.-Note on Mastodons of the Sewaliks. By Capt. P. T. Cautley, Superin- 
tendent of the Doab Canal. PI. XL. .. .. ..758 

HI.— Additions to the Ornithology of Ne'pal. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

1.— Indication of a new Genus of Insessorial Birds, . . . . 770 

2!-Iodication of a new Genus of Waders, belonging to the Charadriatic 
Family, .. •• •• •• •' " ™J 

3,— Indication of a new Genua of ths Falconidae, . . . . 777 

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4.— Indication of a new Genus of the Pieide, with description of the type. 

A new species, also, of two new spedes of the Genus Sitta, . . 778 

6. — New species of Hirundinidss, . . . . . . 779 

IV. — Description of the Shell and Animal of Nematnra, a new Genus of 
Mollusc*, Inhabiting situations subject to alternations of fresh and brack- 
ish water. By W. H. Benson, Esq. B. C. S. .. .. ..781 

V.— Note on the Genus Pterocyclos of Mr. Benson and Spiraculum of Mr. 

Pearson. By Dr. William Bland, .. .. .. ..783 

VI.— Note on the Nautical Instruments of the Arabs. By James Prinsep, Sec. 78* 

Vll.— Facsimiles of Ancient Inscriptions, lithographed. By ditto, .. .. 795 

VIII.— Description of Uch-Sharif. By Munshi Mohan Lai. .. ..796* 

IX. — Specimens of the Soil and Salt from the Samar, or Sambhur lake salt- 
works. Collected by Lieut. Arthur Conolly, and analyzed by Mr. J. 
Stephenson, .. .. .. .. .. .. 79* 

X.— Remarks on a collection of Plants, made at Sadiya, Upper Assam, from 
April to September, 1836. By William Griffith, Assistant Surgeon, 
Madras Establishment, on duty in Upper Assam, . . . . 806 

XI.— Note on a Remnant of the Hun Nation. [Vide Chap. 06 of the " Decline 
and Fall of the Roman Empire" under the head of " Original Seat of the 
Huns."] By Captain W. Foley, .. .. • .. $1J 

XII. — Table shewing the breadth of the river Satlaj and the rate of its current 
at different stages, from Harrike Pattan to its junction with the Indus at 
Mithankot, .. .. .. .. .. .. ..814 

XIII. — A Comparative view of the daily range of the Barometer in different 
parts of India. By James Prinsep, Sec. As. Soc. &c. .. .. 816 

XIV. — Postscript to the Memoir on the Depression of the Wet-bulb Thermo- 
meter published in the July number. By the same, .. .. .. 828 

XV. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, . . . . . . .. ib. 

XVI. — Meteorological Register, . . . . . . 836 

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In the Journal for May, 1834, page 253, for « 58©' read « minus 58°.» 

In the No. for Dec. 1835, page 655 et. scq. the title of the Uabcck chief if print- 
ed Wauo, instead of Wang, or cJJjj. The term is rendered by the Missiona- 
ries regulu$ t and is perhaps equivalent to Rdja under the Mughal governments. 

In the same volume, page 615, for * Zenophon' read * Xenophon.' 
Page 30 line 2 of note, for « preferred,' read • postponed.' 

,, (et passim) for * Sangata,' read * Saugata.' 
Page 30 line 3 of note, insert ' thW before « appears.' 

f , 31 ,, 9 for « exotic,' read * the exotic origin of Buddhism.' 

„ 32 „ 18/or • Boddhi,' read • Bodhi.' 

ft 34 „ 8 /or « Sraxaka,', read ' Sravaka.' 

„ 36 , , 6 of note, for * £. G. Elplinstone,' read * e. g. Elphinstone.' 

„ 41 f , 29 for • shells,' read • cells.' 

,, 42 ,, 21 erase • on' after the semi-colon. 

», 44 „ 44 for * palatial,' read * palatine.' 

„ 47 „ 27 for • this,' read • these.' 

„ 57 „ 48 for • in vertical plates,' read * into vertical plates.' 

,, 49 „ 1 for * insyrametrical,' read ' unsymmetrical.' 

„ 49 ,. 23 for « circle,' read * arch.' 

> . 72 „ 6 for* ai,' read * so.' 

( , 74 „ 4 from bottom, in note, for end, read ' ens.' 

„ 75 „ 1 of note, dele the brackets. 

ft 79 „ 23 after • percipient powers,' add the words, * the Karmika tenets 
amount to idealism.' 

„ SO „ 4 from bottom, for • Bauddhy,' read l Bauddha.' 

,, 85 „ 15 for * existence,' read ' assistance.' 

„ S6 „ 26 for « by,' read « but.' 

f , 87 „ 3 of the note, put the stop before the word Sutra. 

„ 88 „ 1 and 3 of the note, for • Dharmadya,' read * Dharmodya.' 

ft 161 In Col. Barney's notice of Tagouog, for • being,' read * building.' 

„ 167 „ lo for » tiers,' read « tears.' 

>t 1 70 „ 32 for * obstructed,' read * abstracted.' 

9V 172 „ 37 and elsewhere, for * venous,' read ' vinous.' 

„ 175 ,, 35 for • mass,' read l marc' 

„ 176 foot note, ditto ditto. 

„ 176 „ 19 for * extraction,' read* extractive.' 

„ 179 „ 1 for * pas£wa, converted,' read * pas^wa- converted. ' 

,,196 „ 12 for * same,' read l Lama.' 

„ — ,t 13 for ' Bis Bisa,' read « Biaa.' 

„ 199 „ 14 omit cut. 

„ 200 „ 29 for ' lines,' read * Hills.' 

f. — „ 36 for * Busa,' read * Bisa,' (in all.) 

„ 202 „ 18 for • country,' read province.' 

„ 204 „ 33 for • the spirit,' read ' that spirit.' 

„ — „ 34 for * Bennet,' read * Burnett.' 

,,204 „ 11 for • stones,' read « stone.' 

„ — „ — for « Off,' reed * out.' 

„ 264 ff 1/or*^ ™"**^ 

















leave out the word 


At the bottom /or 3X V Q| read ^5'0( 

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Page 265 line 11, of the Tibetan text/or khed, read khyed. 

,, 228 „ 3 from below, for • speculated' read * operculated/ 

,, 235 ,, 19 insert the full stop (now after only) after * presume/ 

M 443 „ 31 insert * at' before * Cape Guarda fui.» 

9t it 32 for ' inch' read * inches.' 

yl 351 ,, 11 from bottom, for * satures,' read* sutures.' 

„ 353 „ 18 ditto, for • Hylvoides/ read 4 Styloides/ 

9) — tt 3 ditto,. for ' confortissime,' read * confertissime/ 

9, 354 9 f 19 from top, for ' malassan,' read ' Malayan.' 

m — ,, 3 from bottom, for ' Gangetica,' read ' faciata.* 

„ 355 M 7 from top, for * ditto,' read * ditto.' 

99 — m 22 ditto, for • instructis,' read ' instruct*.' 

,, 356 „ 5 ditto, (and in note,) for ' tabular,' read l tubular.' 

99 — »» 23 ditto, for * operation,' read * operculum.' 

99 357 „ 2 from bottom, after sinus, insert to form a closed circle, 

the horns. 

99 — 99 6 ditto, (note,) for ' Pesticia,' read l Justicia.' 

,, 358 „ 2 from top, for * tabular,' read « tubular/ 

99 — ,, 13 ditto, for * Demarara,' read 4 Demerara/ 

„ 418 „ 8 after about, insert 27. 

„ 420 in heading of lower table, for increment <f+ — d, read 



,,421 ,, 2 for simply, d — read simply, d — 

P P 

„ In heading of lower table, under Barometer Supply p. 
„ 424 line 3 for * of wet-bulb,' read l of the wet-bulb thermometer/ 
„ 721 „ 13 for ' the god-nourisher,' read * the heavenly-minded,' and 

cancel the subsequent remarks. 
„ 723 „ 24 for l General Arnold/ read « Dr. Gerard/ 
Capt. Cunningham having pointed out that the p in the legend of the S«- 
mudra-gupta coin described in Vol. iv. p. 635, as dpati rtirha, has an r sub- 
joined ; we have again sought in the dictionary for a better explanation of the 
epithet and have found it in the word ^JsrfifTO*. apratiratha, ' the warrior/ 
Page 742 line 14 from top, for ' behind,' read * beyond/ 
„ 744 „ 1 from bottom,/or « Butta,' read* Bulla/ 
„ 748 „ 7 from bottom, for * spora,' read l spira/ 
,, — ,, 5 from do., for * ingrescente,' read ' nigrescente/ 
„ 750 „ 19 from top, for * salcis,' read * sulcis,' and jor * vinis,' read 

* binis/ 
,, — 9, 7 from bottom, for l can no,* read ' carina, * and for l com- 
pressor read ' compressa/ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Platb I. Siratherium Giganteum, folded, ^ 

II. III. IV. Masson's Bactrian Coins and Syx 

V. Geology of Hyderabad,-. ^ 

VI. Section of St. Peter's Church, , 

VI. (bis) Buddhist image from Tagounir &c 

v" I ^ I# i IV * ^ a f 80na Bactria fl Coins and Symbols, 24 

IX. Facsimile of inscriptions at Chunar and KemaoTTZ^ S4.a 

V. Geology of Hyderabad, —^^^ 6r 

~ 193 
~ 241 
VIII. Geology of Moulmei'n™ *~~^~— -~— -~ ——-. 22? 

VI. Section of St. Peter's Church, ___^^ 

VI. (bis) Buddhist image from Tagoung, &c. -- ~~ 9 ±* 

VII. Nisagtus Nipalensis,. ~~~— 241 

X. Ditto of inscriptions at Warn and Moulmein, JSZZ 340 

XI. Mastodon Angustidens, folded, _ 

XII. Large Map of Taxila, folded, ~~~" * 

XIII. (Caret.) ' — 46d 

XIV. Diurnal motion of the Barometer, 

XV. XVI. XVII. XVIII. XIX. FossU Rlunoce^mTTuo: 

Himalayas,—,,...^ m m j 

XX. Buddhist sculpture from the Panjab, ~~ JH _ f !!* 

XXI. Curves of maximum Depression __ ~~ 

vVw." ^ depreemon under varying pressure, 4 , . 

AAIII. Voaaia procera, . ... r * 

XXIV. Zirania and Potamochloa. >«.. "" " 57S 

XXV. (Caret.) 2 s ™ 

JCXXVI. Cultrunguis Flavipeg, _ . 

XXVI. Seal from Asirgarh-Bronzeheini 3M 

XXVII. FowU Carnivoraof the Sub-Himilaya.™ "' 

XXVIII. XXIX. Ceylon inscription*, _„ "T^Zl Z 

XXX. Tridents in Garhwal with inscript,^ * **' 

XXXI. Inscription at Buddha Gaya, L"ZH ~ *" 

y™!J' ?***" in8Cri P tion ( wU1 "PPear in Vol.Vl.) W 

XXXIII. Inscription in Asiatic Society's museum, J 72 . 

AXXIV. Seom inscription, two plates, 

XXXIV. Fossil Sus of Sub-Himilayas, L. ™ 

XXXIX. Second series continued, L ~~ ~ 6i9 

XL. Fossil Mastodons of SiwaliksJI ^ 65i 

XLI. Map of Richardson's route «L 761 

XLII. (Caret.) ' «°* 

XLIII. Development of Pollen, folded, 

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XLIV. Names of Places in Burmese, ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~«~~.«.. 601 

XLIV. (bis) Teeth of fossil Sus, 664 

XLV. (Caret.) 

XLVI. Bactrian Coins, ~-~~~~*~« ~~~~~~..~~~~~~~~~„„„..„~„ 720 

XL VII. Fossil Quadrumana of Sub-Himalayas, ~~~-~~~~-~~ 740 

XLVIII. Arabic Nautcial instruments,....^,. .,...,~-~-,.~~~..~~..,,,,.. 784 
XLIX. Maldive Alphabet, ~~—~~~~~„~~ -~~~- ~~~~ 794 

Owing to the continual postponement of papers this year, and to the 
lithographer having numbered his plates without reference to the engrav- 
ings, many numbers have been given twice over, and the whole occur 
very irregularly. They will be found, however, correctly placed in the 
monthly numbers, with exception of Cultrunguis flavipes, which must be 
shifted to page 364 — and of the plate circulated with the February Jour- 
nal which belongs to the preceding volume, PL LIV., along with the cor- 
rected catalogue of plates of that volume. 

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No. 49.— January, 1836. 

I. — Second Memoir on the Ancient Coin* found at Beghrdm, in the 
Kokistd* of Kabul. By Charles Masson. 

I had the pleasure last year to submit a Memoir on the coins dis- 
covered at fieghrdm, and now beg to offer a second, containing the 
results of my collection of the present year from the same place : the 
observations which these coins suggest I shall preface by a few remarks, 
tending to illustrate the locality of the spot where they are found, as 
well as some other points connected with it. 

I shall also submit, in this Memoir, the results of discoveries in 
other places, made during the year, so far as they refer to numismatolo- 
gy ; in the hope to contribute to farther elucidation of the history of 
the countries from which I write. 

The dasht or plain of Beghrdm bears N. 15 E. from the modern city 
of Kdbul, distant by computation eighteen ordinary kos ; and as the 
line of road has few sinuosities or deflections, the direct distance may 
probably be about twenty-five British miles. It is situated at the south- 
east point of the level country of the Kohistdn, in an angle formed by 
the approach of a lofty and extensive mountain range, radiating from the 
superior line of the Caucasus on the one side, and by the inferior range 
of Sidh Koh on the other. The former range separates the Kohistdn 
from the populous valley of Nijrow, and the latter, commencing about 
15 miles east of Kdbul, gradually sinks into the plain of Beghrdm. East 
of the Sidh Koh is a hilly, not mountainous, tract, called Koh Soft, 
which intervenes between it and the extensive valleys of Taghow. 
Through the open space extending from west to east, between these 
two hill ranges, flows the river formed by the junction of the streams of 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

2 Memoir on the Ancient Coins of Beghrdm. [Jan . 

Ghorband and Panjshfr, and which forms the northern boundary of the 
site of Beghrdm. Through this space also leads the high road from 
the Kohistdn to Nijrow, Taghow, Laghmdn, and Jeldlabdd. The dasht of 
Beghrdm is comprised in an extensive district of the Kohistdn called 
Khwojeh Keddri; to the north, the plain has an abrupt descent into the 
cultivated lands and pastures of the Baltd Khele and Karindat Khan 
Khele families, which at the north-western point interpose between it 
and the river for the extent of perhaps a mile, or until the river leaves 
the base of a singular eminence called Abdullah Bdrj, which from the 
vast mounds on its summit was undoubtedly an appurtenance of the 
ancient city. East of this eminence another small space of cultivated 
lands, with two or three castles, called Kdrdh<ch<, interposes between a 
curvature in the direction of the abrupt boundary of the dasht, and the 
direct course of the river ; east of KdrdhiM rises a low detached hill, 
called Koh Butcher, which has an extent eastward of about a mile and 
half, intruding for that distance between the level dasht and the river ; 
at the eastern extremity of Koh Butcher is one of those remarkable 
structures we call topes. Parallel to Koh Butcher, on the opposite side 
of the river, are the castles and cultivated lands called Muhammad Rdkhi, 
and beyond them a sterile sandy tract gradually ascending to a celebrat- 
ed hill and Zedrat, named Khwojeh Raig Rowan, and thence to the 
superior hill range before mentioned ; east of Koh Butcher, the level plain 
extends for about a mile, until the same character of abrupt termina- 
tion sinks it into the low lands of Jdlghar, where we find numerous 
castles, much cultivated land, and as the name Jdlghar implies, a large 
extent of chaman or pasture. The lands of Jdlghar, to the east, from the 
boundary of the dasht of Beghrdm, to the south, its boundary may be 
considered the stream called the river of Koh Daman, which after 
flowing along the eastern portion of Koh Daman, and receiving what 
may be spared after the irrigation of the lands from the streams of 
Shakr Darrah, Bey dak, Tugah, Istalif, &c. falls into the joint river of 
Ghorband and Panjshir at a point below Jdlghar. Beyond the river 
of Koh Daman, a barren sandy soil ascends to the skirts to the Sidh Koh 
and Koh Soft. Among the topographical features of the dasht of 
Beghrdm may be noted three small black hills or eminences, detached from 
each other, which in a line, and contiguous to each other, arise from the 
surface of the soil a little north of the river of Koh Daman. To the 
west of Beghrdm are the level lands of Mahighir; at the north west angle 
of the plain is the small village of Killah Boland, where reside about 
seven Hindu traders, some of them men of large capitals ; and at the 
south-west angle are three castles called Killah Yezbdshi, distant from 
Killah Boland about four miles. From Killah Boland to Jdlghar a 

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I 836.] Memoir on the Ancient Corns of Beghrdm. 3 

distance occurs of four and half to five miles ; from Julghar to the skirts 
of the Stdh Koh, about six miles ; from the termination of Koh Sidh to 
Killah Yexbdshi may be also about six miles, and from Killah Yezbdski 
to Killah Boland about four miles, as just noted. The whole of the 
intermediate space between these points, and even beyond them to the 
south-east and south-west, is covered with fragments of pottery, lumps 
of dross iron, &c. and here are found the coins, seals, rings, &c. which 
so much excite our curiosity. Notwithstanding the vast numbers of 
such reliques discovered on this extent of plain, we have hardly any 
other evidence that a city once stood on it, so complete and universal 
has been the destruction of its buildings. But in many places, we may 
discover, on digging about the depth of a yard, lines of cement, which 
seem to denote the outlines of structures, and their apartments ; on the 
edge of the plain, where it abruptly sinks into the low lands of Bdltd 
Khele, from Killah Boland to KdrahwM, is a line of artificial mounds ; 
on the summit of the eminence called Abdullah Bury are also some 
extraordinary mounds, as before noted, and contiguous to the south 
is a large square described by alike surprising mounds ; on one side 
of this square, the last year, a portion sank or subsided, and disclosed 
that these mounds were formed or constructed of huge unburnt bricks, 
two spans square and one span in thickness. This circumstance also 
enabled me to ascertain that the original breadth of these stupendous 
walls, for such we must conclude them to have been, could not have 
been less than sixty feet ; probably much more. Among the mounds 
near Killah Boland is a large tumulus, probably a sepulchre, which 
appears to have been coated with thin squares of white marble ; and 
near it, in a hollow formed in the soil, is a large square stone, which the 
Muhammedans call Sang-Rustam, or the stone of Rustam, and which the 
Hindus, without knowing why, reverence bo far as to pay occasional 
visits to it, light lamps, and daub it with Sindur or red lead. In the 
Muhammedan burial ground of Killah Boland is a fragment of sculptured 
green stone, made to serve as the head- stone to a grave ; about four 
feet thereof is above ground, and we were told as much more was 
concealed below ; this is a relique of the ancient city, and we meet with 
another larger but plain green stone, applied to a similar purpose, in a 
burial ground called ShafUdan, or the place of martyrs, under Koh Butcher. 
In a Zearal at Charikdr is also a fragment of sculptured green stone ; 
and it is remarkable that all the fragments of stone which we discover, 
and which we may suppose to have reference to the ancient city, are of 
the same species of colored stone. The traditions of the country assert 
the city of Beghrdm to have been overwhelmed by some natural catas- 
trophe, and while we vouch not for the fact, the entire demolition of the 
b 2 

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4 Memoir on the Ancient Coins of Beghrdm. [Jan. 

place, with the fact of the outlines of buildings discoverable beneath the 
surface, seem not to discountenance the tradition. It is not however 
improbable that this city, like many others, may owe its destruction to the 
implacable rage of the barbarous and ruthless Gbnghiz, who like Attila 
described himself as the " Ghazb Khudd," or " Scourge of God." That it 
existed for some time after the Muhammedan invasion of these countries 
is evidenced by the numerous coins of the Caliphs found on its site. 
That it ceased to exist at the period of Timu'r's expedition into India, 
we have negative proof furnished by his historian Shrrifuddin, who 
informs us, that Timu'r, in his progress from Anderab to Kabul, encamped 
on the plain of Baron (the modern Bat/an, certainly) and that while there, he 
directed a canal to be cut, which was called Mahighir, by which means, 
the country, before desolate and unproductive, became fertile and full of 
gardens. The lands thus restored to cultivation, the conqueror apportion- 
ed among sundry of his followers. The canal of Mahighir exists at this 
day, with the same name it received in the time of Timu'r. A considerable 
village, about one mile west of Beghrdm, has a similar appellation. This 
canal, derived from the river of Ghorband, at the point where it issues from 
the hills into the level country, irrigates the lands of Bdydn and Mahi- 
ghir, and has a course of about ten miles. Had the city of Beghrdm 
then existed, these lands immediately to the west of it, would not have 
been waste and neglected, neither would Timu'r have found it necessary 
to cut his canal, as the city when existing must have been supplied 
with water from the same source, that is, from the river of Ghorband; 
and from the same point, that is, at its exit from the hills into the level 
country ; and the canals supplying the city must have been directed 
through these very lands of Bdydn and Mahighir, which Timu'r found 
waste and desolate. The courres of the ancient canals of Beghrdm are 
now very evident, from the parallel lines of embankments still to be 
traced. The site of Beghrdm has, to the north, the river formed by the 
junction of the Ghorband and Panjshir streams, and to the south, the 
river of Koh Daman ; but neither of these rivers are applicable to the 
irrigation of the circumjacent soil, the former flowing in low lands, 
perhaps one hundred and fifty feet below the level of the plain, and 
the latter scantily furnished with water flowing in a sunken bed. It 
may be farther noted, with reference to Timu'r's colonization of Mahl- 
gMr, that the inhabitants of the district of Khwojeh Keddri, while for- 
getful as to whom their forefathers owed their settlement in this 
country, acknowledge their Turki descent, and alone of all the inhabi- 
tants of the Kohistdn speak the Turki language. We might expect 
to detect a notice of Beghrdm in the Arabian records of the early caliphs, 
in the histories of the Ghaznavi emperors, and in those of Gbnghiz 

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1836.] Memoir on the Ancient Coins of Beghrdm, 5 

That Beghrdm was once a capital city is evidenced by its tope, a 
sepulchral monument of departed royalty; while a second, situated in 
Tope Darah, about nine miles west, may probably be referred to it, as 
may perhaps a third found at Alieahi, at the gorge of the valley of 
Nijrow, distant about 1 2 miles east. The appellation Beghrdm must also 
be considered indicative of the pre-eminence of the city it characterizes ; 
undoubtedly signifying the chief city or metropolis. About three miles 
east of Kdbul, we have a village and extensive pasture retaining this name, 
which indicates the site of the capital in which Kadphis and his lineage 
ruled, and whose topes we behold on the skirts of the neighbouring 
mils. Near Jeldidbdd, a spot called Beghrdm, about a mile and half 
west of the present town, denotes the site of the ancient Ngsa; or, if the 
position of that city admit of controversy, of Nagara ; its successor in 
rank and consequence. Near Peshawar we have a spot called Beghrdm, 
pointing out the site of the original city ; and that this epithet of emi- 
nence and distinction was continued, up to a recent date, to the city of 
Peshdwer, we learn from Ba'bbr and Abdl Fazl. 

We have indications in the Kohistdn of Kabul of two other ancient 
cities, which were undoubtedly considerable ones, but which we cannot 
suppose to have rivalled Beghrdm in extent or importance. The 
principal of these is found in Perwan, about eight miles N. 19 W. of 
Beghrdm, and consequently that distance nearer to the grand range of 
Caucasus, under whose inferior hills it is in met situated. The second 
is found at Korahtass, a little east of the famed hill, and Zedrat Khwqjeh, 
Rcdg Ruwan, distant from Beghrdm about six miles N. 48 E. There 
are also many other spots in various parts of the Kohistfn which exhibit 
sufficient evidences of their ancient population and importance; but 
these must be considered to have been towns, not cities. In the valley 
of Panjshir we have more considerable indications, and we are enabled 
to identify three very extensive sites of ancient cities ; but which, from 
the character of the country, and the limited extent of its resources, we 
can hardly suppose to have flourished at the same epoch. In the 
Koh Damdn of Kdbul, or the country intervening between that city and 
the Kohistan, we discover two very important sites, which unquestionably 
refer to once capital cities : both occur in a direct line from Beghrdm to 
Kdbul, under the low hill ranges which bound Koh Damdn to the east, 
and contiguously also east to the river of Koh Damdn ; the first com- 
mences about eight miles from Beghrdm, and is known by the name of 
Tartrung-Zar; the second is about the same distance farther on, and 
has no particular name, but is east of the seignorial castles of LuchU 
Khan, and the village of Korinder: at this site we find a tope, an 
indubitable evidence of royalty, and connected with it is a stupendous 

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6 Memoir on the Ancient Coins of Beghrdm. [Jan. 

artificial mound on the west bank of the river, constructed with elaborate 
care : the base appears originally to have been surrounded with a magni- 
ficent trench, supplied by the stream with water. Here no doubt was 
some important structure, a palace or citadel. At this day the summit 
is crowned with dilapidated mud walls of modern construction, and the 
spot is known by the name of Kiliak Rajput. In the district of Ghor- 
band, west of the great hill range, which radiating from the Hindu Kosh, 
or Caucasus, forms the western boundary of Koh Daman, we have very 
many important vestiges of antiquity, both in the principal valley and 
in its dependencies, particularly in one of them named Fenddkistan : 
we have reasons to believe that coins are found there in considerable 
numbers, and that there are some interesting mounds ; but as we have 
not seen this spot, we refrain from speculating upon its character. 

We have thus enumerated the principal ancient sites of cities in Koh 
Daman and Kohistdn, both as shewing the former importance and 
illustrating the capabilities of these fine countries, and as exhibiting the 
fluctuations, in ancient times, of the seat of royalty in them. Beghrdm, 
Perwan, Tartrung-Zar, and Killah Rajput have no doubt in succession 
been the abodes of sovereigns, as have most probably Panjshir and 
Korahtass. Our minuteness may moreover be excused, because in this 
part of the country we expect to detect the site of Alexandria ad 
Caucasian, or ad calcem Caucasi. It may be remarked, with reference to 
the sites of Beghrdm and Perwdn t that the former is called by the 
Hindus of the country ' Bertram,' and is asserted by them to have been the 
residence of Raja Bal ; the latter they call Milwdn, and assert to have 
been the capital of Raja Milw an . Milw an may be a Hindu appellation, 
but it has been also assumed by Muhammedans. 

We have it not in our power to consult the ancient authorities, who 
have noticed Alexandria ad Caucasum, or probably its site might have 
been definitely fixed; but when we know that it was also called Nauldbi 
or Nildbi, from being situated on or near the river Nauldbi or Nildb, we 
have no difficulty in seeking for its position, being acquainted with the 
geographical features of this part of Asia. The name Nildbi could only 
have been conferred on the river of Ghorband, or on that of Panjshir, or 
to both, after their confluence ; in the latter event, we are brought to 
the site of Beghrdm without the chance of error. The rivers of Ghor- 
band and Panjshir unite at a spot called Tokchi, bearing north a little 
west of Beghrdm, distant about a mile and half or two miles, and near 
the place called Inchdr, which is inserted in the map accompanying the 
Honorable Mr. Elphinstone's work. Inchdr is a solitary castle, pic- 
turesquely seated amid a large extent of fine chaman or pasture land. 
From its source the river of Ghorband, which is also that of Bamidn, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Memoir on the Ancient Coins of Beghrdm. 7 

has a greater extent of course than that of Panjshir ; bat the latter is 
the more considerable stream. At the point where the river o£ Panjshir 
issues from the hills into the level country of the Kohistdn, is a spot now 
called Nildb; also at the very site of Beghrdm after its union with the 
Ghorband river, the united stream has the same name, in both instances 
derived from the great depth of the water, and its consequent limpid 
and blue appearance. In the valley of Ghorband is a spot called Nildb, 
which now by some contradiction is conferred upon the land adjacent 
to the river, and not upon the river itself. I incline to consider the 
river of Ghorband to be the NUdbi of our ancient authors, and if it be 
found that the Neuldbi of Ptolemy, Strabo, or Pliny, the writers who 
have probably mentioned it, be conducted by Drapsaca or Drashtoca* 
which may be concluded to be the modern Bamidn, we can have no 
doubt of the fact, and the merit of being considered the site of Alexan- 
dria ad Caucasum, or ad calcem Caucasi, can only be contested by two 
sites, that of Nildb, in the valley of Ghorband, and that of Beghrdm. Near 
Nildb, in Ghorband, we find the remains of a most stupendous fortress; 
but however valuable as a military post, it does not seem calculated to 
have been the site of a large city. Beghrdm, on the contrary, possesses 
every advantage of situation, and would in these days, if revived, bid 
fairer to realize its pristine prosperity, than any other site in these coun- 
tries. With the term Alexandria ad calcem Caucasi, the situation of 
Nildb would precisely agree, and we learn also that the city so called 
was near the cave of Prometheus. This appears to have been justly 
located by Wilford, near the pass of Shibr ; and we find at Ferinjal, a 
dependency of Ghorband, between it and Bamidn, or near Shibr, a most 
extraordinary cave, which we would fain believe to be that of Prome- 
theus. With the term Alexandria ad Caucasum, the site of Beghrdm 
would sufficiently coincide ; while its distance from the cave of Ferinjal, 
or that of Prometheus, is not so great as to violate propriety in its 
being termed contiguous, while its propinquity to the base of Hindu 
Kosh, or Caucasus, would seem to justify its being entitled Alexandria 
ad calcem Caucasi. That Alexander established not merely a military 
post, but founded a large city, we ascertain, when we learn from Curtius, 
that he peopled it with no less then seven thousand menials of his army, 
besides a number, of course considerable, but not mentioned, of his 
military followers, and are distinctly informed, that the city in question 
became a large and flourishing one. No doubt, if this part of Asia 
were to come under European control, the re-edification of Beghrdm 
would be deemed a necessary measure, for a considerable city at 'this 
spot would not only provide for the due submission of the half-obedient. 

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8 Memoir on the Ancient Coin* of Beghrdm. [Jan. 

tribes of the Kohistdn, but would secure the allegiance of those abso- 
lutely in rebellion or independence, as of Panjshir, Nijrow, Tag how, &c. 

It is impossible to cast a retrospective view over the regions of Afgha- 
nistan and Turkistdn, to behold the cities still in existence, and the sites 
of such as have yielded to the vicissitudes of fortune, which owe and 
owed their foundation to Alexander the Great, without paying the 
tribute of homage and admiration to his genius and foresight. Above 
twenty centuries have elapsed, since the hero of Macedon marched in 
his triumphant career from the shores of the Bosphorus to the banks of 
*he Hyphasis, subjecting the intermediate nations, but rendering his 
conquests legitimate, by promoting the civilization and prosperity of 
the vanquished. A premature death permitted not posterity to wonder 
at the prodigy of an universal monarchy, which he alone of all mankind 
seemed talented to have erected and maintained. No conqueror had 
ever views so magnificent and enlightened, and none ever left behind 
him so many evidences of his fame. Of the numerous cities which he 
founded, many are at this day the capitals of the countries where they 
are found ; and many of those no longer existing would assuredly be 
revived, were these parts of Asia under a government desirous to effect 
their amelioration. The selection of Mittun by the British Government 
of India for their mart on the Indus, while the most eligible spot that 
could have been chosen, was also a tribute of respect to the memory of 
the illustrious Alexander; for there can be no doubt that Mittun 
indicates the site of the Alexandria that he founded at the junction of the 
united streams of the Panjdb with the Indus, and which he predicted, from 
the advantages of position, would become a large and flourishing city. 
It may be that Mittun under British auspices may realize the prophecy 
applied by the hero to his Alexandria. 

To return from this digression to the question of the site of Alexandria ad 
Caucasum or adcalcem Caucasi, we can only refer it to two spots, Nildb in 
Ghorband, and Beghrdm : I incline to prefer the latter, from the superiority 
of its local advantages, and from the certainty of its having been a large 
and flourishing city, as Alexandria is represented to have become. In favor 
of Nildb may perhaps be adduced the itinerary of Dioonbtes and Boston, 
the surveying officers of Alexander, as preserved by Pliny. We there 
find the measured distance from the capital of Arachosia to Ortospanum 
stated to be 250 miles, and from Ortospanum to Alexandria, 50 miles. 
The capital of Arachosia was unquestionably in the vicinity of the 
modern Kandahar, and Ortospanum, although by some considered 
Ghazni, may safely be referred to Kdbul, when we find in Ptolemy that 
it was also called Cabura, the first approximation to the present name 

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1836.] Memoir an the Ancient Come of Beghrdm. 9 

Kdbul, which we detect in oar ancient geographers. The distance 
between the modern cities of Kabul and Kandahar, agreeably to admea- 
surements made under the Chaghdtai Emperors of India, is ninety-two 
Jertin koss, or nearly 210 British miles; the miles of Pliny are no 
doubt Roman ones, which were, I believe, a little less than our British 
statute ones : this slight difference will not however compensate for the 
excess in the distance fixed by Albxandbb's officers ; but there are 
reasons to suspect that the ancient capital of Arachosia was situated 
some eighteen or twenty miles west of the modern Kandahar, at the 
base of a hill called Panchvahi, where traditions affirm a large city 
once flourished, and of which there is abundant proof in the huge mounds 
to be observed there. The ancient city of Kabul, which I infer to 
have been Ortaspanum, was seated also some three or four miles east of 
the modern one ; the distances here gained, with the difference between 
British and Roman miles on two hundred and fifty of the latter, (if 
they be, as above assumed, less,) will reconcile the measurements of 
the officers of Alexander with those of the Chaghitai Emperors, and 
we can have little doubt but that Ortospanum is represented by the 
present Kdbul. From Kdbul to Beghrdm, the distance is not certainly 
more than twenty-seven British miles; but from K&bul to Nildb of 
Ghorband, the distance is nearly, if not fully, fifty miles, coinciding with 
the account of Diognbtbs and BcrroN. It may however be observed, 
that different copies of Pliny have in this instance various numbers, so 
that we feel perplexed to select the genuine ones ; fifty I believe to be 
the least mentioned, and I have calculated with it, supposing it the 
more probable one. The same itinerary gives the distance between 
Alexandria ad Caucasum and Peucalaotis, stated to be 227 Roman 
miles: this latter place has generally been located near the modern 
Peshawar; from Kdbul to Peshawar are estimated 112 ordinary koss, 
which, calculated at one mile and half each, yield nearly 170 miles, 
Beghrdm will be nearly equidistant from Peshdwar with Kabul, therefore 
the distance noted in the itinerary will coincide rather with the locality 
of Nildb, which may be about 30 British miles from Beghrdm, and 
consequently 200 or more British miles from Peshawar, equivalent 
perhaps to 227 Roman miles. But I do not feel confident that Peucalaotis 
has been justly referred to the site of Peshdwar. It appears to have 
been the name of a province, the capital of which was Peucela; in these 
terms we detect a considerable affinity to the modern appellation Puekoli, 
applied to a district with capital of the same name east of the Indus, and 
above Attack, which in ancient times included a considerable territory 
west of the Indus. It is not certain that Alexander visited the 
immediate vicinity of Peshdwar, although Hbphjistion will have done 

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10 Memoir on the Ancient Coins of Beg hr dm. [Jan. 

so ; and it is probable that he crossed the Indus above Attock, or at a 
point in the modern district of Puekoli, perhaps the ancient PeucolaoHs. 
A similarity of denomination may not always be depended upon, but 
when combined with other accordances, it becomes, as D'Anvillb 
expresses it, " un moyen de convenance." I shall close my specu- 
lations on the site of Beghrdm, by remarking, that Alexander in his 
march from Bactra to Alexandria ad Caucasum will have arrived at it 
by the route of Bamidn and Shibr, because Arrian informs us, that he 
passed Drapsaca on the road, which can hardly be mistaken for the 
former of those places. Alexander crossed the Hindu Kosh or Cauca- 
sus m the month of May ; when, supposing the seasons and climate of 
these countries to have been the same as at present, any other route 
over that mountain range was impracticable. The route from Bamidn 
to Ghorband is passable to kdfilas at all seasons of the year, and is no 
doubt the high road ; but it has been closed during the last twenty-five 
years, by the insurrection of the Shaikh Ali Hazdrehs, who inhabit the 
small extent of country between Ghorband and Shibr. The route of 
Bamidn will have conducted Alexander either to Nildb or Beghrdm ; 
and these observations would have been unnecessary, had it not been 
supposed by some that his starting place was Anderdb : this assumption 
does not however seem warranted, and if grounded on the route that 
Timu / r followed, it should have been recollected that the Tartar conqueror 
crossed the Indian Caucasus in the month of July. 

It had been my intention this year to have secured every coin of 
every description that should be picked up from the dusht of Beghrdm, 
and this purpose would probably have been effected, had I not been 
compelled to be absent at Jeldldbdd. A young man was however 
despatched thither, with recommendatory letters to my friends in the 
Kohistdn, and to him was confided the collection of all he might be able 
to procure. On my eventually reaching Kdbul, the young man joinjd 
with 1320 coins, from the appearance of which it was evident he had 
selected, and not, as ordered, taken all that were offered. It also 
appeared, that in consequence of the distracted political state of the 
Kohistdn in the spring, the Afghdn pastoral families had not as usual 
visited the plains of Beghrdm at an early season. In the autumn, more- 
over, from apprehensions of a rising in this part of the country, the 
Afghans sent their flocks to the Safi hills, the persons tending which 
are the principal finders of these coins. Under these unfavorable 
circumstances, I twice repaired to Beghrdm, and at various intervals 
despatched my young men, and the total result of our collection this 
year was five silver and 1900 copper coins. These are of course generally 

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18*6.] Memoir on the Ancient Cains of Begkrdm. 11 

of the same description and types as those illustrated in my Memoir of 
last year ; bat a few were procured of novel types, and a few altogether 
new, among which one or two may be deemed valuable. It is my object 
in this Memoir to detail these fresh discoveries, and to offer such remarks 
upon them, and the topics they involve, as may arise upon their consi- 
deration. My stay at Jeldldbdd was, during the season of the year, 
unfavorable for the collection of coins; yet, independently of those 
extracted from topes, were procured 248 copper coins, among which 
two or three are novel ones, to be noted in their place. 

Subsequent to my arrival in Kabul, I purchased in the bazar there, six 
golden, 176 silver, and 142 copper coins : some of these are important 
ones. I had also the fortune to secure a large parcel of silver Bactrians, 
a deposit discovered in the Hazdrekjdt: among these are coins of a type 
likely to excite some interest. 

The coins extracted from the various topes opened this year, may 
abo be deemed interesting, from the positive connection they have with 
the monuments enclosing them ; and valuable, from their superior pre- 
servation, having in many instances been inserted new ; and presenting 
specimens as perfect and intelligible as we may hope to procure. 

I shall observe in this Memoir nearly the order adopted in my 
preceding one* with reference to classification and the succession of 
series, mating however such modifications and distinctions as further 
discoveries seem to warrant. 

General Observations. 

Class, Grecian Series, No. 1 . — Coins of the recorded Kings of Bactria. 

As daring the last year, we are without any evidence of Thbodotus 

I. and Thbodotus II., the two first Bactrian longs ; and that their sway 

was confined to Bactriana proper, or the regions north of the Indian 

Caucasus, is confirmed by the non-discovery of their coins at Begkrdm. 

This fact can scarcely be doubted, when we have historical evidence, that 

a distinct and powerful kingdom existed, under Sophagasenus, in the 

Paropamisan range, at the time of the expedition of Antiochus Magnus. 

This year has yielded five copper coins of Euthtdemus, the third 

Bactrian king; one was procured at Jeldldbdd; the four others from 

Begkrdm : their discovery seems to prove the extension of this monarch's 

rule south of the Caucasus — a fact countenanced by probability, and the 

slight historical evidences we have of him. The solitary coin found at 

JddUbdd does not afford proof positive that Euthtdemus governed there 

also, both because there is no certainty where coins purchased in baz£rs 

were produced ; and it is not impossible but that it may have found its 

way there from Begkrdm, as the Afgkan shepherds, resident on its plain 

during the summer, migrate to Lugkmdn and the vicinity of Jeldldbdd, 

c 2 

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12 Memoir on the Ancient Coins of Bcghriim. [Jan. 

during the winter ; and the few coins they may bring with them, they 
disperse among the dealers in the small towns, as their trifling wants 
of oil, tobacco, &c. may induce them. Euthydbmus being denominated 
of Magnesia, it may be questioned, in what manner he ascended the 
Bactrian throne, whether by the right of lawful succession, or of success- 
ful usurpation. At all events, he appears to have been a sovereign of 
great talents, worthy of his exalted rank. 

Of Apollodotus, besides a large number of copper coins, we have 
this year procured five silver quadrangular coins, the type varying from 
those already known. 

Of the celebrated Mbnander, this season has afforded us some copper 
coins of novel types, and a large number of silver drachmas and hemi- 
drachmas, presenting alike some varieties in the types : we found not 
one of this prince's coins at Jeldldbud, where we indeed met with two 
of Apollodotus, but decline to draw inferences from solitary specimens. 
When we consider the coincidences observable on the coins of 
Mbnander and Apollodotus, some of which have even the same figures 
on the reverses with the resemblance of their features ; and when we 
find them conjointly commemorated by Arrian and Troqus, the only 
two ancient authors who have recorded the latter's name, we feel every 
inclination to conjecture that the ties of consanguinity must have 
connected them. As Apollodotus is previously named by both these 
authorities, he may be supposed to have been the father, or perhaps 
elder brother, of Mbnander ; and that he preceded the latter in sove- 
reignty would seem nearly certain, being borne out by every circum- 
stance attending the coins we discover. That the reigns of both these 
princes was of considerable duration is evidenced by the numerous 
coins we find, and by the variety of types they exhibit, proving them 
to have been struck at different periods. The busts of Apollodotus 
on the two or three coins hitherto found, which exhibit them, have an 
extremely youthful appearance; and the portraits of Mbnander display 
the transition from youth to manhood. That Apollodotus reigned in 
Bactricma proper, we doubt with Bayer, although his pretensions have 
been advocated by Colonel Tod. That he was the son of Euthydbmus, 
we think certain, and that he was the father or elder brother of Mbnan- 
der, we think probable, and assuredly his predecessor; that he governed 
in the provinces south of Bactriana is certain, and there, according to 
the suggestions of Schlbobl, I incline to locate his original kingdom 
and that of Mbnander ; that this kingdom may have included some of 
the provinces of Bactriana Latior, or the regions immediately north of 
the Caucasus, is very probable, and would justify its monarchs' being 
styled kings of Bactria by their historians. How far this kingdom 

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1 836.] Memoir on the Ancient Coins of Beghram. 1 3 

extended eastward, we may not be able now to determine ; but the 
non-discovery of the coins of Apollodotus at Jelalhbdd (holding two 
or three specimens procured from bazars, but found no one knows 
where, no exception to the remark) seems to prove that in his time an 
independent power must have existed there : this receives farther proof 
when we meet not there with the coins of his successor Menandbr, which 
abound so numerously at Beghrdm. As Apollodotus certainly invaded 
India, we may suppose him, without prejudice to the kingdom of Nysa, 
to have marched by the route of Khouram, Bannd, and Multdn to the 
Hyphasis, on exactly the same route that was followed by Timu'r; and 
in corroboration thereof, we find him brought to the Hyphasis, where he 
re-edified the city of Sangdla under the name of Euthydemia. There 
can be little doubt but that Sangdla owed its revival to Apollodotus. 
Tnat it sprang into new consideration under the auspices of a son of 
Euthtdbmus, can scarcely be questioned, and every circumstance seems 
to point out that son to have been Apollodotus. The coin discovered 
by Dr. Swikbt, which bears the epithet Philopater, not a little confirms 
this fact. Menandbr, whether the son or brother of Apollodotus, 
seems fairly entitled to be considered his successor. This prince followed 
up the Indian conquests, while he preserved his dominion in the provinces 
south of Bactriana ; but these latter, on his decease, probably will have 
been assumed by Eucratidbs the I., or the Great, king of Bactriana 
proper. Menander, we know, was interrupted in his warlike operation 
by death ; but when, and where, is not recorded by history, which has 
been alike faithless to the actions of one of the most illustrious sove- 
reigns that ever held a sceptre. 

The coins of Eucratidbs I., so numerously found at Beghrdm, are not 
to be discovered at Jeldldbdd any more than those of Apollodotus and 
Mbnandbr, considering always a single specimen no evidence that 
corns of that species were once current there, but rather that they were 
not: this circumstance farther substantiates the existence of an inde- 
pendent monarchy at Nysa, and that it was sufficiently powerful 
to maintain its integrity inviolate; for Eucratidbs was no doubt a 
warlike and ambitious prince. 

Before adverting farther to Eucratidbs, we may be excused in 
offering two or three observations as to Demetrius, a recorded son of 
Euthtdbmus, and employed by him in his negociations with Antiochus. 
If he stand simply recorded as a son, it neither proves that he was the 
elder son, although probable, or, that he was the only son. As it was 
probably by his means that Euthtdbmus subverted the kingdom of 
Gaj, in the Paropamisan range — an event which could not have occurred 
until the dose of the reign of Euthtdbmus ; as Sophagasbnus, the father 

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14 Memoir on the Ancient Coins of Begkrdm. [Jam. 

of Gaj, was his cotemporary at the period of the expedition of Anti- 
ochu8, we may suppose that Demetrius retained the sovereignty of 
the countries he conquered, and extended his conquests in Arackosia, 
now thrown open to his arms. Accordingly, in a route of Isidorub of 
Charox the name of a city, Demetrias of Arackosia, occurs, which 
would seem referred with justice by Schlegel to the son of Eutht- 
demus, and which points out the direction of his empire. Without 
power of reference to the route of Isidorus, in which the name Deme- 
trias occurs, we may observe, should it be found in any of those 
from the western provinces, as Ariana, &c. to the eastern ones on the 
Indus, we should incline to place it in the valley of the Turnek, between 
Kandahdr and Mokur, in the country now inhabited by the Tkoki 
Gulzyes, where we have evidences that a powerful capital once existed, 
which may have been that of Demetrius. The attack of Demetrius, 
or his son, of the same name, upon Ecjcratides may have arisen from 
the irksomeness naturally to be felt at the vicinity of a powerful and 
ambitious prince, who, by the extension of his empire, had sufficiently 
evinced his desire of aggrandizement. History, which records Demetrius 
as the aggressor in this war, also records that Eucratiobs had possessed 
himself of Ariana, and we find that he was also master of the regions 
south of the Indian Caucasus, thus pressing upon the confines of Arackosia 
at the two extreme points of east and west. Aggression on the point of 
Demetrius may therefore have been a measure of necessity, or even of 
prudence, it being certainly more politic to aggress than to be reduced 
to repel aggression. It has not been our fortune to meet with a coin of 
Demetrius, or to be acquainted with the type of that procured by Baron 
Myendorff at Bokhara ; but unless the reverse be decidedly Bactrian, a 
bust adorned with the skin of an elephant would not be sufficient evidence, 
in our estimation, to allow its appropriation to the son of Euthydemus. 
I have a letter from M. Martin Honioberoer, from Bokkdrd, by which 
I learn that he has also procured there a coin of Demetrius, but he 
has not described its character. It may be noted that these two coins of 
Demetrius, the only ones, we believe, hitherto discovered*, have been 
elicited at Bokkdrd. Among the coins obtained by M. Honioberoer 
at Bokkdrd, and which he thought worthy of enumeration, probably 
as being both Greek and silver ones, are transcribed in his memorandum, 
1 Vasileos Antiochu. 
1 Vasileos Dimitriu. 
1 Vasileos Megalu Hiokraksu. 
3 Vasileos Euthidimu. 
5 Eucratddes. 
• There is a beautiful little Demetriui in the Ventura collection; see vol IV. — Ed. 

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1836.] Memoir on the Ancient Coins of Beghrdm. 15 

As Demetrius did *not succeed his father in Bactriana proper, and 
reasons may be alledged for suspecting that Apollodotus also did not, 
the question naturally arises, to whom are we to assign the empire of 
Bactriana in the interval between the demise of Euthtdbmus and the 
accession of Eucratides— a space of fourteen years according to the 
table of Schlbobjl. I have mentioned the discovery of a parcel of 
Bactrim drachmas and hemi-drachmas in the Haidrehjdt, which we 
purchased from a Hindu at Ckarrukar, who some three years since re- 
ceived them from a Hazaureh. I have not yet been able to ascer- 
tain the spot, or under what circumstances these coins were found. 
The parcel, 120 in number, comprised seven quadrangular silver coins 
of Apollodotus, 108 silver coins of Mbnander, and five silver coins 
of Antimachus. The day preceding that on which this parcel of 
coins came into my possession, I received from the dushts of Beghrdm, 
a silver coin of the same last-named prince, Antimachus. The 
beauty of the coins of Antimachus, the excellence of their execution 
and designs, with the purity of the Greek characters of the legend, 
allow us not to place this prince subsequent to Eucratides, whose 
coins in these particulars they surpass. Among 5000 or more copper 
coins, procured from the dasht of Beghrdm, we have not discover- 
ed one of Antimachus, and the detection of a single silver coin does 
not seem to afford evidence that he ruled there, when the absence of 
his copper coins seem to prove that he did not. Where then must he 
be placed ? We feel the inclination to conjecture him to have been the 
son and successor of Euthtdbmus in Bactriana proper. The reverses 
on the coins of Apollodotus and Men an de a are not strictly Bactrian, or 
in relative connection with those we discover on those of the undoubted 
kings of Bactriana, Euthtdbmus and Eucratides ; the horseman in charge 
on the reverses of those of Antimachus is so, and forms the link between 
the horse at speed on the coins of Euthtdbmus, and the two horsemen 
in charge on those of Eucratides. The monograms on the coins of 
Antimachus coincide with some on the coins of Mbnander, and if we 
can suppose them to be numerical ones (which however I affirm not to 
be certain) suggest the opinion that they were cotemporaneous princes, 
it being possible both were deduced from a common era. We feel 
perplexed when we are only allowed by the table of Schlegbl, an 
interval of fourteen years, and when we have three princes who may 
claim to have reigned between Euthtdbmus and Eucratides ; it may 
however be suspected that the accession to sovereignty of the latter, 
unless historically fixed, is antedated ten years. No one of the very many 
coins of this prince we meet with, presents a monogram clearly nume- 
rical, which yields a higher number than 85; while the highest number 

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16 Memoir on the Ancient Coins of Beghrdm. [Jan. 

found is 108, as preserved on the silver didrachma in the Earl of Pbm- 
brokb's cabinet, noted by Pinkbrton and indicating the close of his reign. 
Neither do the features of Eucratidbs, as preserved on his coins, exhibit the 
striking variation of youth to manhood observed on those of Mbnandbr, 
and do not authorize us to allow so long a reign as 35 years. I incline 
to date his accession at the epoch 84, of the Bactrian aera, and to fix the 
duration of his reign to 25 years : thus gaining between it and the 
demise of Euthydbmus an interval of twenty-four years ; but even this 
increased interval does not suffice for the reigns of Apollodotus, Mb- 
nandbr, and Antimachus. Those of the two former, particularly of 
Mbnandbr, were certainly of some duration, as evidenced by their 
numerous coins of various types discovered. Apollodotus, from the 
youthful bust displayed on his coins, may be inferred to have died young ; 
but Mbnandbr, we think, must be allowed to have attained mature 
manhood, or the age of forty to forty-five years : while his numerous 
coins, shewing the traits of extreme youth, seem to attest his accession 
to sovereignty at an early period of his life, and consequently confirm 
the length of his reign. Many of the coins of both these princes have 
alphabetical monograms, which, if accepted as numeral ones, may assist 
us in our conjectures. On the copper coins of Mbnandbr we find HA or 
81, which can only refer to the Bactrian sera. On the silver coin found 
by Colonel Tod, we find I a or 14, which can only refer to his individual 
reign. HB or 82 is also found on the coins of Mbnandbr, which brings 
us nearly to the number indicated by HE or 85, the lowest number to 
be found on the coins of Eucratidbs. That this prince succeeded Mbn- 
andbr in the government of the countries immediately south of the 
Caucasus appears unquestionable; but it was most likely by forcible 
assumption : for had he been the lawful successor of Mbnandbr, he was 
not of a character to have relinquished his Indian possessions, where 
it would appear almost certain he did not reign: these observations 
are necessary, because the adoption of a monogram by Mbnandbr, which 
may be supposed to indicate the Bactrian sera, might induce an opinion 
that he was the predecessor of Eucratidbs in Bactriana proper; while 
other circumstances we have noted seem to prove that he was not, 
independently of the ambiguous nature of the monograms themselves. 
The age depicted on the busts of Apollodotus, and on those of the early 
coins of Mbnandbr, seem so nearly to agree, that while we would fain 
consider the latter as the successor of the former, we can scarcely 
suppose him the son, and our alternative is to conjecture him the bro- 
ther. If Mbnandbr be admitted to have reigned in Bactria, we fancy 
Apollodotus must be also; and it may be granted that their joint reigns 
might conveniently fill the interval between Eutbtdbmus and Eucra- 

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1836.] Memoir on the Ancient Coins of Beghrdm. 1 7 

tides of twenty-four years, if our calculation thereof be conceded; but 
when we find the principal scenes of the military operations of these 
princes were in India, joined with other circumstances, as well as the dis- 
covery of the coins of Antimachus, the probability appears to be that 
they ruled originally, as before advanced, in the regions immediately north 
and south of the Indian Caucasus. Euthydbmus, a monarch of great 
capacity, would appear to have been fortunate in his sons, (possibly by 
various mothers, for polygamy was a vice, according to Curtius, that 
the Greeks adopted from the barbarians,) by whose means he extended 
his territories, and greatly increased the dignity of the Bactrian empire. 
It may be supposed that he apportioned his empire amongst his sons, 
allowing them to retain the countries they had individually subjected : 
thus we may account for the kingdom of Demetrius in Arachosia ; for 
that of Apollodotus and Men ander in Bactriana Latior and the regions 
south of the Caucasus ; and we may perhaps be allowed to consider Anti- 
machus as the eldest son and successor of his father in Bactriana 
proper. That this distribution of power was agreeable to the parties 
concerned, we may conjecture, when, in absence of direct information, 
there are grounds for belief that no war originated between them. The 
epoch of Antimachus cannot, we suspect, were only the excellence of 
his coins adduced, be dated posterior to that of Eucratides; after whose 
death, the knowledge of Grecian arts and sciences may naturally be 
supposed to have declined: indeed the copper coins of Eucratides 
himself, although a powerful monarch, exhibit a striking inferiority of 
execution, compared with those of Euthydbmus, which the coins of 
Antimachus rival. We may suppose the reign of Euthydbmus to 
have been the most brilliant of the Bactrian monarchy, or that in which 
the Grecian arts were most cultivated and flourishing. 

1 am not allowed to place Anti machus prior to Apollodotus ; fori have 
shewn how strong are the latter prince's claims to be considered the foun- 
der of Euthydemia, which, if admitted, decide him to have been the son 
of Euthydbmus. Neither can we place him subsequent to Menandbr, 
because we have indubitable proof that Eucratides, by some means or 
other, succeeded Menandbr, in the rule of the countries dependent on 
Bactria ad Caucasian; had Antimachus governed there, his coins would 
certainly have been found at Beghrdm, with those of Euthydbmus, who 
must have preceded him, and of Eucratides, who must have followed 
him, and in common with those of Apollodotus and Menandbr. Nei- 
ther did he succeed Menandbr in the sovereignty of his Indian con- 
quests ; for then his coins would have exhibited Indian characters on 
the reverses, rather than Bactrian ones : there can be no doubt but that 
the coins of Antimachus are genuine Bactrians. Convinced that 


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Id Memoir on the Ancient Coins of Beghrdm. [Jan. 

Antimachus must have reigned posterior to Euthydemus, and anterior 
to Eucratides, while he could neither have preceded Apollo dotub, 
nor succeeded Mbnander, we have no alternative hut to place his reign 
between the two former princes, and to suppose him cotemporary with 
the two latter : thus nearly yielding decisive proof that he was the son 
and successor of Euthydemus in Bactriana proper. 

To omit no circumstances likely to throw light upon the subjects 
under discussion, I advert to the nature and character of the deposit of 
Bactrian coins, which yielded five of Antimachus, seven of Apollodo- 
tus, and 108 of Mbnander; for matters apparently trivial may some- 
times furnish valuable hints. A person, from some motive or other, con- 
ceals a sum of money, the coins of which he will possess the larger 
number are those of the reigning prince ; it is however easy to imagine 
that he may have a few of the prince who preceded in rule, and a few of 
any neighbouring or cotemporary sovereign. The person, who made 
the deposit thus preserved for us, we may presume, did so in the reign 
of Menander, which accounts for the notable proportion of that prince's 
coins ; the few of Apollodotus seem to point him out as the predecessor 
of Menander, and the fewer of Antimachus intimate, that he was a 
neighbouring and cotemporary prince. The length to which I have 
carried my observations on these coins, and the topics they involve, might 
justify my being taxed with prolixity, did they not relate to a subject 
so interesting and intricate as that of Bactrian history; and I shall 
conclude them by inserting a new table of the reigns and successions of 
the Bactrian sovereigns, agreeably to the suppositions, the probability 
of which I have advocated. 


Theodotus I. established his sovereignty B.C. 255, reigued 12 years- ••• 1 to 12 of Bactrian «nu 

Theodotus II. began to reign B.C. 243, reigned 23 years — 12 to 35 of do. 

Euthydemus began to reign B.C. 220, reigned 23 years- ••• 35 to 60 of do. 

Antimachus began to reign B.C. 193, reigned 24 years- • • • 60 to 84 of do. 

Eucratides began to reign B.C. 171 , reigned 25 years 84 to 109 of do. 

Successor of Eucratides began to reign* • B.C. 146, reigned years unknown, 109 to period unknown. 
Note.— The period B.C. 125, Axed for the destruction of the empire, liable to much distrust. 

I continue to discover the coins of Eucratides in the same numbers, 
but have met with none of new types. I have noted that this monarch's 
coins are not found east of Kabul, affording the presumption that hia 
sway did not extend thither. 

Among the coins collected this year, I have not discovered one by 
which we can identify the successor of Eucratides; but among the 
new which may claim to be considered Bactrian, we have one with the 
classical name of Diombdes. 

We are also without any trace of Heliocles, who would appear to 
have no claim to be introduced among the early Bactrian sovereigns; 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Memoir on the Ancient Coins of Beghram. 1 9 

but if the coin discovered of him be clearly Bactrian, which the reverse 
probably would decide, he may still be admitted his rank among the 
later sovereigns of the Bactrian dynasty, or among those arising from 
its destruction. 

We have this year procured intelligible specimens, which enable me 
to decipher some of those left in doubt in my Memoir of last year ; 
and have fallen upon two or three altogether new, from the characters 
on the reverse, might be considered Bactrian ; at all events, they are 
Greek, and I submit my opinion on them in the succeeding observations. 

With so many coins before us of princes who have more or less pre- 
tensions of being Bactrian sovereigns, we may feel tempted to doubt 
whether the Grecian authority in Bactriana was subverted by the Getae 
at so early a period as that assigned, unless the fact be supported by the 
fullest historical evidence. It may be, the recorded subversion amounted 
to no more than a temporary inroad of barbarians, which may have 
indeed involved the loss of royalty in the family of Eucratides, and 
its assumption by some fortunate leader, who repelled the invasion ; the 
probability appears to be that the Greek power in Bactriana, in the 
first instance, weakened by the incursions of the Getae and other Scy- 
thic tribes, was ultimately annihilated by the overgrown empire of 
Parthia. But a Greek authority must have existed to a much later 
period in the countries west of the Indus, which would appear to have 
been finally subverted by the Sakyan princes, who had established them- 
selves in the regions east of the Indus. Without attaching extraordinary 
importance to the hyperbolical strains of a Carmen Secular e, we may 
observe, that Horace, who flourished about the commencement of the 
Christian sera, enumerates among the objects of sufficient magnitude to 
engage the attention of Augustus, the Bactrian empire, which we would 
have to have been destroyed above 1 20 years before the time he wrote : — 

" Tu cWitatem quis deceat status 

Cures, et orbit solicitus, times 

Quid Seres, et reguata Cyro 

Bactra parent, Tanaisque discors." 

doss Grecian — Series 2. Unrecorded Kings of Bactria. 
1 have thought proper to include in this general series all the coins, of 
whatever description, which may have Bactrian characters on the reverse 
legends. I by no means however wish to assert that all these princes 
ruled in Bactriana proper, perhaps no one of them did so. This series 
at present includes Antimachus, Hrrmaus I., II., III., Diomedbs, An- 


Azu I., II., Demetrius, (?) and three other coins among the unidentified 

• Ltsius.— Ed. f AsiLiiOi.— Ed. 

d 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

20 Memoir on the Ancient Coins of Beghrdm. [Jab*. 

ones, or in all seventeen names : of these I am willing to transfer 
Antimachus to the regular Bactrian dynasty, Hbrmaus I., II., to the 
dynasty of Apollodotus and Menandbr, and Adelphortes, Basilis, 
and Azo, to a dynasty which I hope to prove, one day, to have existed 
distinctly at Massaga. 

Class Grecian — Series 3. Coins of Aoathoclbs, Pantaleon, £c. 
This year yielded me the same proportion of the coins of these princes, 
and I suspect we have found two other coins, which, with reference to 
the characters, may be classed with them, viz. Nos. 30 and 32 of the 
Greek coins now enumerated: if this be correct, we shall have five princes 
of this series. 

Class Grecian — Series 4. Coins of the Nysean Kings. 
Of these kings we have the topes or cenotaphs at Jeldldbdd: there 
appear to have been two great families; that of Hbrmjbus and his descen- 
dants, whose coins are distinguished by the figure of Hercules, with his 
club on the reverse, and those of the princes, whose coins have a 
horseman on the obverse, and the figure of Ceres on the reverse : to 
these must unquestionably be added the great king whose coins bear 
the legend basiaevc basiaeliN snrap MErAC, and I make no doubt 
Unadphbrros : the latter family is the more ancient; and if our views 
are right, came originally from Massaga. There are thirteen topes cer- 
tainly, perhaps fourteen, at Jeldldbdd, which may safely be referred to 
these princes ; five or six to the family of Hbrmjsus, and the remainder 
to that of the others ; if three of these be not the topes of saints, rather 
than of kings : this I infer from their position on eminences, and the 
absence of coins with the relics found in them. 

Note. — Of the prince whose coinage is delineated as fig. 37 in the 
last Memoir, I have procured many other coins : but none enabling 
me to identify his name : these coins, like the former, all from Beghrdm. 
Class Indo-Scythic — Series I and 2. Coins o/Kanerkos amd Kadphis. 
I have discovered that the topes of Kdbul refer to the families of these 
princes, as do a number of topes near Chahdrbdg, or Jeldldbdd; but 
these latter I very much suspect to be duplicates of the former. This 
year has given us a number of golden medals of these princes, which 
are noted below. 

I have not been yet enabled to locate the capital of the princes 
whose coins form the other series of this class. 

Recapitulation of Qreek coin* collected from Beghrdm, 1834. 

Copper of EuthydcrauB, 3 

Apollodotus, 31 

Menander, 56 

Eucratides, 92 

Diomedes, 1 

Adelphof tei, \ 

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1836.] Memoir on the Ancient Coins of Beghrdm. 21 

Various 5 

Hermseus I, 31 

Hermssus II, 5 

Hercules type, 179 

Megas 267 

Unadpherros, 16 

Antilakides, i 

Lysius, J 

Agathocles, 19 

PanUleon, 2 

Leonine 23 

As fig. 37 of Memoir 1833, 14 

Small Nysseans, 24 

Total, 790 Greek copper coins. 

Silver coin (drachma) of Antimachua, . . 1 

Total, 791 Greek coins. 

Analysis or Coins. 
[With the present memoir Mr. Masson furnished drawings of all the coins 
here enumerated. Many of them however having been already figured in the 
plates published with our notes on the Ventura collection in June last, we have 
thought it unnecessary to lithograph the whole, and have consequently 
made selection of those only which are new types, or have more legible inscrip- 
tions than our own. The text, in justice to the author we, have inserted entire, 
merely substituting the word No. for Fig. and given a second reference to the 
plates where such as are new will be found. — Ed.] 

Series 1st. — Recorded Kings of Bactria. 
No. 1. Obverte.— Bearded bust. [PI. II. fig. 1.] 
Hererse.— Horse at speed. Legend Greek BA2IAED2 ETSTAHMOT. 
No. 2. Obvene.— Bearded bust. (Fig. 2.) 
Reverte. — Not represented, same as preceding figure. 

No. 1. is one of three coins of the same type, two procured from Beghr&m, 
and one from Jelalabad. These are the curious coins with a concave obverse, 
which were noted in my last Memoir of last year, having then one unrecog- 
nizable specimen from Beghram. The first intelligible specimen was obtained 
at JelaUbad, on which I was delighted to find the name of Euthydkmus. Fig. 2 
is a single specimen from Beghram, the obverse not concave. 

Now. 3, 4, and 5. Ofoertes.— Figure of Elephant. Legend Greek BA2IAEA2 
AnOAAOAOTOT *flTHPOT. {Fig. 3; tee vol. iv. PI. XXVI. fig. 5.) 
Reverie*. — Rgure of Brahminical Cow. Legend Bactrian. 
These Figures represent the types found among seven silver coins of Afol- 
lodotus, comprised in a parcel of 121 Bactrian silver coins, purchased from an 
individual al K&bul, but discovered in the Hazanrehjat. These coins essentially 
agree, the monograms only varying. 

This year's researches has elicited a circular copper coin of this prince, but 
not represented, being of similar type with his quadrangular coins. ' 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

22 Memoir on tte Ancient Coins of Beghrdm. [Jan. 

No. 6. (Fig. 4.) Obverse.— Bust, the head bound with fillet or diadem. Le- 

Reverse. —Warrior, standing to left ; right hand upraised, holding a bundle of 
darts ; left hand holding forth an embossed shield. Monogrammical characters on 
either side of the feet. Legend Bactrian. 
This fine silver coin was purchased at Kdbul. 

Not. 7 toll. (Figs. 6, 8.) Obverses.— Busts. Legends as preceding. 
Reverses. — As in preceding Figure. Legend Bactrian. 

These types are selected from 1 10 silver coins of this prince procured this 
year, one received as a present in Kdbul, one procured at Beghrdm, and 108 
procured with the seven of Apollodotds just noted. These coins essentially 
agree, varying principally in the head-dress and position of the busts, and in the 
position of the figures on the reverses. Figs. 9 and 10 are distinguished by the 
spear or javelin in the right hand, and the nakedness of the bust : the monogram- 
mical characters on these coins vary much, and it is remarkable that scarcely any 
two of the 108 coins found in one parcel appear to have been struck with the 
same die, the differences in them, however slight, being conclusive as to that fact ; 
it may farther be observed, that copper coins of Menander are to be found, exhi- 
biting all the types and monogrammical characters to be found on these silver ones. 
No. 12. (Fig. 5.) Obverse. — Bust. Legend Greek, as preceding figs. 
Reverse. — Fish. (Dolphin ?) Legend Bactrian. 

This fine copper coin was procured from Beghrdm, the monogrammical cha- 

No. 13. (Fig. 7.) Obverse. — Wheel or emblematical figure. Legend Greek, as 
preceding figs. 

Reverse. — Palm branch. Legend Bactrian. 

This small copper coin, a single specimen was procured from Beghrdm, the 
monogrammical characters Jg are to be found on the silver coins noted above, 

as fig. 8. 

Class Grecian — Series 2. Unrecorded Kings of Bactria. 

No. 14. (Fig. 9 J Obverse.— Helmeted and winged female (Victory ? ) standing 
to the left, holding in extended right hand a palm branch. Legend Greek BA2I- 
AEM NIKH*OPOT ANTIMAXOT. (See to/, iv. PI. XXI. Jig. 3.) 

Reverse. — Mounted warrior at speed. Legend Bactrian. 

This fine silver coin is one of six silver coins of similar type and size pro- 
cured this year, one from Beghram, and five in the same parcel as the 108 of 
Menander and seven of Afollodotus before noticed. The monogram teg 

on the obverse, is also to be met with on the coins of Menander ; as fig. 9 of 
these plates. Were this monogram interpretable, we should have no difficulty 
in definitely appropriating these coins. 


No. 15. Obverse. — Bust, head bound with fillet and diadem. Legend Greek 
BA2lAEfl2 2HTHPOT EPMAIOT. (See vol. iv. PI. XXIV.) 

Reverse.— Figure of Jupiter enthroned. Legend Bactrian. 

No. 16. ( Fig. II. J Obverse. — Bust, head bound with fillet or diadem. Legend 
Greek, as preceding figure. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Memoir on the Ancient Coins of Beghram. 23 

Reverie. — figure of Jupitbr enthroned, with eagle or bird of Jove perched 
on extended right hand. Legend Bactrian. 

These two fine silver coins were purchased at K6JM. I have to apologise 
for having in my memoir of last year, asserted an opinion that H cams us was 
the founder of the Greek Nysssan dynasty of kings ; although it is certain that 
he ruled there, (that is at Nysa f ) and even more easterly, as is evidenced by his 
numerous coins found both at Jelalabid and Peshawar. The Bactrian characters 
on the reverses of this prince's coins, were not then noted with the attention 
they ought to have been. And the discovery since of two of his silver coins, 
(those now delineated,) and a single copper coin corresponding to No. 15, 
compel us to form other ideas of this prince, and authorise us to consider him, 
at least for the present, as one of the regular Bactrian dynastry. The enthroned 
figure on the reverse of No. 16, with the bird of Jove seated on the hand, we 
presume, admits not a doubt, that the figure itself is intended to represent Juri- 
ter ; and the similar figures on the reverses of the copper coins of this prince, 
although not manifestly exhibiting the eagle, may be supposed to personify the 
same deity, and not Herculrs as before imagined. It seems probable, that the 
figures on the reverses of the silver coins of Euthydemus may be intended to 
indicate Jupiter. The copper coins, we had previously found, of Hrrm jbus, 
have very pointed features, and pourtray a prince considerably advanced in years— 
the two silver coins now before us, with the single copper coin discovered this 
year, exhibit the features of youth, and justify us in concluding that his reign 
commenced when he was young, as the great proportion of the copper coins jus- 
tify the conclusion, that it terminated at an advanced period of his life. We may 
fairly allow to this prince s reign of twenty-four or twenty-five years, a term 
which would accurately fill up the period between the demise of Euthydemus 
and the succession of Eucratides, or, of that, from the demise of Euceatidbs, 
to the alleged destruction of the Bactrian empire by the Get* ; but a consider- 
ation of the general style of the execution of the coins of Hbrmjbub, (although 
the two coins now under notice are beautiful ones, especially No. 16,) will scarcely 
allow us to intrude him as the successor of Euthydemus: it is fair, however, to 
observe, that the coins of the two princes bear the same figures on the reverses, 
and that the forms of both are circular. Neither are we willing to admit him to 
have been the successor of Eucratides, for he would appear to have enjoyed 
a large reign, which we hardly suppose a prince who was alike a parricide would 
have done. It would be gratifying to detect the successor of Eucratides in 
Bactriana proper, and amongst the whole of the coins discovered at Beghram, 
holding their execution as the token of their precedence or antiquity, we find 
none which have equal pretensions with those ot HERBCJtus : but this only proves, 
that he succeeded to his authority in the Caucasian provinces, and this is what 
we suspect to have been the case ; for when we observe his superior silver coin- 
age, when we are satisfied that his reign was long, and that his dominions ex- 
tended to the Indus, or beyond thst of Eucratides, we repeat we can scarcely 
believe this powerful prince, and (if we judge from his portrait) beneficent one, 
to have been the parricide of his father, or him who was vanquished by the GetjB. 
The silver coin {No. 16), exhibits a strong resemblance to the silver coin of 
Mbnandsr, (No. 6), as does the bust in form and features ; the legend is also 
similarly arranged. These circumstances may perhaps sanction an inquiry, whe- 
ther Ummmmvb may not have been the son and successor of Menander, depriv- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

24 Memoir on the Ancient Coins of Beghrdm. [Ja**« 

cd of his Caucasian provinces by Eucratides on the death of his father, and 
recovering them after the murder of this prince, during the anarchy that then 
naturally prevailed. It is however more probable, as we have before hinted, that 
Eucratides committed this act of aggression when Menander was still living, 
and this seems corroborated by all the coins of Hermaus found at Beghram 
displaying an aged prince, while the coins before us prove, that he also ruled 
when young ; whence we infer, that he must originally have reigned elsewhere, 
and as we find that his coins are met with very far eastward, we may presume 
that his original seat of empire was in that quarter, and that from thence he 
marched to the Caucasus, when the death of Eucratides allowed him the op* 
portunity t and in confirmation of which we find, that the Beghr&m coins of this 
prince refer to the latter part of his reign. The proportion of his copper coins 
found at Beghram, may also guide us in our estimate of the duration of his reign 
there. Eucratides, we suppose, reigned 24 years ; in 1833, we found 70 of his 
coins, and in 1834, 92, or 162 for 2 years; in 1833, we found of the coins of 
Hermjbus 34, and in 1834, 31, or 65 for 2 years. Now by the common rule of 
three process, if 162 yield 24, 65 will yield 9+, say 10 years for the reign of 
HsRMiBUS at Beghram : but we find that he must have reigned much longer some- 
where else, which seems to verify the inferences we have before drawn ; and as, 
we hope, in Antimachus we have found a son and successor for Euthydemus, 
so we hope that in Hrrmjcus we have discovered the son and successor of Me- 
nander. The difference in the execution of the coins of this prince and of other 
Bactrian kings, as well as the striking diversity in the purity of the Greek cha- 
racters, may perhaps be accounted for by supposing, that the better coins are 
those struck at the metropolitan mints, where Greek artists would be found, and 
that the inferior ones were struck at provincial mints, where, if Greek artists 
were not to be procured, the more expert native ones would be employed. We 
have discussed at some length the merits of the coins of Herm jbus, but let us 
mislead no one ; on subjects so difficult as these Bactrian coins, much is still left 
to conjecture, and at present, little more can be done than to expose the difficul- 
ties that attend them. 

No. 17. (Fig, 10.J Obverse. — Two erect figures, standing to the front, right hands 
holding spears, swords by the side. Legend Greek IA6A2.ATHP02 AIOMHAOT. 
Reverie. — Humped cow. Legend Bactrian. 

This is the type of a single quadrangular copper coin procured this year from 
Beghram, fortunately presenting without doubt in the legend, the nomen and 
cognomen. Diomedes Soter. The monogram on the reverse J*J; is also found 
on the coins of Antimachus and Apollodotus. 

No. 18. Obverte. — Boat, the hair of the head behind, bound into a kind of 
pod resembling a bag- wig. Legend Greek, obscure, but undoubtedly BA2IAE63 
NIKH*OPOT ANTIAAK1AOT. (See vol. iv. PI. XXVI. fig. 10.) 

Rwerte. — Two conical emblems, with two palm branches fixed between them. 
Legend Bactrian. This is a single specimen, (as to the circular form of the coin,) 
procured -this year from Beghram. The coin no doubt refers to the same prince 
whose coins are delineated in figs. 13 and 14, of Series 2, Class Grecian, of my 
last year's memoir. The features of the prince on this coin are much younger than 
those marked on the quadrangular coins, and the monogram varies, being «£» 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

ittHzr. *4*S0C. 

Vol. VFLII- 


Vtweccrded King* of Badria 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Digitized by VjOOQLC 

fee/: AiStC. 

m. T.HM 

Grecian &vu. Unrecorded ^ Kittys tfttadria 

Digitized by VjOOQLC 

****** jw.kpuv: 

Monoqrammual and Symbolical ChasxxcfavofBactriasi/Coins. 

, ***"r<*>" Apoitodvtos Ctpptrcdn, 

t^:c.AMffiA*±% ft. x 

ofJti~r<*~ Mvuuukr tfOpptrOvu 

TKfMEmWiAM. Hf B. MH. fcf. 

* z 3 4* s Autius 

m±n.fkn tt'e 

Hermans I A , , . , 

jdvtrcM** Cff*r&*v AdupncrUs 

IlernuJtiuJI B f sil ^f f 

s 4 2 

Hermans 111 AsoS l 

Antimacfua qf &* Mfsetan Coins 



4 (tfth* Lament, Cwis 


15. Z. A. l|a.;Sp.£ .' 

j: J[ TkMuuLMhtss. laZeutU. 

Digitized by VjOOQLC 

1836.] Memoir on the Ancient Coins of Beghrdtn. 25 

—The characters on the legend are pure Bactrian, as are those on the coins of 
Ausius (Ltsius), figs. 15 and 16, of Series 2, Class Grecian, of last year. 


No. 19. (Fig. 12 .) Obverse.— Bust, with tnft or pod on top of head. Legend 

Reverie. — Horse. Legend Bactrian. 

The type of this coin was given in our memoir of last year (fig. 38). The pre- 
sent year we procured a more perfect specimen from JelalAbad : the coin is cer- 
tainly Bactrian, judging by the chatacters on the legend of the reverse, and the 
pod on the head of the bust, together with the nature of the reverse, seem to 
militate against the opinion, that this coin may represent the quadrangular coin- 
age of Heajlsvs before noticed. 


Nos. 20, 21. (Fig*. 13, \A.) Obverse.— Mounted warrior. Legend Greek, 
BA2IAE42 2IIAATPIOT AIKAIOT AAEA^aPTOT. {See vol. iv. Pl.XXl.fig. 9.) 

Reverse. — Seated female deity, with mace or truncheon in right hand. Legend 

This type was represented last year as fig. 44. Jelalab&d this year yielded two 
fair specimens, from which the Greek legend is undoubtedly as above inserted ; 
the reverse legend is as manifestly Bactrian. 


No. 22. (Fig. lb.) Obverse.— Standing figure with trident in right hand. Legend 
Greek, BA2IAEUJN MErAADT nAAHPKDT. (See vol. iv. PL XXI. fig. 9.) 

Reverse. — Seated figure. Legend Bactrian. 

This type was represented; last year as fig. 40. A more perfect specimen pro- 
cured this year from KAbul, identifies the legend to be as above cited, the word 
BA2IAEUJ2 being undoubtedly the one not plain. 

Basilis (Azilisos.) 

No. 23. (Fig. 16.) Obverse.— Hontmva. Legend Greek.. ..portion legible 

Reverse. — Elephant. Legend Bactrian. 

This is a single specimen procured at Kdbul, the legend entire would probably 
Alouokenou (Qy.) (Megalou Nonou T) 

No. 24. (Fig 17 J Obverse. — Figure of Hercules erect, with club. Legend 
Greek, obscure. (See vol. iv. PL XXI. fig. 1 0.) 

Reverse. — Infantry soldier, holding wreathe in right hand, and armed with 
sword, spear and shield. Legend Bactrian. 

This type was presented last year, as figs. 39 and 43. We have not discovered a 
single coin of this type during the present year, but introduce this figure here 
from the probability, on referring to the specimen we held, that the name of the 
prince was AAOTOKHNOT ; the only doubt is as regards the letters KHN. 

Asou (Azov.) 

No. 25. Obverse. — Horseman. Legend Greek, portion visible BA2IA6A.. .. 
E.. .. AAOT ASOT. (See vol. iv. PL XXII. fig. 9.) 
' Reverse. — Humped cow. Legend Bactrian. 

This is one of two specimens procured at K6bul; the entire legend would 
undoubtedly be BA2IAEA2 BA21AE3N MEfAAOY AJSOT. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

26 Memoir on the Ancient Coins of Beghrdm. [J Alt. 

No. 26. Obverse. —Humped bull, with monogram over the hump, and another 
under the head. Legend Greek, obscure. (See vol. iv. PI. XXII. figs. 1, 2, 3.) 

Reverie. — Monstrous animal, with symbolical monogram over the back. Legend, 
characters doubtful. 

One of three specimens procured at JelaUbad ; the legend is in pure Greek 
characters, and by comparison is undoubtedly BA2IAEH2 BA2IAEHN MErAAOT 
A20T. The characters on the reverse legend I apprehend not to be Bactrian, 
but rather Nysaean. The monograms on these coins vary : one specimen gives the 
form fefl over the hump of the bull, and this coincides with the monogram on 

No. 25, with fftfe over the animal on the reverse : this form occurs on No. 23. 

Unidentified Coin*. 

No. 27. Obverse.— Elephant. Legend defaced. (Vol. iv. PI. XXI. f p. 11.) 

Reverse. — Seated figure with trident. Legend defaced. 

This is a single specimen from K*buL In absence of the legend, it may be 
pronounced Greek. 

No. 28. Obveree. — Rampant lion. Legend Greek, obscure. 

Reveree. — Humped bull. Legend Bactrian. (Omitted by mistake; like Azos coin.) 

This type was represented last year ; the present has afforded no new specimen, 
and we introduce it again, that it may not be lost sight of, and because we sus- 
pect part of the legend to bear the character AHM€*0. We at first inclined to 
read it AHMHTPIOT, but we presume the character €, which is decisively plain, 
will not allow it. 

No. 29. (PL II. fig. 18.) Obveree. — Bust, head bound with fillet or diadem. 
Legend Greek, portion legible OHTOPO. 

Reverse. — Enthroned figure, probably Jupiter. Legend Bactrian. 

This is a single specimen from Beghram, which had nearly given us the name 
of another Greek king, for after the insertion of the word BA2IAEA2, there 
will be only room for one or two letters more, the first O may perhaps be a A. 

No. 30. (Fig. 19.) Obverse. — Helmed bust, bearded. 

Reverse. — Standing figure. Legend, unknown characters. 

This is a single specimen from Beghram ; the characters on the reverse are 
singular, and may have some affinity with those on the coins of Aoathocles 
and Pantaleon. 

No. 31. {Fig. 20.) Obverse. — Bust, head bound with fillet or diadem. Legend 
Greek, but defaced. 

This is a single specimen from Beghram. A fragment of a coin, the reverse 
quite smoothed. 

No. 32. (Fig. 21.) Reverse. ^-Figure erect, legend, unknown characters. 

This is a single specimen from Beghram, the obverse had been hammered 
smooth : the characters, besides being singular, appear to vary on either side of 
the inscription ; those to the right resemble the legends of Aoathocles and 

Class Grecian — Series No. 4. Coins of Nysaean Kings. 

Nos. 33 to 40. (Pigs. 23 to 29.) Obverses.— Busts, head bound with fillet or 
diadem. Legends Greek, but illegible. 

These figures represent the types of the very numerous coins ot this descrip- 
tion found, which have invariably on the reverse an erect figure of Hercules, 
resting on his club. They are given to shew the varieties of the legends, as well 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Memoir on the Ancient Coins of Beohrdm. 27 

■s their incomprehensibility. Of all the coins of thU class those of Hxairaus are 
only intelligible (figs. 24 and 25, of our last year's memoir) t and this prinee seems 
to be entitled to be held the first of the line. From a tope at Jelalebad we 
extracted ten copper coins similar to fig. 40. The princes of this family appear 
to have been numerous. At JeUMid we have fire, if not six topes to be referred 
to them. 

No. 41. (Fif. 30.) Otter**.— Horseman. Legend Greek, but obscure, portion 
risible OAIAIIUI. 

Reverie. — Female figure. Legend Nysssan. 

Single specimen from Kabul. The horseman on the obverse, and the legend 
on the reverse, enable us to teftr this coin to the Greek Nysssan dynasty, but 
the legend is too difficult for interpretation. 

titaet Indo-Scythic—8eriet No». 1 and 2. 

PL III. Fig. 1. Obverve.— Bust of king looking to the right. Sceptre in right 
hand, four-pronged monogram behind the head. Legend Greek BACIAEVC OOH- 

This is one of six golden medals of the same prince, extracted from a tope at 
Gool Durrah near Kabul. The reverse is not git en, in no wise differing from that 
delineated in memoir of last year, fig. 24 of Indo-Scythic eoins. The six medals 
essentially agree ; but as the position of the bust varies, and there are other 
trivial but unimportant differences observable on all of them, they will have 
been struck at various times. 

Fig. 2. Obverse. — Bust of king looking to the left. Sceptre in right hand. 
Legend Greek characters, PAO NANO PAO OOHPKI KOPANO. 

Reverse. — Deity or saint looking to the right, lines of glory around the head, 
four-pronged symbol in front of figure. Legend Greek, NANA. 

This golden medal was found in the same tope with the preceding one and 
the next to be described. The reverse NANA, enables us immediately to iden- 
tify the prince as one of the Kanerkos family. The nature of the legend has been 
so fully displayed in the Journal of the Asiatic Society, that it becomes needless 
to dwell on it. 

Fig. 3. Obverse. — Bust of king looking to the left. Sceptre in right hand. 
Legend Greek, probably same as on preceding coin, portion legible PAOOOKH- 

Reverie. — Figure of Deity of saint looking to the right. Right hand extended, 
four-pronged symbol in front of figure. Legend Greek HIIPO, (? Mitkro.) 

This golden coin found with the preceding ones noted in same tope. 

Fig, 4. Obverve. — Erect figure of prince looking to the left, right hand in set 
of sacrificing upon an altar, left hand holding staff. Legend Greek NANOPAOKA 

Beveree. — Figure of Deity or saint looking to the right, with four-pronged 
Symbol on right hand of, and other in front of, the figure. Legend Greek 

Gold coin purchased in K&bul< the addition of PAO on the obverse legend 
may be noted clearly, from position indicating holy. 

Fig. 5. Obverse. — Helmed bust of prince, looking to the left, head surrounded 
with circles of glory. Sceptre in either hand. Legend Greek PAONANO 

fieeerte.— Figure of Deity or stint standing to the left, circles of glory around 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

28 Quotations from original Sanscrit [Jan. 

the head, right hand extended, four- pronged figure in front of figure. Legend 
Greek 4APO. 

Gold medal'purchased in Kdbul. This coin it interesting from the fine bust on 
the obverse, and from the new legend on the reverse*. 

No. 6. Obverse. — Figure of prince clad in mail, in act of sacrifice, left hand 
supporting tridental staff. Legend characters intended for Greek PONOPOO 
BONOOPOVOBOKO. (See observation* on Kadphises Coins of vol. III.) 

Reverse, — Female figure, standing by side of cow. Legend apparently intend- 
ed for OPNO. 

No. 7. Obverse.— Sune as preceding. Legend probably intended for RAO 

Reverse.— Same as preceding. Legend probably OPNO. (Doubtless OKPO.^ 

These two gold coins were purchased at Kabul. They appear to be the gold 
coins of the prince whose copper coinage is delineated in fig. 12, Indo-Scythie 
coins of last year. , * 

No. 8. Obverse.— Seated figure. Legend Greek, portion legible KOPANO. 

Reverse. — Deity or saint, looking to the right. Four-pronged symbol in front 
of figure. Legend Greek NANA. (See vol. iv. PI. hi. figs. 4, 13.) 

No. 9. Obverse. — Seated figure as in preceding. Legend illegible. (Do. fig. 5.) 

Reverse. — Deity or saint, looking to the left, with wreath in extended right 
hand. Four -pronged symbol in front of figure. Legend not apparent. 

These coins (copper) were procured at Kabul, and introduced because, with 
reference to the seated figure on the obverse, they were of a tvpe different from 
any we met with last year, although they clearly refer to the Kanbrkos family. 

Little need be remarked upon these Indo-Scythic coins, which appear to be 
likely to become more intelligible: suffice it to say, that eight topes in the 
neighbourhood of Kabul, at least, may be referred to princes of these families of 
Kanbrkos and Kadpbis. 

Sassanian Coins. 

At the foot of Plate III. are inserted a few specimens out of the 187 silver 
coins of this class, extracted from the principal Tope of Hiddah, near Jel&ldb&d. 
The majority were small coins, like fig. 6. 


Plate IV. comprises all the varieties of monogram hitherto observed on the 
coins of Apollodotus, Menanobr, Eucratides and their descendants. Most 
of them are at once perceived to be combinations of Greek letters ; but whether 
used as expressive of dates, or as the initials of the die-engraver or mint-master 
of the day, is not yet determined, although that they are the latter seems the 
more probable conjecture. The later symbols on the Indo-Scythic and Leonine 
coins, &c. are of a different class, and do not seem formed from alphabetical 

II. — Quotations from original Sanscrit authorities in proof and illustration 
of Mr. Hodgson's sketch of Buddhism. 
[The following paper has been printed in the Transactions of the London 
Asiatic Society; but, from accidental circumstances to which it is not necessary 
further to allude, somewhat inaccurately. 

• Probably this is a transposition of the letters of A6P0.— Ed. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 

1836.] Authorities on Buddhism. 29 

The shortest way of amending these errors, and supplying at the same time 
tome farther information calculated to make the paper more generally intelligible, 
is to reprint it at Calcutta. This the author has, accordingly, now enabled us 
to do, the new information being given in the shape of additional notes, which 
it would indeed have been scarcely worth while to print separately from the 
text to which they refer. It is not our custom to republish articles already 
printed, and we do so now only under express invitation from the author, whose 
researches in Buddhism, aided by local advantages possessed by no other writer, 
it is of the highest importance to have correctly reported and preserved. — Ed.] 


Several distinguished orientalists having, whilst they applauded the 
novelty and importance of the information conveyed by my Sketch of 
Buddhism*, called upon me for proofs, I have been induced to prepare 
for publication the following translation of significant passages from 
the ancient books of the Sangatas, which still are extant in Nepdl in 
the original Sanscrit. 

These extracts were made for me (whilst I was collecting the worksf 
in question) some years ago by Amirta Nanda Bandya, the most 
learned Buddhist then, or now, living in this country ; they formed the 
materials from which chiefly I drew my sketch ; and they would have 
been long since communicated to the public, had the translator felt 
sufficiently confident of his powers, or sufficiently.assured that enlight- 
ened Europeans could be brought to tolerate the • ingens indigestaque 
moles' of these ' original authorities ;' which however, in the present 
instance, are original in a far higher and better sense than those of 
De Kdaos, or even of Upham. Without stopping to question whether 
the sages who formed the Bauddha system of philosophy and religion 
used Sanscrit or high Prdcrit, or both, or seeking to determine the 
consequent pretension of Mr. Upham's authorities to be considered 
original J, it may be safely said, that those of Mr. De Koros can support 
no claims of the kind. 

♦ Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society of London ; — necnon, Transactions 
of Bengal Society, vol. xri. 

t The collection comprises, besides 60 volumes in Sanscrit, procured in Nepdl, 
the very names of which had previously been unknown, some 250 volumes, in 
the language of Tibet, which were obtained from Lissa and Digarchi. But for 
the existence of the latter at Calcutta, Mr. De KQrGs's attainments in Tibetan 
lore had been comparatively useless. The former or Sanscrit books of Nepdl 
are the authorities relied on in this paper. Since the first collection was made 
in Nepdl, rery many new works in the Sanscrit language have been discovered 
and are yet daily under discovery. The probability now is, that the entire Kahgyur 
and Stangyur may be recovered, in the original language. The whole series has 
been obtained in that of Tibet, 327 large volumes. 

X These authorities however, even if allowed to be original, appear to consist 
entirely of childish legends. I allude to the three published volumes. The 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

80 Quotations from original Sanscrit [Jaw. 

The native works which the latter gentleman relies on are avowedly 
Tibetan translations of my Sanscrit originals, and whoever will duly 
reflect upon the dark and profound abstractions, and the infinite simally- 
multiplied and microscopically- distinguished personifications of Bud- 
dhism, may well doubt whether the language of Tibet does or can 
adequately sustain the weight that has been laid upon it. 

Sanscrit, like its cognate Greek, may be characterised as a speech 
" capable of giving a soul to the objects of sense, and body to the 
abstractions of metaphysics." But, as the Tibetan language can have 
no pretensions to a like power, those who are aware that the Sangatas 
taxed the whole powers of the Sanscrit to embody in words their sys- 
tem, will cautiously reserve, I apprehend, for the Bauddha books still 
extant in the classical language of India, the title of original authorities. 
From such works, which, though now found only in Nepal, were com- 
posed in the plains of India before the dispersion of the sect, I have 
drawn the accompanying extracts ; and though the merits of the 
*' doing into English" may be small indeed, they will yet, I hope, be 
borne up by the paramount and (as I suspect) unique authority and 
originality of my " original authorities," a phrase which, by the way, 
has been somewhat invidiously, as well as laxly used and applied in 
certain quarters. 

received hypothesis is that the philosophers oiAyudhya and Magadha t (tht acknow- 
ledged founders of Buddhism) preferred the use of Sanscrit to that of Pr&erit, 
in the original exposition of their subtle system, appears to me as absurd as it 
does probable that their successors, as Missionaries, resorted to Prlcrit Torsions 
of the original Sanscrit authorities, in propagating the system in the remotest 
parts of the continent and in Ceylon. On this ground, I presume the Pracrit 
works of Ceylon and Ava to be translations, not originals : — a presumption so 
reasonable that nothing but the production from Ceylon or Ara of original 
Pracrit works, comparable in importance with the Sanscrit books discovered in 
Nepal, will suffice to shake it in my mind. Sir W. Jones I believe to be the 
author of the assertion, that the Buddhists committed their system to high 
Pracrit or Pali ; and so long at least as there were no Sanscrit works of the sect 
forthcoming, the presumption was not wholly unreasonable. It is, however, so 
now. And Sir W. Jones was not unaware that Magadha or Bihdr was the 
original head-quarters of Buddhism, nor that the best Sanscrit lexicon extant 
was the work of a Bauddha ; nor that the Brdhmans themselves acknowledged 
the pre-eminent literary merits of their heterodox adversaries. 

But for his Brdhminieal bias therefore, Sir William might have come at the 
truth, that the Bauddha philosophers employed the classical language. 

Sir William was further aware, that the old Bauddha inscriptions of Gay6, 
Sanehi, Carli, &c. are Sanscrit, not Pracrit. To me this last circumstance is 
decisive against the hypothesis in question. Throughout Madhya Des and the 
Upper Deccan, the numerous monuments of the Buddhists bear inscriptions in 
Sanscrit, and Sanscrit only. The Pali inscription at Gay d is recent, and avowedly 
the work of Burmese* [It is chiefly Burmese, not Pali. — Ed.] 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Authorities on Buddhism. 31 

It is still, I observe, questioned amongst us, whether Brdkmanism or 
Buddhism be the more ancient creed, as well as whether the latter be of 
Indian or extra Indian growth. The Buddhists themselves have no 
doubts upon either point. They unhesitatingly concede the palm of 
superior antiquity to their rivals and persecutors the Brdhmans ; nor 
do they in any part of the world hesitate in pointing to India as the 
cradle of their faith. 

Formerly we might be pardoned for building fine-spun theories of 
exotic upon the African locks of Buddha's images : but surely it is 
now somewhat too late*, in the face of the abundant direct evidence 
which we possess, against the exotic theory, to go in quest of presump- 
tions to the time- out- of- mind illiterate Scythians, in order to give to 
them the glory of originating a system built upon the most subtle phi- 
losophy, and all the copious original records of which are inshrined in 
Sanscritf, a language which, whencesoever primevally derived, had been, 
when Buddhism appeared, for ages proper to the Indian continent. 

The Buddhists make no serious pretensions to a very high antiquity : 
never hint at an extra Indian origin. 

Sakya Sinha is, avowedly, Kshetriya ; and, if his six predecessors 
had really any historical existence, the books which affirm it, affirm too, 
that all the six were of Brahmanical or Kshetriya lineage. Sangata 
books treating on the subject of caste never call in question the antique 
fact of a fourfold division of the Hindu people, but only give a more 
liberal interpretation to it than the carrent Brahmanical one of their 
day J. The Chinese, the Mongols, the Tibetans, the Indo-Chinese, the 
Ceylonese and other Indian Islanders, all point to India as the father- 
land of their creed. The records of Buddhism in Nepdl and in Tibet, 
in both of which countries the people and their mother-tongues are of 
the Mongol stock, are still either Sanscrit or avowed translations from 
it by Indian pandits. Nor is there a single record or monument of 
this faith in existence, which bears intrinsic or extrinsic evidence of an 
extra Indian origin}. 

9 Recent discoveries make it more and more certain, that the cave temples of 
the Western Coast and its vicinity, are exclusively Bemddha. Every part of India 
is illustrated by splendid remains of Buddhism. 

t The difference between high Prdcrit and Sanscrit, conld not affect this ques- 
tion, though it were conceded that the founders of Buddhism used the former 
and not the latter — a concession however, which should not be facilely made, 
and to which I wholly demur. 

J See the Bauddha disputation on caste. Royal Asiatic Society's Transactions. 

§ See Crawfurd's remarks on the purely Indian character of all the great 
sculptural and architectural monuments of Buddhism in Java. Also Barrow's 
remarks to the same effect in his travels in China. The Chinese Pusd, is Ft*. 
•crupyd PraJnA or the polyform type of Diva Natura. See Oriental Quarterly 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

32 Quotations from original Sanscrit (Jau. 

The speculations of a writer of Sir W. Jones's day (Mr. Joinvills), 
tending to prove argumentatively, from the characters of Buddhism 
and Brdhmanism, the superior antiquity of the former, have been lately 
revived (see Asiatic Journal No. CLX.) with applause. But besides 
that fine drawn presumptions are idle in the face of such a mass of 
direct evidence as we now possess, the reasonings of Joinville appear 
to me altogether based on errors of fact. Buddhism (to hazard a 
character in few words), is monastic asceticism in morals, philosophical 
scepticism in religion ; and whilst ecclesiastical history all over the 
world affords abundant instances of such a state of things resulting 
from gross abuse of the religious sanction, that ample chronicle gives 
us no one instance of it as a primitive system of belief. Here is a 
legitimate inference from sound premises. But that Buddhism was, in 
truth, a reform or heresy, and not an original system, can be proved by 
the most abundant direct evidence both of friends and of enemies. The 
oldest Sangata works incessantly allude to the existing superstition as 
the Mdrcharya or way of the serpent, contradistinguishing their reform- 
ation thereof as the Bdddhi-charya or way of wise ; and the Brahma* 
nical impugners of those works (who, upon so plain a fact, could not 
lie), invariably speak of Buddhism as a notorious heresy. 

An inconsiderable section of the Sangatas alone, ever held tbe bold 
doctrine of mortal souls : and the Swdbhdvikd denial of a creation of 
matter by the fiat of an absolutely immaterial being springs, not out of 
the obesity of barbarian dulness, but out of the over refinement of 
philosophical ratiocination. Joinville's idea of the speculative tenets 
of Buddhism is utterly erroneous. Many of them are bad indeed : 
but they are of philosophy all compact, profoundly and painfully 
subtle- sceptical too, rather than atheistically dogmatic. 

At the risk of being somewhat miscellaneous in this preface, I must 
allude to another point. The lamented Abel Rem us at sent me, just 
before he died, a copy of his essay on the Sangata doctrine of the Triad ; 
and Mr. Upham, I find, has deduced from Remusat's interpretation of 
that doctrine, the inference (which he supports by reference to sundry 
expressions in the sacred books of Ceylon), that I am in error in deny- 

Magazine, No. xiv. pp. 218 — 222, for proofs of the fact that numberless Baud d ha 
remains have been mistaken for Br&hmanical by our antiquaries, and even by the 
natives. In the same work I have proved this in reference to Crawfurd's Ar- 
chipelago, Oriental Quarterly, No. zvi. pp. 232, 235. 

Yet, no sooner had I shown, from original authorities, bow thoroughly Indian 
Buddhism is, than it was immediately exclaimed 4 oh 1 this is Nep&lese corrup- 
tion ! these are merely popular grafts from BrdhmanUm.' The very same charac- 
ter belongs to the oldest monuments of Buddhism extant, in India and beyond 
it ; and I have traced that character to the highest scriptural authorities. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Authorities on Buddhism. 33 

ing that Buddhism, in its first, and most characteristic form, admits 
the distinction of Clerus et Laicus. It is difficult expressly to define 
that distinction ; but it may be seen in all its breadth in Brdhmanism 
and in Popery ; whilst in lslamism, and in the most enthusiastic of the 
Christian sects, which sprung out of the Reformation, it is wholly lost. 
According to my view, Apostolic Christianity recognised it not* ; the 
congregation of the faithful, the Church, was a society of peers, of 
brethren in the faith, all essentially equal, in gifts, as in place and 
character. On earth, there were no indispensable mediators, no exclu- 
sive professional ones ; and such alone I understand to be priests. 
Again, genuine monachism aH over the world, I hold to be, in its own 
nature, essentially opposed to the distinction of clergyman and layman, 
though we all know that monastic institutions no sooner are rendered 
matters of public law and of extensive popular prevalence, than, ex vi 
necessitatis, the distinction in question is superinduced upon them, by 
the major part of the monks laicising, and the rest becoming clergyf. 

There are limits to the number of those whom the public can support 
in idleness : and whoso would eat the bread of the public must perform 
some duty to the public Yet who can doubt that the true monk, whe- 
ther coenobite or solitary, is he who abandons the world to save his 
own soul ; as the true clergyman is he who mixes with the world to 
save the souls of others P The latter in respect to the people or laics has 
a distinctive function, and, it may be also an exclusive one : the former 
has no function at all. Amongst entirely monastic sects, then, the 
exclusive character of priest is objectless and absurd : and who that has 
glanced an eye over ecclesiastical history knows not that in proportion 
as sects are enthusiastic, they reject and hate, (though nothing tainted 
with monachism) the exclusive pretensions of the clergy ! Whoever 
has been able to go along with me in the above reflections can need only 
to be told that primitive Buddhism was entirely monastic, and of an 
unboundedly enthusiastical genius^, to be satisfied that it did not recog- 
nise the distinction in question. But if, being suspicious of the validity 

* I would not be understood to lay stress on this opinion, which is merely 
adduced to illustrate my argument. 

f History informs us that, soon after monachism supervened upon our holy 
and eminently social religion, there were in Egypt as many monks almost as 
peasants. Some of these monks necessarily laicised, and the rest became clergy. 
The community of the Gotdin*, and several others, of strictly ascetical origin, 
exhibit the same necessary change after the sects had become numerously followed. 

X Its distinguishing doctrine is that finite mind can be enlarged to infinite ; all 
the schools .uphold this towering tenet, postponing all others to it. As for the 
scepticism of the Swabhavikas relative to those transcendent marvels, creation 
and providence, it is sufficient to prove its remoteness from *' flat Atheism,'' aim* 
ply to point to the coexistence of the cardinal tenet first named. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

34 Quotation* from original Sanscrit [Jah. 

of argumentative inferences, he demand of me simple facts, here they 
are In the Sata Sahasrika, Prajna Paramitd, or Bacha Bhagavatt, and 
also in the nine Dharmas (the oldest and highest written authorities), it ib 
affirmed more or less directly, or is clearly deducible from the context, 
in a thousand passages (for the subject is not expressly treated), that the 
only true followers of Buddha are monks, the majority being ccenobitea, 
the rest, solitaries. The fullest enumeration of these followers (BHkk* 
Srdxaka or Srdmana, Chailaka, and Arhata or Arhana or ArhantaJ 
proves them to have been all monks, tonsured, subject to the usual 
vows, (nature teaching to all mankind that wealth, women and power, 
are the grand tempters,) resident in monasteries (ViUr) or in desert*, 
and essentially peers, though of course acknowledging the claims of 
superior wisdom and piety. The true church, the congregation of the 
faithful, is constantly said to consist of such only ; and I am greatly 
mistaken indeed if the church in this sense be synonymous with the 
clergy ; or, if the primitive church of Buddha recognised an absolutely 
distinct body such as we (i. e. Catholics, Lutherans, and Kirkmen) 
ordinarily mean when we speak of the latter. The first mention of an 
exclusive, professional active, minister of religion, or priest, in the 
Bauddha books, is in those of a comparatively recent date, and not of 
scriptural authority. Therein the Vajra Achdrya (for so he is called) 
first appears arrayed with the ordinary attributes of a priest. But his 
character is anomalous, as is that of every thing about him ; and the 
learned Bauddhas of Nepal at the present day universally admit the 
falling off from the true faith. We have in these books, Bhikshm 
Srdvakas, Chailaks, and Sdtya-Vansikas* , bound by their primitive 
rules for ten days (in memory of the olden time) and then released from 
them; tonsured, yet married; ostensibly monks, but really citizens of 

the world. 

From any of the above, the Vajra Achdrya, is drawn indiscriminately ; 
he keeps the keys of the no longer open treasury ; and he is surrounded 

• An inscription at Carli identifies the splendid Salivdhana with the head of 
the Saka tribe, which is that of Sakya Sinha, The Sdkga-Vamkat, or people 
of the race of Sdkga, appeared in Nepdl as refugees from BrdJiman bigotry, some 
time after Buddhum had been planted in these hills. Sdkga is universally allowed 
to hare been the son of king Suddhodana, sovereign of Magadha or Bikdr. He 
is said to have been born in the " A*tha% of Kapila Muni," at Ganga Sdgar, 
according to some ; in Oude, as others say. His birth place was not necessarily 
within his father's kingdom. He may have been born when his father was on 
a pilgrimage to the shrine of the Saint Kapila. Sa'kya died, according to my 
authorities, in Assam, and left one son named Rahula Bhadra. The Sakas were 
Kthetriyaa of the solar line, according to Bauddha authorities : nor is it any 
proof of the contrary that they appear not in the Brahmanical genealogies. See 
note in the sequel. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

9 35.] Authorities om Buddhism. 35 

with untonsured followers, who now present themselves for the first time. 
I pretend not to trace with historical nicety all the changes which 
marked die p rogre s s of Buddhism as a public institute an 1 creed of 
mJQioBB up to the period of the dispersion : but I am well aware, that the 
primitive doctrines were not, because they could not be, rigidly adhered 
to, when what I hold to have been at first the closet speculation of 
some philosophers, had become the dominant creed of large kingdoms. 
That the latter character was, however, assumed by Buddhism in the 
plains of India, long before the dispersion, seems certain ; and, as many 
persona may urge that the thing in question is the dominant public 
institute, not the closet speculation, and that whatever discipline pre- 
vailed before the dispersion must be held for primitive and orthodox, I 
can only observe that the ancient books of the 8a*gatas 9 whilst they 
glance at such changes as I have adverted to, do so in the language of 
censure ; and that upon the whole, I still strongly incline to the opinion 
that genuine or primitive Buddhism (so I cautiously phrased it, origi- 
nally) rejected the distinction of Clerus et Laicus ; that the use of the 
word priest by Upham, is generally inaccurate ; and that the Samgha, 
of the Buddhist triad ought to have been invariably rendered by 
Rbmubat into ' congregation of the faithful' or ' church/ and never into 
' clergy' or ' priesthood.' Rbmusat indeed seems to consider {Observa- 
tions, 28-9, and 32), these phrases as synonymous ; and yet the question 
which their discrimination involves is one which, in respect to our own 
religion, has been fiercely agitated for hundreds of years ; and still, by 
the very shades of that discrimination, chiefly marks the subsisting 
distinction between the various Churches of Christ ! 

Following the authority he has relied on, Mr. Upham was at liberty, 
therefore, to adopt a sense which would consist with my interpretation 
of phrases such as he alluded to, and which, of course, I found copiously 
scattered over the works I consulted. I always rendered them advisedly 
into Bngliflh, so as to exclude the idea of a priesthood, because I had 
previously satisfied myself, by separate inquiry and reflection, that that 
cardinal tenet was repugnant to the genius of the creed, and repudiated 
by its primitive teachers. This important point may have been wrongly 
determined by me ; but assuredly the determination of it upon such 
grounds as Mr. Upham's is perfectly futile. Such words as Arhanta 
and Bandya, (which, by the way, are the correct forms of the Burmese 
Rahatun and the Chinese Bonze J no more necessarily mean, priest, clergy, 
than do the Latin, fideles and milites, as applied to Christianity ; and as 
for the word Sang ha, it is indisputable that it does not mean literally 
priest*, and that it does mean literally congregation. 
• Observation!, p. 29. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

36 Quotations /ram original Sanscrit [J ax. 

If, as Rem us at and Upham appear to insist is the case, every monas- 
tic follower of Buddha be a priest, then Bandya or Bonze* must be 
rendered into English by the word ' clergyman/ But there will still 
remain as much difference between Bandya and Sangha as, in Christian 
estimation, between an ordinary parson of the present day, and one of 
the inspired primitive professors. Of old, the spirit descended upon all 
alike ; and Sangha was this hallowed and gifted congregation. But 
the glory has passed away, and the term been long sanctified and set 
apart* So has, in part, and for similar reasons, the word Arhata, But 
Bandya, as a generic title, and Bhiksku, Srdvaka, and Chailaka, as spe- 
cific ones, are still every-day names of every-day people, priests, if it 
must be so, but, as I conceive, ascetics or monks merely. In the thick 
night of ignorance and superstition which still envelopes Tibet,, the 
people fancy they yet behold J r hat as in the persons of their divine 
Ldmas. No such imagination however possesses the heads of the fol- 
lowers of Buddha in Nepal, Ceylon, or extra Gangetic India ; though 
in the last mentioned country the name Arhata is popularly applied to 
the modern order of the clergy, an order growing there, as in Nepdl, (if 
my opinions be sound) out of that deviation from the primitive genius 
and type of the system which resulted necessarily from its popular dif- 
fusion as the rule of life and practice of whole nations. 

In conclusion I would observe, that, in my apprehension, Rbmusat's 
interpretation of the various senses of the Triadic doctrine is neither 

* The possible meaning of this word has employed in Tain the sagacity of 
sundry critics. In its proper form of Bandya, it is pure Sanscrit, signifying a 
person entitled to reverence, and is derived from Bandana, 

Equally curious and instructive is it to find in the Sanscrit records of Buddhism 
the solution of so many enigmas collected by travellers from all parts of Asia ; 
E. G. Ei.puinstoxe's mound is a genuine Chaitya, and its proper name is 
Manikalaya, or the place of the precious relic. The mound is a tomb temple. 
The ' tumuli eorum Christi altaria' of the poet, is more true of Buddhism than 
even of the most perverted model of Christianity ; the cause being probably the 
same, originally, in reference to both creeds, viz. persecution and martyrdom, 
with consequent divine honours to the sufferers. The Bauddhas, however, have 
in this matter gone a step further in the descending scale of representative 
adoration than the Catholics ; for they worship the mere image of that structure 
which is devoted to the inshrining of the relics of their saints ; they worship the 
architectural model or form of the Chaitya, 

The Chaitya of Sambhu nath in Sepal is affirmed to cover Jyoti rupya 
Swavambhu, or the self-existent, in the form of flame : nor was there ever any 
thing exclusive of theism in the connexion of tomb and temple : for Chaitya* 
were always dedicated to the celestial Buddhas, not only in Nepal, bat in the 
plains of India, as the Chaityas of Sanchi, of Gy&, and of Big, demonstrate. The 
Dhyani Buddhas appear in the oldest monument* of the continent and islands. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1830.} Authorities on Buddhism. 37 

▼ery complete, nor very accurate. In a religions point of view, by the 
first member is understood the founder of the creed, and all who, follow- 
ing his steps, have reached the full rank of a Maha Ydnika Buddha; by 
the second, the law or scriptures of the sect ; and by the third, the 
congregation of the faithful, or primitive church, or body of original 
disciples, or even, any and every assemblage of true, i. e. of conventual 
ascetical observers of the law, past or present. 

In a philosophical light, the precedence of Buddha or of Dharma 
indicates the theistic or atheistic school. With the former, Buddha is 
intellectual essence*, the efficient cause of all, and underived. Dharma 
is material essencef, the plastic cause, and underived, a co-equal by unity 
with Buddha ; or else the plastic cause, as before, but dependent and 
derived from Buddha. Sangha is derived from, ani compounded of, 
Buddha and Dharma, is their collective energy in the state of action ; 
the immediate operative cause of creation, its type or its agent}. With 
the latter or atheistic school, Dharma is Diva natura, matter as the sole 
entity, invested with intrinsic activity and intelligence, the efficient and 
material cause of all. 

Buddha is derivative from Dharma, is the active and intelligent force 
of nature, first put off from it and then operating upon it. Sangha is 
the result of that operation ; is embryotic creation, the type and sum of 
all specific forms, which are spontaneously evolved from the union of 
Buddha with Dharma^. The above are the principal distinctions, others 
there are which I cannot venture here to dwell on. 

With regard to Rbmubat's remark, " ou voit que les trois noms sont 
places but le meme niveau, comme les trois representations des meme 
etres dans les planches de M. Hodgson avec cette difference que sur 
ceHes-ci, Sanaa est a droite, et Dharma a gauche," I may just add, that 
the placing of Sangha to the right is a merely ritual technicality, 
conformable to the pujd of the Dakshindchdrs\\, and that all the philo- 
sophers and religionists are agreed in postponing Sangha to Dharma. 

• Bodhanatmaka iti Buddha, * the intellectual essence is Buddha.' 

t Dharanatmaka iti Dharma, ' the holding, sustaining or containing substance 
is Dharma.* Again, Prakritetwari iti Prajna, ' the material goddess is PrAjna,* 
one of the names of Dharma. The word Prajna is compounded of the intensive 
prefix pra, and jnyana wisdom, or jna to know. It imports the supreme wisdom) 
of nature. Dharma is the universal substratum, is that which supports all form 
and quality in the versatile world. 

X Samudagatmika iti Sangha, ' the multitudinous essence is Sangha .*' multi- 
tude is the diagnosis of the versatile universe, as unity is of that of abstraction. 

§ Prajnaupagtmakang Jaggata. 

R The theistic sects so call themselves, styling their opposites, the Swabhavikas 
and Prajnikas, V&machart. The Pauranikas, too, often designate the Tantrikaa 
by the latter name, which is equivalent to left-handed. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

3 8 Description of the Sivatherium, [J A 

I possess very many drawings exhibiting the arrangement mentioned 
by Rem us at ; but all subservient to mere ritual purposes, and conse- 
quently worthy of no serious attention. The Matantara, or variorum 
text of the pujaris of the present day, displays an infinite variety of 
formulae*, illustrated by corresponding sculptural and pictorial devices, 
embodied in those works, and transferred from them to the walls and 
interior of temples existing all over the valley of Nepal. 
[To be continued.] 

III. — Sivatherium Giganteum, a new Fossil Ruminant Genus , from the 
Valley of the Markunda, in the Sivdlik branch of the Sub-Himdlaynn 
Mountains. By Hugh Falconer, M. D. Superintendent Botanical 
Garden, Sehdranpvr, and Captain P. T. Cautlet, Superintendent 
Dodb Canal. 

fThe fossil here described is of such importance that we make no apology for 
reprinting the following article entire from the outcoming volume of the Physical 
Researches of the Society, having prepared the engraving of the head, so as to servo 
both editions : it should be remarked, in regard to the engraving, that the figure of 
the palate and teeth is on rather a larger scale than the rest. — Ed.] 

The fossil which we are about to describe forms a new accession to 
extinct Zoology. This circumstance alone would give much interest to 
it. But in addition, the large size, surpassing the rhinocreos ; the family 
of Mammalia to which it belongs ; and the forms of structure which it 
exhibits; render the Sivatherium one of the most remarkable of the past 
tenants of the globe, that have hitherto been detected in the more recent 

Of the numerous fossil mammiferous genera discovered and established 
hy Cuvier, all were confined to the Pachydermata. The species belonging 
to other families have all their living representatives on the earth. Among 
the Ruminantia, no remarkable deviation from existing types has hitherto 
been discovered, the fossil being closely allied to living species. The 
isolated position, however, of the Giraffe and the Camelidae, made it 
probable, that certain genera had become extinct, which formed the 
connecting links between those and the other genera of the family, and 
further between the Ruminantia and the Pachydermata, In the Sivathe- 
riumt we have a ruminant of this description connecting the family with 

* See the classified enumeration of the principal objects of Buddha worship 
appended to this paper. Appendix B. 

f We have named the fossil, Sivatherium, from Siva, the Hindu god, and frnpiov 
bellua. The Sicdlik or Sub- Himalayan range of hills, is considered in the Hindu 
mythology, as the LtUiah or edge of the roof of Siva's dwelling in the Himalaya, 
and hence they are culled the Siva-ala or Sib-ala, which by an easy transition of 
sound became the Sew&lik of the English. The fossil has been discovered in a tract 
which may be included in the Sewalik range, and we have given the name of Siva- 
therium to it, to commemorate this remarkable formation so rich in new animals. 
Another derivation of the name of the hills, as explained by the Mahant or High 
Priest at Dehra, is as follows : 

Sewdlik a corruption of Siva-wdla, a name given to the tract of mountains between 
the Jumua and Ganges, from having been the residence of lswara Siva and his son 
Gane's, who under the form of an Elephant had charge of the Westerly portion 
from the village of Dttdhli to the Jumna, which portion is also called Oangaja, gaja 
being in Hindi an Elephant. That portion Eastward from Dudhli, or between that 
village, and Haridwar, is called Deodhar, from its being the especial residence of Deota 
or lswara Siva : the whole tract however between the Jumna and Ganges is called 
Sica-ala f or the habitation of Siva : unde der. Sewdlik. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] « new Fossil Gemu 0/ the Sivdlik range. 39 

the Pachydermata, and at the same time so marked by individual pecu- 
liarities as to be without an analogue in its order. 

The fossil remain of the Sivatherium, from which our description is 
taken, is a remarkably perfect head. When discovered, it was fortunately 
so completely enveloped by a mass of stone, that although it had long been 
exposed to be acted upon as a boulder in a water-course, all the more 
important parts of structure had been preserved. The block mi# ht have 
been passed over, but for an edging of the teeth in relief from it, which 

Save promise of something additional concealed. After much labour, the 
ard crystalline covering of stone was so successfully removed, that the 
huge head now stands out with a couple of horns between the orbits, broken 
only near their tips, and the nasal bones projected in a free arch, high 
above the chaffron All the molars on both sides of the ja v are present 
and singularly perfect. The only mutilation is at the vertex of the 
cranium, where the plane of the occipital meets that of the brow : and 
at the muzzle, which is truncated a little way in front of the first molar. 
The only parts which are still concealed, are a portion of the occipital, 
the zygomatic fossss on both sides, and the base of the cranium over the 
spboeuoid bone. 

The form of the head is so singular and grotesque, that the first glance 
at it strikes one with surprise. The prominent features are— 1st, the great 
size, approaching that of the elephant : 2d, the immense developement and 
width of the cranium behind the orbits: 3d, the two divergent osseous 
cores for horns starting out from the brow between the orbits: 4th, the 
form and direction of the nasal bones, rising with great .prominence out of 
the chaffron, and overhanging the external nostrils in a pointed nrch : 
6th, the great massiveness, width and shortness of the face forward from 
the orbits: 6th, the great angle at which the grinding plane of the 
molars deviates upwards from that of the base of the skull. 

Viewed in lateral profile, the form and direction of the horns, and the 
rise and sweep in the bones of the nose, give a character to the head 
widely differing from that of any other animal. The nose looks something 
like that of the rhinoceros ; but the resemblance is deceptive, and only 
owing to the muzzle being truncated. Seen from in front, the head is some* 
what wedge-shaped, the greatest width being at the vertex and thence 
gradually compressed towards the muzzle ; with contraction only at two 
points behind the orbits and under the molars. The zygomatic arches are 
almost concealed, and nowise prominent : the brow is broad, and flat, and 
swelling laterally into two convexities; the orbits are wide apart, and 
have the appearance of being thrown far forward, from the great produc* 
tion of the frontal upwards. There are no crest or ridges : the surface of 
the cranium is smooth, the lines are in curves, with no angularity. 
From the vertex to the root of the nose, the plane of the brow is in a 
straight line, with a slight rise between the horns. The accompanying 
drawings will at once give a better idea of the form than any description. 

Now in detail of individual parts ; and to commence with the moat 
important and characteristic, the teeth : 

There are six molars on either side of the upper jaw. The third of the 
series, or last milk molar, has given place to the corresponding permanent 
tooth, the detrition of which and of the last molar is well advanced, and 
indicates the animal to have been more than adult. 

The teeth are in every respect those of a ruminant, with some slight 
individual peculiarities. 

The three posterior or double molars are composed of two portions or 
semi-cylinders, each of which incloses, when partially worn down, a double 
crescent of enamel, the convexity of which is turned inwards. The last 
molar, as is normal in ruminants, has no additional complication, like that 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

40 Description of the Sivatkerium, [Jan. 

in the corresponding tooth of the lower jaw. The plane of grinding alopea 
from the outer margin inwards. The general form is exactly that of an 
ox or camel, on a large scale. The ridges of enamel are unequally in 
relief, and the hollows between them unequally scooped. Each semi, 
cylinder has its outer surface, in horizontal section, formed of three salient 
knuckles, with two intermediate sinuses ; and its inner surface, of a 
simple arch or curve. But there are certain peculiarities by which the 
teeth differ from those of other ruminants. 

In correspondence with the shortness of jaw, the width of the teeth is 
much greater in proportion to the length than is usual in the family : the 
width of the third and fourth molars being to the length as 2.84 and 2.3 
to 1.55 and 1.68 inches, respectively : and the average width of the whole 
aeries being to the length as 2.13 to 1.76 inches. Their form is less 
prismatic : the base of the shaft swelling out into a bulge or collar, from 
which the inner surface slopes outward as it rises : so that the coronal 
becomes somewhat contracted : in the third molar, the width at the coronal 
is 1 .93, at the bulge of the shaft 2.24. The ridges and hollows on the 
outer surface descend less upon the shaft, and disappear upon the bulge. 
There are no accessary pillars on the furrow of junction at the inner side. 
The crescentic plates of enamel have a character which distinguishes them 
from all known ruminants : the inner crescent, instead of sweeping in a 
nearly simple curve, runs zig-zag- wise in large sinuous flexures, somewhat 
resembling the form in the Elasmotherium. 

The three double molars differ from each other only in their relative 
states of wearing. The antepenultimate, being most worn, has the 
crescentic plates less curved, more approximate and less distinct: the 
penultimate and last molars are less worn, and have the markings more 

The three anterior or simple molars have the usual form, which holds 
in Ruminantia, a single semi-cylinder, with but one pair of crescents. The 
first one is much worn and partly mutilated : the second is more entire, 
having been a shorter time in use, and finely exhibits the fiexuous curves 
in the sweep of the enamel of the inner crescent : the last one has the sim- 
ple form of the permanent tooth, which replaces the last milk molar : it 
also shews the wavy form of the enamel. 

Regarding the position of the teeth in the jaw ; the last four molars, 
viz. the three permanent and the last of replacement, run in a straight 
line, and on the opposite sides are parallel and equi-distant : the two 
anterior ones are suddenly directed inwards, so as to be a good deal 
approximated. If the two first molars were not thus inflected, the opposite 
lines of teeth would form exactly two sides of a square : the length of the 
line of teeth, and the intervals between the outer surfaces of the four last 
molars, being almost equal, viz. 9.8 and 9.9 inches respectively. 

The plane of detrition of the whole series of molars from rear to front 
is not horizontal, ybut in a slight curve, and directed upwards at a consider, 
able angle with the base of the skull : so that when the head is placed, so 
as to rest upon the occipital condyles and the last molars, a plane through 
these points is cut by a chord along the curve of detrition of the whole 
series of molars at an angle of about 45°. This is one of the marked 
characters about the head : 

Dimensions of the Teeth. Length. Breadth. 

Inches. Inches. 

Last molar right side, — 2.35 

Penultimate do 9.30 2.38 

Antepenultimate do 1.68 2.20 

Last simple molar, . . 1.S5 2.24 

Second do. do 1.70 1.95 

First do. do 1.70 1.90 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] a new Fossil Genus of the GivdWc range. 41 

Outer Inner 

Surfaces. Surfaces. 

Interval between the surfaces of last molar, 9.9 5.5 

Do. do. do. third molar, 9 8 5.5 

Do. do. do. second do 8.4 4.5 

Do. do. do. first do 6.4 3.3 

Space occupied by the line of molars 9.8 inches. 

Bones of the Head and Foes. — Prom the age of the animal to which the 
head had belonged, the bones had become anchylosed at their commis- 
sures, bo that every trace of suture baa disappeared, and their limits and 
connections are not distinguishable. 

The frontal is broad and flat, and slightly concave at its upper half. 
It expands laterally into two considerable swellings at the vertex, and . 
sweeps down to join the temporals in an ample carve ; and with no angu- 
larity. It becomes narrower forwards, to behind the orbits ; and then 
expands again in sending off an apophysis to join with the malar bone, 
and complete the posterior circuit of the orbit The width of the bone 
where narrowest, behind the orbit, is very great, being 16.2 inches. Partly 
between and partly to the rear of the orbits, there arise by a broad base, 
passing insensibly into the frontal, two short thick conical processes. They 
taper rapidly to a point, a little way below which they are mutilated in 
the fossiL They start so erect from the brow, that their axis is perpen- 
dicular to their basement : and they diverge at a considerable angle. From 
their base upwards they are free from any rugosities, their surface being 
smooth and even. They are evidently the osseous cores of two intra- 
orbital horns. From their position and sise they form one of the most 
remarkable features in the head. The connections of the frontal are no- 
where distinguishable, no mark of a suture remaining. At the upper end 
of the bone the skull is fractured, and the structure of the bone is exposed. 
The internal and outer plates are seen to be widely separated, and the 
interval to be occupied by large shells, formed by an expansion of the diploe 
into plates, as in the elephant. The interval exceeds 2| inches in the 
occipital. On the left side of the frontal, the swelling at the vertex, has its 
upper lamina of bone removed, and the cast of the cells exhibits a surface 
of almond-shaped or oblong eminences, with smooth hollows between. 

The temporal is greatly concealed by a quantity of the stony matrix, 
which has not been removed from the temporal fossa. No trace of the 
squamous suture remains to mark its limits and connection with the fron- 
tal. The inferior p ro c e ss es of the bone about the auditory foramen have 
been destroyed, or are concealed by stone. The zygomatic process is long, 
and runs forward to join the corresponding apophysis of the jugalbone, 
with little prominence or convexity. A line produced along it would pass 
in front, through the tuberosities of the maxillaries, and to the rear along 
the upper margin of the occipital condyles. The process is stout and 
thick. The temporal fossa is very long, and rather shallow. It does not 
rise up high on the side of the cranium : it is overarched by the cylinder- 
like sides of the frontal bone. The position and form of the articulating 
surface with the lower jaw are concealed by stone which has not been 

There is nothing in the fossil to enable us to determine the form and 
limits of the parietal bones ; the cranium being chiefly mutilated in 
the region which they occupy. But they appear to have had the same- 
form and character as in the ox : to have been intimately united with 
the occipitais, and to have joined with the frontal at the upper angl* 
of the skull. 

The form and characters of the occipital are very marked. It occu- 
pies a large space, having width proportioned to that of the frontal, and 
considerable height. It is expanded laterally into two alav which cos** 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

42 Description of the Sivatkeriw*, [J an, 

mence at the upper margin of the foramen magnum, and proceed upwards 
and outwards. These al» are smooth, and are hollowed out downwards and 
outwards from near the condyles towards the mastoid region of the tem- 
poral. Their inner or axine margins proceed in a ridge arising from the 
border of the occipital foramen, diverging from each other nearly at right 
angles, and enclose a large triangular fossa into which they descend 
abruptly. This fossa is chiefly occupied by stone in the fossil, but it does 
not appear shallow, and seems a modification of the same structure as in 
the elephant. There is no appearance of an occipital crest or protube- 
rance. The bone is mutilated at the sides towards the junction with the 
temporals. Both here and at its upper fractured margin its structure is 
seen to be formed of large cells with the diploe expanded into plates, and 
the outer and inner laminie wide apart. This character is very marked 
at its upper margin, where its cells appear to join on with those of the 
frontal. The condyles are very large, and fortunately very perfect in the 
fossil; the longest diameter of each is 4.4 inches, and the distance measured 
across the foramen magnum, from their outer angles, is 7.4 inches : dimen- 
sions exceeding those of the elephant. Their form is exactly as in the 
Ruminantia, viz. their outer surface composed of two convexities meeting 
at a rounded angle : one in the line of the long axis, stretching obliquely 
backwards from the anterior border of the foramen magnum ; on the other 
forwards and upwards from the posterior margin, their line of commissure 
being in the direction of the transverse diameter of the foramen. The lat- 
ter is also of large size, its anteroposterior diameter being 2.3 inches, and 
the transverse diameter 2.6 inches. The large dimensions of the foramen 
and condyles must entail a corresponding developement in the vertebra*, 
and modify the form of the neck and anterior extremities. 

The sphenoidal bone, and all the parts along the base of the skull from 
the occipital foramen to the palate, are either removed, or so concealed by 
stone, as to give no characters for description. 

The part of the brow from which the nasal bones commence is not dis- 
tinguishable. The suture connecting them with the frontal is completely 
obliterated : and it is not seen whether they run up into a sinus in that 
bone, or how they join on with it. Between the horns there is a rise in 
the brow, which 6inks again a little forward. A short way in advance of 
a line connecting the anterior angles of the orbits, there is another rise in 
the brow. From this point, which may be considered their base, the nasal 
bones commence ascending from the plane of the brow, at a considerable 
angle. They are broad and well arched at their base, and proceed for- 
ward with a convex outline, getting rapidly narrower, to terminate in a 
point curved downwards, which overhangs the external nostrils. For a 
considerable part of their length they are joined to the maxillaries : 
but forwards from the point where they commence narrowing, their lower 
edge is free and separated from the maxillaries by a wide sinus : so that 
viewed in lateral profile their form very much resembles the upper 
mandible of a hawk, detached from the lower. Unluckily in the fossil, 
the anterior margins of the maxillaries are mutilated, so that the exact 
length of the nasal bone that was free from connection with them cannot 
be determined. As the fossil stands, about four inches of the lower edge 
of the nasals, measured along the curve, are free. The same mutilation 
prevents its being seen how near the incisives approached the nasals, 
with which they do not appear to have been joined. This point is one of 
great importance, from the structure it implies in the soft parts about the 
nose. The height and form of the nasal bones, are the most remarkable 
feature in the head : viewed from above they are seen to taper rapidly 
from a broad base to a sharp point ; and the vertical height of their most 
toavex part above the brow at their base, is 3 J inches. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] a new Fossil Gemot of the Swdlik range. 43 

The form of the maxillaries is strongly marked in two respects : 1st, 
their shortness compared with their great width and depth : 2nd, in the 
upward direction of the line of alveoli from the last molar forwards, 
giving the appearance (with the licence of language intended to convey 
an idea of resemblance without implying more) as if the face had been 
pushed upwards to correspond with the rise in the nasals ; or fixed on at 
an angle with the base of the cranium. The tendency to shortness of the 
jaw was observed in the dimensions of the teeth, the molars being compres- 
sed, and their width exceeding their length to an extent not usual in the 
Ruminantia. The width apart, between the maxillaries, was noticed be- 
fore ; the interval, between the outer surfaces of the alveoli, equalling the 
space in length occupied by the line of molars. The cheek tuberosities 
are very large and prominent, their diameter at the base being 2 inches, 
and the width of the jaw over them being 12.2 inches, whereas at the 
alveoli it is but 9.8 inches. They are situated over the third and fourth 
molars ; and proceeding up from them towards the malar, there is an in. 
distinct ridge on the bone. The infra-orbitary foramen is of large size, 
its vertical diameter being 1.2 inch ; it is placed over the first molar, as in 
the ox and deer tribe. The muzzle portion of the bone is broken off at 
about 2.8 inches from the 1st molar, from the alveolar margin of which, 
to the surface of the diastema, there is an abrupt sink of 1.7 inch. The 
muzzle is here contracted to 5.8 inches, and forwards at the truncated 
part to about 4.1. The palatine arch is convex from rear to front, and 
concave across. No trace of the palatine foramina remains, nor of the 
suture with the proper palatine bones. The sphosno-palatine apophyses 
and all back to the foramen magnum* are either removed or concealed 
in stone. In front, the mutilation of the bone, at the muzzle, does not 
allow it to be seen, how the incisive bones were connected with the maxil- 
laries : but it appears that they did not reach so high on the maxillaries 
as the union of the latter with the nasals. The same cause has rendered 
obscure the connexions of the maxillaries with the nasals, and the depth 
and size of the nasal echancrure or sinus. 

The jucral bone is deep, massive and rather prominent. Its lower 
border falls off abruptly in a hollow descending on the maxillaries : the 
upper enters largely into the formation of the orbit. The posterior orbital 
process unites with a corresponding apophysis of the frontal, to complete 
the circuit of the orbit behind. The zygomatic apophysis is stout and 
thick, and rather flat. No part of the arch, either in the temporal or 
jugal portions, is prominent : the interval between the most salient points 
being greatly less than the hind part of the cranium, and slightly less than 
the width between the bodies of the jugals. 

The extent and form of the lachrymals, cannot be made out, as there 
is no trace of a suture remaining. Upon the fossil, the surface of the la- 
chrymary region passes smoothly into that of the adjoining bones. There 
is no perforation of the lower and anterior margin of the orbit by lachry- 
mary foramina, nor any hollow below it indicating an infra-orbital or 
lachrymary sinus. It may be also added, what was omitted before, that 
there is no trace of a superciliary foramen upon the frontal. 

The orbits are placed far forwards, in consequence of the great pro- 
duction of the cranium upwards, and the shortness of the bones of the face. 
Their position is also rather low, their centre being about 3.6 inches 
below the plane of the brow. From a little injury done in chiseling off 
the stone, the form or circle of the different orbits does not exactly cor- 
respond. In the one of the left side, which is the more perfect, the long 

* With the exception of a portion of the basilar? region, which resembles that of 
the Ruminants. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

44 Description of the Sivatherium, [Jan. 

axis makes a small angle with that of the plane of the brow : the antero- 
posterior diameter is 3.3 inches, and the vertical 2.7 inches. There is no 
prominence or inequality in the rim of the orbits, as in the Ruminantia. 
The plane of the rim is very oblique : the interval between the upper or 
frontal margins of the two orbits being 12.2 inches, and that of the lower 
or molar margin 16.2 inches. 

* Dimension* of the Skull of the Sivatherium Oiganteum. 

Eng. Inches. Mitres. 
From the anterior margin of the foramen magnum to the alveolus of 

1st molar, 18.85 .478 

From do. to the truncated extremity of the muzzle, 20.6 .5908 

From do. to the posterior margin of the last molar, 10.3 .969 

From the tip of the nasals to the upper fractured margin of the cra- 
nium, • 18.0 .4568 

From do. do. to do. along the curve, 19.0 .4828 

From do. do. along the curve, to where the nasal arch begins to 

rise from the brow, 7.8 .198 

From the latter point to the fractured margin of the cranium, .... 11.* .284 

From the tip of the nasals to a chord across the tips of the horns,. . 8.5 .216 

From the anterior angle, right orbit, to the first molar, 9.9 .251 

From the posterior do. do. to the fractured margin of the cranium, 12.1 .3075 
Width of cranium at the vertex (mutilation at left side restored), 

about 22.0 .559 

Do. between the orbits, upper borders, 12.2 .3095 

Do do. lower borders, 16.2 .4103 

Do. behind the orbits at the contraction of the frontal, 14.6 .3705 

Do. between the middle of the zygomatic arches, 16.4 .4168 

Do. between the bodies of the malar bones, 16.62 .422 

Do. base of the skull behind the mastoid processes (mutilated on 

both sides) , 1 9.5 .496 

Do. between the cheek tuberosities of the mamillaries, 12.2 .3095 

Do. of muzzle portion of the mamillaries in front of the first molar, 5.8 .149 

Do. of do. where truncated (partly restored), 4 1 .104 

Do. between the outer surfaces of the horns at their base, 12.5 .312 

Do... do do. fractured tips of ditto, 13.65 .347 

Perpendicular from a chord across tips of do. to the brow, 4.2 .165 

Depth from the convexity of the occipital condyles to middle of fron- 
tal behind the horns, 11.9 .302 

Do. from the body of the sphcenoidal to do. between the horns,. . . . 9.94 .252 
Do. from middle of the palate between the 3rd and 4th molars do. at 

root of the nasals, 7.52 .192 

Do. from posterior surface last molar to extremity of the nasals, . . 13.0 .331 
Do. from grinding surface penultimate molar to root of the nasals, 10.3 .262 
Do. from the convexity near the tip of the nasals to the palatial sur- 
face in front of the first molar, 5.53 .14 

Depth from middle of the alse of the occipital to the swell at vertex 

of frontal, 8.98 .228 

Do. from inferior margin of the orbit to grinding surface Sth molar, 7.3 .186 
Do. from the grinding surface 1st molar to edge of the palate in 

front of it, 2.6 .066 

Space from the anterior angle of orbit to tip of the nasals, 10.2 .2595 

A atero -posterior diameter left orbit, 3.3 .084 

Vertical do. do 2.7 .0685 

An tero -posterior diameter of the foramen magnum, 2.3 .058 

Transverse do. do 2.6 .066 

Long diameter of each condyle, 4.4 .112 

Short or transverse do. of do 2.4 .0603 

Interval between the external angles of do. measured across the 

foramen, 7.4 .188 

Among n quantity of bones collected in the neighbourhood of the spot 
in which the skull was found, there is a fragment of the lower jaw of a 
very large ruminant, which we have no doubt belonged to the Sivatherium: 

* To facilitate comparison with the large animals described in Coyik&'s Osse- 
men Fossilcs, the dimensions are also given in French measure. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] a new Fossil Genus of the SivdHk range. 45 

and it is even not improbable that it came from the same individual with 
the head described. It consists of the hind portion of the right jaw, broken 
off at the anterior third of the last molar. The coronoid apophysis, the 
condyle, with the corresponding part of the ramus, and a portion of the 
angle are also removed. The two posterior thirds only, of the last molar 
remain ; the grinding surface partly mutilated, but sufficiently distinct to 
show the crescentic plates of enamel, and prove that the tooth' belonged to 
a ruminant. The outline of the jaw in vertical section, is a compressed 
ellipse, and the outer surface more convex than the inner. The bone 
thins off, on the inner side towards the angle of the jaw, into a large and 
well marked muscular hollow : and running up from the latter, upon the 
ramus towards the foramen of the artery, there is a well defined furrow, as 
in the Ruminantia. The surface of the tooth is covered with very small 
rugosities, and stris, as in the upper molars of the head. It had been 
composed of three semi-cylinders, as is normal in the family, and the 
advanced state of its wearing proves the animal from which it proceeded 
to have been more than adult. 

The form and relative proportions of the jaw agree very closely with 
those of the corresponding parts of a buffalo. The dimensions compared 
with those of the buffalo and camel are thus : 

Sivatherium. Buffalo. Camel. 
Depth of the jaw from the alveolus last molar,. . . . 4.95 inch. 2.65 inch. 3.70 inch. 

Greatest thickness of do 3.3 1.05 1.4 

Width of middle of last molar 1 .35 0.64 0.76 

Length of posterior fd of do 2.15 0.95 1.15 

No known ruminant, fossil or existing, has a jaw of such large size ; 
the average dimensions above given being more than double those of a 
Buffalo, which measured in length of head 19.2 inches (.489 metres) ; and 
exceeding those of the corresponding parts of the rhinoceros. We have 
therefore no hesitation in referring the fragment to the Sitatherium 

The above comprises all that we know regarding the osteology of the 
head from an actual examination of the parts. We have not been so for. 
tunate hitherto, as to meet with any other remain, comprising the anterior 
part of the muzzle either of the upper or lower jaw*. We shall now pro- 
ceed to deduce the form of the deficient parts, and the structure of the 
head generally, to the extent that may be legitimately inferred, from the 
data of which* we are in possession. 

Notwithstanding the singularly perfect condition of the head, for an 
organic remain of such enormous size, we cannot but regret the mutilation 
at the muzzle and vertex, as it throws a doubt upon some very interesting 
points of structure in the Sivatherium : 1 st, the presence or absence of 
incisive and canine teeth in the upper jaw, and their number and character 
if present ; 2nd, the number and extent of the bones which enter into the 
basis of the external nostrils ; and 3rd, the presence or absence of two 
horns on the vertex, besides the two intra-orbital ones. 

* In a note received from Captain Cadtley while this paper is in the press, that 
gentleman mentions the discovery of a portion of the skeleton of a Sivatherium in 
another part of the hills: See Journal As. Soe. Vol. IV. " During my recent trip 
to the Siw&likt near the PinjOr valley, the field of Messrs. Baker and Durand's 
labours, I regretted much my inability to obtain the dimensions of one of the most 
superb fossils I suppose that ever was found. It was unfortunately discovered and 
exeavated by a party of work people employed by a gentleman with whom 1 was 
unacquainted ; and although I saw the fossil when in the rock, I was prevented from 
getting the measurements afterwards. This specimen appeared to consist of the 
Femur and tibia, with the tarsal, metatarsal, and phalanges of our Sivatherium." It 
is much to be regretted that such an opportunity should have been lost of adding to 
the information already acquired of this new and gigantic Ruminant.— Sec. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

46 Description of the Sivathetium, [JaK. 

Regarding the first point, we have nothing sufficient to guide us with 
certainty to a conclusion, as there are ruminants both with and without 
incisives and canines in the upper jaw; and the Si vatherium differs most 
materially in structure from both sections. But there are two conditions 
of analogy which render it probable that there were no incisives. 1. In all 
ruminants which have the molars in a contiguous and normal series, and 
which have horns on the brow, there are no incisive teeth. In the camel 
and its congeners, where the anterior molars is unsymmetrical and separat- 
ed from the rest of the series by an interval, incisives are present in the 
upper jaw. The Si vatherium had horns, and its molars were in a conti- 
guous series : it is therefore probable that it had no incisives. Regarding 
the canines there is no clue to a conjecture, as there are species in the same 
genus of ruminants both with and without them. 2. The extent and 
connections of the incisive bones are points of great interest, from the kind 
of developement which they imply in the soft parts appended to them. 

In most of the horned ruminantia, the incisives run up by a narrow 
apophysis along the anterior margins of the maxillary bones, and join on 
to a portion of the sides of the nasals ; so that the bony basis of the exter- 
nal nostrils is formed of but two pairs of bones, the nasals and the incisives. 
In the camel, the apophyses of the incisives terminate upon the maxilla, 
ries without reaching the nasals, and there are three pairs of bones to the 
external nostrils, the nasals, maxillaries and incisives. But neither in 
the homed ruminants, nor in the camel and its congeners, do the bones of 
the nose rise out of the plane of the brow with any remarkable degree of 
saliency, nor are their lower margins free to any great extent towards the 
apex. They are long slips of bone, with nearly parallel edges, running 1 
between the upper borders of the maxillaries, and joined to the ascending 
process of the incisive bone, near their extremity, or connected only with 
the maxillaries ; but in neither case projecting so as to form any consider, 
able re-entering angle, or sinus, with these bones. 

In our fossil, the form and connections of the nasal bones, are very 
different. Instead of running forward in the same plane with the brow, 
they rise from it at a rounded angle of about 130°, an amount of saliency 
without example among ruminants, and exceeding what holds in the rhi- 
noceros, tapir, and palaootherium, the only herbivorous animals with this 
sort of structure. Instead of being in nearly parallel slips, they are broad 
and well arched at their base, and converge rapidly to a sharp tip, which is 
hooked downwards, over-arching the external nostrils. Along a consider- 
able portion of their length they are unconnected with the adjoining bones, 
their lower margins being free and so wide apart from the maxillaries, as 
to leave a gap or sinus of considerable length and depth in the bony 

fiarietes of the nostrils. The exact extent to which they are free, is un- 
uckily not shown in the fossil, as the anterior margin of the maxillaries is 
mutilated on both sides, and the connection with the incisives destroyed. 
But as the nasal bones shoot forward beyond the mutilated edge of the 
maxillaries, this circumstance, together with their well defined outline and 
symmetry on both sides of the fossil, and their rapid convergence to a 
point with some convexity, leaves not a doubt that they were free to a 
great extent and unconnected with the incisives. 

Now to determine the conditions in the fleshy part*, which the structure 
in the bony parietes of the nostrils entails. 

The analogies are to be sought for in the ruminantia and pachydermata. 

The remarkable saliency of the bones of the nose, in the Sivatherium, 
has no parallel, in known ruminants, to guide us ; and the connection of the 
nasals with the incisives, or the reverse, does not imply any important 
difference in structure in the family. In the Bovine section, the Ox and 
the Buffalo have the nasals and incisives connected : whereas they are 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1636.] a new Fossil Genus of the Sivdlik range. 47 

separate in the Yik* and Aurochs. In the Camel, they are also separate, 
and this animal has greater mobility in the upper lip than is found in other 

In the Pachydermata, both these conditions of structure are present 
and wanting in different genera ; and their presence or absence is accom- 
panied with very important differences in tne form of the corresponding 
soft parts. It is therefore in this family that we are to look for an expla- 
nation of what is found in the Sivatherium. 

In the Elephant and Mastodon, the Tapir, Rhinoceros, and Palaeothe- 
rium, there are three pairs of bones to the external nostrils ; the nasals, 
the maxillaries, and incisivest. In all these animals, the upper lip is 
highly developed, so as to be prehensile, as in the Rhinoceros, or extended 
into a trunk, as in the Elephant and Tapir ; the amount of developement 
being accompanied with corresponding difference in the position and form 
of the nasal bones. In the Rhinoceros, they are long and thick, extending 
to the point of the muzzle, and of great strength to support the horns of 
the animal : and the upper lip is broad, thick, and very mobile, but little 
elongated. In the Elephant, they are very short, and the incisives enor- 
mously developed for the insertion of the tusks, and the trunk is of great 
length. In the Tapir, they are short and free, except at the base, and pro- 
jected high above the maxillaries ; and the structure is accompanied by a 
well developed trunk. In the other Pachydermatous genera, there are but 
two pairs of bones to the external nostrils, the nasals and the incisives : 
the latter running up so as to join on with the former ; and the nasals, 
instead of being short and salient, with a sinus laterally between them and 
the maxillaries, are long, and run forward, united to the maxillaries, more 
or less resembling the nearly parallel slips of the Ruminantia. Of this 
genera, the Horse has the upper lip endowed with considerable mobility ; 
and the lower end of the nasals is at the same time free to a small extent. 
In all the other genera, there is nothing resembling a prehensile organ in 
the upper lip. 

In the Sivatherium, the same kind of structure holds, as is found in the 
Pachydermata with trunks. Of these it most nearly resembles the Tapir. 
It differs chiefly in the bones of the nose being larger and more salient 
from the Chaffron ; and in there being less width and depth to the naso- 
maxillary sinus, than the Tapir exhibits. But as the essential points of 
structure are alike in both, there is no doubt that the Sivatherium was 
invested with a trunk like the Tapir. 

This conclusion is further borne out by other analogies, although more 
indirect than that afforded by the nasal bones. 

1st.— The large size of the infra-orbitary foramen. In the fossil, the 
exact dimensions are indistinct, from the margin having been injured in 
the chiseling off of the matrix of stone : the vertical diameter we make 
oat to be 1.2 inch, which perhaps may be somewhat greater than the truth ; 
but any thing approaching this site, would indicate a large nerve for 
transmission, and a highly developed condition of the upper lip. 

2nd. — The external plate of the bones of the cranium is widely separated 
from the inner, by an expansion of the diploe in vertical plates, forming 
large cells, as in the cranium of the Elephant : and the occipital is ex- 

Snded laterally into alas, with a considerate hollow between, as in the 
ephant. Both these conditions are modifications of structure, adapted 
for supplying an extensive surface for muscular attachment, and imply a 
thick fleshy neck, with limited range of motion ; and, in more remote 
sequence, go to prove the necessity of a trunk. 

♦ Cuvier. Otsemens Fouiles, tooie iv. p. 131. 
t Covier. Ostemeos Fotsiles, tomt Ui. p. 39. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

48 Description of the Sivatherium, [Jak. 

3rd. — ^The very large size of the occipital condyles, which are greater 
both in proportion, and in actual measurement, than those of the Elephant, 
the interval between their outer angles, taken across the occipital foramen, 
being 7.4 inches. 1'he atlas, and the rest of the series of cervical verte- 
brae, must have been of proportionate diameter to receive and sustain the 
condyles, and surrounded by a large mass of flesh. Both these circum- 
stances would tend greatly to limit the range of motion of the head and 
neck. But to suit the herbivorous habits of the animal, it must have had 
some other mode of reaching its food; or the vertebra? must have been 
elongated in a ratio to their diameter, sufficient to admit of free motion to 
the neck. In the latter case, the neck must have been of great length, and 
to support it and the load of muscles about it, an immense developement 
would be required in the spinal apophysis of the dorsal vertebrae, and in 
the whole anterior extremity, with an unwieldy form of the body generally. 
It is therefore more probable that the vertebrae were condensed, as in the 
Elephant, and the neck short and thick, admitting of limited motion to the 
head : circumstances indirectly corroborating the existence of a trunk. 

4th. — The face is short, broad, and massive, to an extent not found in 
the Ruminantia, and somewhat resembling that of the Elephant, and suit- 
able for the attachment of a trunk. 

Next with regard to the horns: — 

There can be no doubt, that the two thick, short, and conical processes 
between the orbits, were the cores of horns, resembling those of the 
Bovine and Antilopine sections of the Ruminantia. They are smooth, and 
run evenly into the brow without any burr. The horny sheaths which 
they bore, must have been straight, thick, and not much elongated. None 
of the bicorned Ruminantia have horns placed in the same way, exactly 
between and over the orbits : they have them more or less to the rear. 
The only ruminant which has horns similar in position is the four.horned 
Antelope* of Hindustan, which differs only in having its anterior pair of 
horns a little more in advance of the orbits, than occurs in the Sivatherium. 
The correspondence of the two at once suggest the question, " had the 
Sivatherium also two additional horns on the vertex ?" The cranium in 
the fossil is mutilated across at the vertex, so as to deprive us of direct 
evidence on the point, but the following reasons render the supposition at 
least probable : 

1st. — As above stated, in the bi-cavicorned Ruminantia, the osseous cores 
are placed more or less to the rear of the orbits. 

2nd. — In such known species as have four horns, the supplementary pair 
is between the orbits, and the normal pair well back upon the frontal. 

3rd. — In the Bovine section of Ruminantia, the frontal is contracted 
behind the orbits, and upwards from the contraction, it is expanded again 
into two swellings, at the lateral angles of the vertex, which run into the 
bases of the osseous cores of the horns. This conformation doed not exist 
in such of the Ruminantia as want horns, or as have them approximated on 
the brow. It is present in the Sivatherium. 

On either supposition, the intra-orbitary horns are a remarkable feature 
in the fossil : and if they were a solitary pair on the head, the structure, 
from their position, would perhaps be more singular, than if there had 
been two additional horns behind. 

Now to estimate the length of the deficient portion of the muzzle, and 
the entire length of the head : — 

In most of the Ruminantia, where the molars are in a contiguous unin- 
terrupted series, the interval from the first molar to the anterior border of 
the incisive bones is nearly equal to the space occupied by the molars ; in 
some greater, in some a little less, and generally the latter. In other 
• The Tetracerus or Antilope Quadricornit and* Chekara of authors. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by LrOOQ IC 


ft -hid ly jaj CMt'**t/i /••» ri™*"*j4 f y Cjtt Coatftv 

Digitized by VjOOQLC 


Plate I. 

>./., -.-^ .\ vr 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 

Digitized by VjOOQLC 

1836.] a new Fossil Genus of the Sivdlik range. 40 

Ruminautia, such as the Camelida, where the anterior molars are insym- 
metrical with the others, and separated from them by being placed in the 
middle of the diasteme, this ratio does not hold ; the space from the first 
molar to the margin of the incisives being less than the line of molars. In 
the Sivatherium, the molars are in a contiguous series, and if on this ana- 
logy we deduce the length of the muzzle, we get nearly 10 inches for the 
space from the first molar to the point of the incisives; and 28.85 inches 
for the whole length of the head, from the border of the occipital foramen 
to tbe margin of the incisives ; these dimensions may be a little excessive, 
but we believe them not to be far out, as the muzzle would still be short 
for the width of the face, in a ruminant. 

The orbits next come to be considered. The size and position of the 
eye form a distinguishing feature between the Ruminantia and the Pachy. 
dermata. In the former, it is large and full, in the latter, smaller and sunk* 
en ; and the expression of the face is more heavy in consequence. In the 
Sivatherium the orbit is considerably smaller in proportion to the size of 
the head than in existing ruminants. It is also placed more forward in the 
face, and lower under the level of the brow. The rim is not raised and 
prominent, as in the Ruminantia, and the plane of it is oblique : the inter, 
val between the orbits at their upper margin being 12.8 inches, and at the 
lower, 16.2 inches. The longitudinal diameter exceeds the vertical in the 
ratio of 6 to 4 nearly, the long axis being nearly in a line from the naso- 
maxillary sinus across the hind limb of the zygomatic circle. From the 
above we infer that the eye was smaller and less prominent than in ex- 
isting ruminants : and that the expression of the face was heavier and 
more ignuble, although less so than in the Pachydermia, excepting the 
horse ; also that the direction of vision was considerably forwards, as well 
as lateral, and that it was cut off towards the rear. 

This closes what we have been led to infer regarding the -organs of the 
head. With respect to tbe rest of the skeleton, we have nothing to offer, 
as we are not at present possessed of any other remains which we can with 
certainty refer to the Sivatherium*. Among a quantity of honest collected 
from the same neighbourhood with the head fossil, there are three singu- 
larly perfect specimens of the lower portions of the extremities of a large 
ruminant, belonging to three legs of one individual. They greatly ex- 
ceed the size of any known ruminant, and excepting the Sivatherium 
Giganteum, there is no other ascertained animal of the order, in our col- 
lection, of proportionate size to them. We forbear from further noticing 
them at present, as they appear small in comparison for our fossil : and 
besides, there are indications in our collection, in teeth and other remains, 
of other large ruminants, different from the one we have described. 

The form of the vertebra?, and more especially of the carpi and tarsi, 
are points of great interest, to be ascertained ; as we may expect modifi- 
cations of the usual type adapted to the large size of the animal. From 
its bulk and armed head, few animals could be strong enough to contend 
with it, and we may expect that its extremities were constructed more to 
give support, than for rapidity of motion. But, in the rich harvest which 
we still hope to reap in the valleys of the Markanda, it is probable that 
specimens to illustrate the greater part of the osteology of the Sivatherium 
will at no very distant period be found. 

• See Note to page 17.— Sec 

f We note here a very perfect cervical vertebrae of a Ruminant in our possession, 
which most have belonged to an animal of proportions equal to that of the Sivathe- 
rium, but from certain characters, we are inclined to suspect that it is allied to some 
other gigantic species of Ruminant, of the existence of which we have already 
tolerable certainty. Of the existence of the Elk, and a species of Camel idee, Lieut. 
Bakkr of the Engineers has shewn us ample proof. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

50 Description of the Sivatherium, $c. [Jan. 

The structure of the teeth suggests an idea regarding the peculiarities 
of the herbivorous habits of the animal. In the description it was noticed 
that the inner central plate of enamel ran in a flezuous sweep, somewhat 
resembling what is seen in the Elasmotherium, an arrangement evidently 
intended to increase the grinding power of the teeth. It may hence be 
inferred, that the food of the Sivatherium was less herbaceous than that 
of existing horned ruminants, and derived from leaves and twigs : or that 
as in the horse, the food was more completely masticated, the digestive 
organs less complicated, the body less bulky, and the necessity of regur- 
gitation from the stomach less marked than in the present Ruminantia. 

The following dimensions, contrasted with those of the Elephant and 
Rhinoceros, will afford a tolerably accurate idea of the size of the Siva- 
therium. They are characteristic, although not numerous : — 

Indian \ -horned 
Elephant. Sivatherium. Rhinoceros. 
From margin of foramen magnum to the first 

molar, 33.10 inch. 18.85 inch. 24.9 inch. 

Greatest width of the cranium, 26.0 22.0 12.05 

Do. do. of face between the malar bones,.... 18.5 16.92 9.20 

Greatest depth of the skull, 17.80 11.9 1105 

Long diameter of the foramen magnum, .... 2.55 2.6 2.6 

Short do do do 2.4 2.S 1.6 

Average of the above, 15.06 12.38 10.22 

If the view which we have taken of the fossil be correct, the Sivathe- 
rium was a very remarkable animal, and it tills up an important blank in 
the interval between the Ruminantia and Pachydermata. That it was a 
ruminant, the teeth and horns most clearly establish ; and the structure 
which we have inferred of the upper lip, the osteology of the face, and the 
size and position of the orbit, approximate it to the Pachydermata. The 
circumstance of any thing approaching a proboscis is so abnormal for a ru- 
minant, that at the first view, it might raise a doubt, regarding the correct- 
ness of the ordinal position assigned to the fossil ; but when we inquire 
further, the difficulty ceases. 

In the Pachydermata, there are genera with a trunk, and others with- 
out a trace of it. This organ is therefore not essential to the constitution 
of the order, but accidental to the size of the head, or habits of the animal 
in certain genera. Thus in the Elephant, nature has given a short neck 
to support the huge head, the enormous tusks and the large grinding 
apparatus of the animal ; and by such an arrangement, the construction of 
the rest of the frame is saved from the disturbance which a long neck 
would have entailed. But as the lever of the head became shortened, some 
other method of reaching its food became necessary ; and a trunk was 
appended to the mouth. We have only to apply analogous conditions to a 
ruminant, and a trunk is equally required. In fact, the Camel exhibits a 
rudimentary form of this organ, under different circumstances. The upper 
lip is cleft; each of the divisions is separately movable and extensible, 
so as to be an excellent organ of touch. 

The fossil was discovered near the Markanda river, in one of the small 
valleys which stretch between the Kydrda-d&n and the valley of Piiy6r t in 
the Sivdlik or sub-Himalayan belt of hills, associated with bones of the 
fossil Elephant, Mastodon, Rhinoceros, Hippopotamus, &c. So far as our 
researches yet go, the Sivatherium was not numerous. Compared with the 
Mastodon and Hippopotamus, ( H. SivdienHs, Nobis, a new species cha- 
racterized by having six incisors in either jaw ;) it was very rare. 
Northern Dodb, Sept. 15, 1835. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Horary Observations of the Barometer, £c. 


IV. — Horary Observations of the Barometer, Thermometer, and Wet-bulb 

Thermometer, made at Calcutta on the 21 st and 22nd of December, 

1835, by Mr. H. Barrow, Astr. and Math. Inst. 'maker to the H. C. 

[Having ourselves inadvertently omitted the hourly observations appointed 
by the Meteorological Association at the Cape to be taken on the above day, 
we are most happy in being sble to supply the omission from Mr. Barrow's 
register. As the Barometer registered monthly at the Assay office stands .014 
higher than Mr. B. T s T that quantity must be added to the Bar. indications at 32° 
(in coL 7) to produce an accordance. — Ed.] 

The barometer and wet-bulb thermometer were in a large room to 

the north, the doors and windows of which were open during the whole 

time. In the reductions* '030 has been used as the constant for capili- 

ary attraction, and it is only necessary to add that the barometer is of 

the mountain construction, with a screw at the bottom to bring the 

surface of the mercury to zero. 

(Calcutta mean 

ft me.) 

Attach- 1 







ed Thcr- Wet-bulb 


ter re- 

of Wet- 













to 32°. 


s g 

21 Dec. 

6 A.M. 







H. B. 







E. B. 








(I. U. 






































































































































E. B. 






















11. B. 
































63,0 | 75,0 






63,0 75,3 































* Of column 3, but not of column 7, which is fortunate, as we do not apply 
any correction for capillarity in our own register. — Ed. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 


V. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 
Wednesday Evening, the 6th January, 1836. 
The Honorable Sir Edward Ryan, President, in the chair. 
Sir Charles D'Oyly, Bart. ; E. A. Blundell, Esq. and Dr. H. Fal- 
coner, proposed at the last meeting- were duly elected members. 

The meeting then proceeded to the annual election of office-bearers, 
when by scrutiny of names, 

The Rev. Dr. Mill, W. H. Macnaohten, E9q. Sir J. P. Grant, and 
Sir B. Malkin, were chosen Vice-Presidents for the ensuing year; and 
Messrs. H. T. Prinsep, J, R. Colvin, C. E. Trbvelyan, C. H. Cameron, 
D. Hare, Ram Comul Sen, Captains Forbes and Pemberton, and Dr. 
Pearson, members of the Committee of Papers. 

The Secretary communicated the results of the past year's proceedings, 
The Dumber of new members added to the list in 1835 had been, 

Ordinary members, 28 

Associate members, 4 

Honorary members, 5 

The loss by death, one; by departure to Europe, three ; and with- 
drawal, one; in all, 5 

The financial operations of the year were as follows : — 


To House Establishment and con- 
tingencies from 1st Nov. 1834* to 

30th Nov. 1835, ~ 

To Salary of Curator, and Museum 
contingent, from 1st May to 30th 

Nov. 1835, 

To Copies of the Journal supplied 

to members to 31st Dec. — -~-.~ 

To Printing 500 copies of Index, - 

To Ditto, 400 ditto, catalogue of 

Library Asiatic Society,. ...~~~~ 

To Binding charges, ~~~ 

To Building Repairs, ~ . «~ 

To Purchase of a Cabinet, ~~~~~ 
To Balance in Bank of Bengal, ~~ 

R. A. P. 
2.868 8 10 

1,478 3 4 


480 10 
1,175 8 
380 15 

Sa, Rs. 8,998 14 1 

By Balance of last year's account, 

By Quarterly Collections and ad- 
mission fees, realised ,~~~~«._«. 

By two Dividends on the estate of 
Mackintosh and r«v ., , , , , „, ,...,.., 

By Sale of Researches, „.. 

R. if. P. 
3,101 10 4 


717 12 
22 7 

Sa. Rs. 8,996 14 

Subscriptions due (partly irrecover- R. A. P. 

able,) 2,436 A 

Interest of Govt. Paper not drawn, 1,417 111 
thus leaving an available balance, without encroaching on the capital stock, of 
about 3,000 rupees to meet the ezpences of the current year, besides the quar- 
terly subscriptions, which by a resolution of the 6th November will henceforth 
be collected in Company's rupees. 

The separate account of the publication of Oriental works from the date of 
their transfer from the Committee of Public Instruction was as follows : 


To Pundits for correcting press, ~ 
To Maulavis for ditto, ~ — ~~~~ 
To Binding charges, paper, &c.~~ 
To Printing prospectus, &c ~-~~» 

To Postage, — ...>,.,. ~ — 

To Freight and Package, &c ~-~ 

To Printer's bills, due to 31st Dec. 

1 from Aug . to 30th Oct. ,.....-- 

2 from 1st Nov. to 31st Dec—. 

3 for binding and covers, -~~~. 

R. A, P. 



Kid 10 9 

21 8 

38 15 

46 2 8 

563 4 5 




9 3 
7 6 

Total, Sa. Rs. 4,710 5 5 


By Sale of Sanscrit Books, 

By Ditto of Arabic ditto, ~~ 

R. A. P. 

584 8 

» r. ^ 674 8 o 

By Subscriptions not collected, for 
works delivered to the parties, ~ 7i403 

Total, Sa. Rs. 8,077 8 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

] 836.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 53 

leaving a profit of Sa. Rs. 3,367 2 7 upon the year's operations, to meet the 
current printing expences, in addition to the chance of furthtr sale of the works 
now completed. 

The ordinary publications of the Society during the past year, had been 
confined to the Index of the first IS volume* of Researches, and a now edition of 
the library Catalogue. 

On the 6th May, it was resolved to give additional attention to the Society's 
museum of Natural History. A Curator and establishment were appointed, and 
measures were taken to accommodate the museum of antiquities, models, images, 
&c. in the gallery around the staircase, leaving the lower suite of apartments 
entirely open for objects of Natural History. 

To the gallery also was added the fine collection of pictures, munificently 
presented by the sons of the late Mr. Home, one of the oldest members of the 
Society. These alterations and the preparation of Mineral Cabinets had 
enhanced considerably the year's expences, but the good effect had amply com- 
pensated. To the museum of fossil remains, some splendid additions had been 
conferred by Colonel Burnxy, Colonel Colyin, and Mr. Dean, and the col- 
lection of recent Osteology and of birds had been properly arranged and classified. 
A catalogue raisonnle had simultaneously been prepared by the Curator which 
would hereafter be submitted to the Committee of Papers for publication. In 
the mean time the strenuous assistance of members and friends of the institution 
was solicited to render the Society's museum worthy of public attention. 

The resolution of the Government to make over the library of the College of 
Fort William to the " Public Library" lately instituted in Calcutta was coupled 
with a reservation of all the works exclusively oriental of which it is known that 
the College possesses a very extensive and valuable collection, comprising the 
whole library of Tippu Sulta'n. These, it was generally understood, the Govern- 
ment would be willing to transfer to the Asiatic Society should a request be ex- 
pressed by this body to obtain them. As their possession would necessarily in- 
volve an increase of establishment, the Committee of Papers had hitherto hesitated 
making any application on the subject, but it was evidently desirable that such an 
opportunity of enriching its collection should be hailed with eager desire by a 
body devoted to the cultivation and study of Indian literature and history. 


Two books in manuscript and six maps in the Burmese character, together 
with thirteen sketches and maps in the Assamese character were present- 
ed by Colonel G. Cooper, 34th Regt. N. I. 

The Indian Journal of Medical Science, No. 25 — by the Editors. 

The Meteorological Register for Nov., 1835— by the Surveyor General. 

On the salutary effects of the Convolvulus Nil upon the human con- 
stitution. M. 8.— by G. Cooper, Esq. the Author. 

A Prospectus of an intended publication " Corpus Inseriptionum IndL 
earum," by M. Eugene Jaoquet, Paris, was submitted for the information 
of members, and intending subscribers. 

[Published on the cover of the November number.] 

One bow, a bird-cage, eleven arrows of sorts, and a specimen of the 
copper coin in use amongst the Choara ; together with an Assam arrow- 
head for killing tigers, were presented by G. Cooper, Esq. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

54 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [Jan. 

A bit of petrified tamarind from Triewcurry on the Coromandel Coast, 
and a vulture, ( Vultur Ponticerianus,) and a Mandarin's cap, were present- 
ed by Dr. L. Burlini, for T. F. Db Cruze, Esq. 

A Pavooye ( Acridotheres Malabaricus) was presented by Mr. J. Ste- 

Read a letter from J. Bell, Esq. forwarding for inspection an animal 
called " the Slow Lemur" described in the 4th volume of the Asiatic 
Researches, by the late Sir William Jones, and giving some further parti. 
culars of his habits. 


The Secretary apprized the meeting that he has received from Mr. 
W. H. Smoult, the box of papers of the late Mr. Moorcroft, which 
were in possession of the late W. F baser, Esq. and which he was willing 
to place at the disposal of the Society, on the conditions expressed by the 
deceased : viz. that any profit accruing from their publication should go 
to the benefit of Mr. Moorcroft's relatives in England. 

The Society entirely concurring in this view resolved, that they should 
be immediately forwarded to Professor Wilson in England, to be made 
use of aloug with the former manuscripts, on the conditions specified . 

A letter from the Vicar Apostolic of Cochin China, was read, request, 
ing the Society to forward the specimen of the Dictionary, which he 
regretted to hear could not be printed in Calcutta, to the Oriental Trans, 
lation Fund in England, in case that body should be inclined to patronize 
its publication. 

A letter was read from Captain C. M. Wade, transmitting a second 
memoir by Mr. Charles Masson, on the ancient coins discovered at 
Beghram in the Kohistan, at Jelalabid and K&buL 

The memoir had been detained in Capt. Wade's possession, since the month 
of June last, in consequence of some official correspondence with Col. Pottin- 
gkr to whom the coins to which it relates have been finally forwarded for the 
Bombay Government. 

The present memoir adds the names of Diomxdes, Palkrkos, Alouokknrb (?) 
to those already known, and gives some valuable information on the sites of 
the Alexandria ad calcem Caucasi, &c. It is published at length in the present 

Wednesday Evening, the 3rd February, 1836. 

Sir Edward Ryan, President, in the chair. 

Lieut.-Col. J. Colvin, Engrs., Lieut.-Col. L. R. Stacy, John Neave* 
Esq. C. S., and Lieut. A. Cunningham, were proposed as Members by Mr. 
James Prinsep, seconded by Sir Edward Ryan. 

Rajah Vvaya Govinda Singh a Behadur of Purnea was also proposed 
by Mr. James Prinsep, seconded by Koomar Radhacant Deb. 

Read, a letter from Mr. E. A. Blundell, acknowledging his election as 
a Member of the Society. 

Read the following letter from His Highness Prince Estrrhaey, Ambas- 
sador of His Imperial Majesty the Emperor of Austria at the British Court : 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 55 

" London, August 4, 1835. 
44 Sir, 

" In reply to the letter you addressed to me on the 25th January last, I bare 
the honor to acknowledge the receipt of the boxes containing each twenty-fire 
copies of a Tibetan Dictionary and Grammar, prepared for publication by the 
Hungarian Traveller Mr. Alexander Csoma K5r5sy, and printed at the 
expence of the British Indian Government, under the auspices of the Asiatic 

"These fifty copies being destined by Mr. K 5 rosy to be presented by the 
different public Institutions of Hi* Imperial Majesty's dominions, I lose no time 
in assuring you, that the learned Author's intentions shall be faithfully fulfilled. 

44 The enclosed letters and the Oriental works you have sent to the Antic Coun- 
cilor Von Hammer, hare also been forwarded to their destination. 

'• I have not failed to inform my Government of the liberality with which the 
Indian Government has replaced the sum of 300 ducats, transmitted through 
this Embassy to Mr. Csoma di Koaos, which had been lost by the failure of 
Messrs. Alexander and Co., and anticipating its intentions, I seise with great 
pleasure this opportunity to express to you, and through your means to the 
Indian Government, ss well as to the Asiatic Society, the high sense I entertain 
of the kind protection afforded to my learned countryman in His Britannic 
Majesty's dominions in India. Allow me to offer my sincerest thanks for such 
generous conduct. 

44 1 have the honor to be, &c. 


Copy of this letter was directed to be communicated to the Government and 
to Mr. Csoma KOrosy, who left Calcutta a short time since on a tour through 
Tirhut and to the west of India. 

Read a letter from H. Chajokr, Esq., Chief Secretary to the Govt, of 
Fort St. George, directing that the Sixty Copies of 4th, 6th, and 6th 
volumes of Fatawa Alemgiri, subscribed for by the Madras Govt, 
should be forwarded, and enclosing remittance for the same. 

Also similar letters from the Register of the Sadar Dewani, and the 
Secretary of the College Council of Fort William. 


Read a letter from F. Marort, Esq., Secretary to the Society de Phy- 
sique de Geneve, forwarding vols. 6 and 6 of their Transactions for pre- 
sentation to the Society, and requesting an interchange of publications. 

Read a letter from M. Broussh, Secretary to the Royal Academy of 
Arts, Sciences, && at Bordeaux, acknowledging the receipt of vols. 17 
and 18, Asiatic Researches, and of a copy of M. Csoma de Koros's Tibe- 
tan Dictionary and Grammar, and forwarding for presentation to the 
Society, a copy of its Transactions from 1819 to 1834, inclusive, 6 vols. 
handsomely bound. 

The Indian Journal of Medical Science, Nos. I and II, for 1836—6* 
F. Corbyn, Esq. 

Report on the State of Education in Bengal, presented by Messrs. 
Wiu-js and Earlr, on behalf of Rev. Mr. Adam. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

56 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [Jan. 

Two copies of a Sketch of the Solar System, translated into Bengali, by 
MahA Rajah Kali Kissen Behadur, and presented by the translator. 

Meteorological Register for December, 1833 — by the Surveyor General. 


The Secretary presented on the part of his Excellency General Bhima 
Sinba, Minister to the Rajah of Nepal: 

Two elaborate drawings of Kathmandu, and of a temple and bridge in 
the hills. A richly ornamentally Kukri and Khonta : two large elephant's 
tusks, and three pods of musk. 

A model as large as life, of a native*carrying a bullock on his shoulders 
was presented by Dr. F. Corbyn. 

Literary and Antiquities. 

The Secretary read the following extracts from the correspondence of 
Mr. Vione, from little Tibet and from Cashmir, of which valley this traveller 
is stated to have made a beautiful series of drawings, and an accurate pa- 
noramic view, which will be much prized in Europe. 

44 Iskardo, 10M September, 1835. 

44 1 have now been in this very wild and extraordinary place four days, and am 
pleased with every thing. I set off from Cashmir by boat to Bundurpur, seeing 
every thing done myself to prevent delay, and took leave of the Governor about 
12 o'clock. We had a merry glide of it till night, when the mnsquitoes became 
exceedingly numerous and troublesome ; arrived at Bundurpur on the great lake 
the next morning, and heard the agreeable intelligence that a mounted guard of 
10 men were awaiting my arrival in Ahmad Shah's frontier. I spent the rest 
of the day in a visit to the Shumladier hill, and the next morning we were fairly 
off. At that station I was joined by Nasim Khan, the same man that had eaten 
your salt for a month and some days, with a letter from Ahmad Shah. He 
told me he had been waiting three days in the neighbourhood, not liking to make 
his appearance among the Sikhs. I like the man much, he is very intelligent and 
amusing. What a glorious view we had on the second morning, two-thirds of 
Cashmir and towards Tibet, one mountain in particular of immense height, totally 
covered with snow from the shoulders upward, named " Diarmul." 

44 In three days we reached Guress, a very pretty valley, a little higher than 
Cashmir, entirely surrounded by the loftiest mountains, but bare; merely growing 
back wheat, vetches, and barley. After leaving Guress, we passed a place which 
a few men could defend against an army ; where the Sikhs and Tibetans fought 
two days. Further on after passing over a most desolate country, I was met by 
Ahmad Shah's son. I had heard there were some marauders in the neighbour- 
hood, but did not really imagine there was any truth in the account. However, 
the young Rajah, a very intelligent young fellow, assured me there were, and that 
his father had sent him to protect me. Imagine the wildnees of this scene. 
Discordant but not altogether un military music gave notice of his approach, and 
at last, he appeared with some forty sepoys, and led horses. The next morning, 
we marched in company with him, while the approach of the thieves was hourly 
expected. They had but one way to come, and when we arrived near the scene 
of action, I observed parties stationed in different places on the mountains, to 
prevent all escape. Suddenly an alarm was sounded, and gave notice of their 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Proceedings of the Astatic Society. 5 7 

approach, and the thieve* were soon surrounded, and cut up. Arm ad Shah 
was there in person. I met him on the field of battle. He said he was so happy 
at baring destroyed the robbers, and seeing me there, that if he were at Iskardo, 
he did not know what be should do to manifest his joy. We all sat down in a 
large ring. His sepoys shewing their wounds, and I administered pills, to keep 
off fever. Of the thieves some returned, 72 killed, 15 escaped ; but 1 don't think 
there were so many. They treated the wounded men horribly. The enemy cams 
from the neighbourhood of Peshaur, and were driving off men, women, and cattle. 
I am delighted with the old Rajah. He appears to have some excellent English 
ideas about him, and enjoyed the scene amaziogly. The book, said to have been 
written by the old Missionary, does not, he assures me, exist. He shewed me an 
Armenian Testament that he had bought of some pedlar, which probably gave 
rise to the report. His faith in the theory of his descent from Alkxandbr is 
strong. He talks freely of every thing in and about the country, and has sent 
out men to procure me all kinds of curiosities. We make an excursion to n hot 
spring on the road to Yarkand in a day or two, and shall have some shikar, &c. 
I shall quit this extraordinary place, (a vale partly desert, washed by the Attock, 
a noble stream, quarter mile wide, some 15 miles long, and surrounded by bare 
rugged mountains on every side, of vast height,) in about 12 days or so: the snow 
will then begin to fall. I expect a cold march of it. He is very proud of his rock 
crystal, of which I can bring away as much as I please. As to the productions 
of the valley, I am making myself fully master of them. He refuses no sort of 
information. The fort is on a rock covered with alluvial soil, raised in the very 
centre of the valley, from the bed of what was once most likely a lake. In size, 
shape, and appearance, washed on two sides of the river, it bears some resem- 
blance to Subathu ; as to the works, a few shells for the wood, and round shot for 
the stone, would destroy them in a few hours. It would be ridiculous (certain 
death) to attempt going to Yarksnd. Since Moorcroft was at Ladakh, they 
have got the picture of an Englishman, so I am assured, painted on the wall, 
that -all who see one may know him. Yarkand is about a month's march — a 
harkara could go in 12 days. I am going to a classical sort of equestrian sport 
in a day or two, such as T was happy to hear remarked was played in the time of 
Iskandkr. It had struck me that the course was precisely the shape of the course 
of Caracalla at Rome." 

" Cathmir, 23rd October, 1835. 

•• Here I am safe and well ; arrived yesterday after a very severe march of 
25 days from Iskardo, over as rough roads, if they deserve the name, as can be 
seen any where. I have with me four Yaks and all kinds of things. I hope to 
start hence in about 10 days, and shall come the shortest road to Lahor. So 
pray oblige me by making some arrangements about the Indus. I should like to 
hire a boat, men, &c. It must be big enough to carry my Yaks. They are not 
tall but heavy. 1 expect Baron Hugkl here in two or three days, and suspect I 
shall have a very narrow escape of stopping another year in India, but must do 
every thing I can to get off in time." 

" Ctukmir, 30M October, 1835. 

" I wrote to you a few days ago, to mention my safe return, but forget to send 
the enclosed inscriptions. Pray post them off at your earliest convenience to 
Csom a de KorOs, author of the Tibetan Dictionary, or some person compe- 
tent to undertake their examination and request a translation, if possible, and 
soon ; with my compliments. I began my panoramic view from the Tukht 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

58 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [Jan. 

yesterday, the weather continues fine. There is nothing new to communicate, 
excepting that I hear the Baron is coming the JammQ road, and cannot be far off 
now. I must be at Bombay by the middle of January.*' 

Of the inscriptions alluded to in the last extract, one at least is in clear Tibetan 
characters, and will be doubtless easily decyphered by M. Csoma pk Kuaos, to 
whom they will be sent at Malda. 

The Baron Hugbl had deviated from his proposed tour after ascending the 
pass from Buodurpur to Iskardo into little Tibet, on account of the advanced 
season ; he had since joined M. Vignb at L4hor. 

The Rev. Mr. Batsman, in a letter from Bombay, communicated a fac- 
simile of an inscription, supposed to be in Cufic characters, found by Cap. 
tain Thomas Jkrvis, at the village of Warn, in the Southern Konkan; the 
original stone of which he had presented to the Bombay Literary Society. 

The inscription is apparently in the elongated form of Nagari character, found 
on the coins of the Samrashtra group. (See Journal, vol. iv. PI. XLIX. p. 684,) 
and may in time be made out. 

Mr. Traill, Commissioner of Kemaon, presented further facsimiles of 
the inscriptions at Bagtewar, near Almorah, which were made over to the 
Rev. Dr. Mill, V. P. for examination. 

Read an extract of a private letter from Lieut. A. Cunningham, 

Lieut. C. pointed out, in reference to the motto APAOXPO on one of General 
Vbntuua's coins (fig. 9 of PI. XXXVIII. vol. iv.) that the same name might 
be traced on the coin depicted as fig. 6, PI. I. vol. xvii. of the Researches, of which he 
possessed a more legible duplicate : thus forming the most perfect link between 
the Indo-Scythic and Canouj coins. The cornucopia is borne by both the stand- 
ing and sitting females of this type. 

An anonymous address " to the Members of the Asiatic Society," 
signed " Veritas," Hobart Town, Vandieman's Land, September, 1885, 
developed a new theory of the origin of the Vug as of the Hindus, and 
called upon the Society to examine the subject more closely. 

Whatever may be thought of the address, which from its want of authentica- 
tion cannot be noticed, it is satisfactory to find the Society's Researches made 
the subject of study in the new colony. 


Lieut-Col. Colvin presented on the part of Lieutenants Baker and 
Durand, three fossils from the Dadupur collection, of great interest. 

1. Part of the jaw of a rhinoceros, with two milch teeth attached. 

2. The molar tooth of a camel ; of which new fossil genus, they possess now 
the entire head. (See Journal for December, 1835.) 

3. A very distinct head of a fish . 

To these Colonel Colvin added, on his own part, four fragments of the 
fossil shell of a tortoise, of gigantic dimensions. 

The same officer presented on the part of Lieutenant Baker, a series 
of the fossil shells from the stratum of blue marl, underlying hard sand, 
gravel, and yellow sand, inclined at an angle of 45° in the low range of 
hills at the head of the Delhi Canal. A sketch of the strata accompanied. 

A note from Mr. B. H. Hodgson called the Society's attention to a paper 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 59 

• and drawing of a new specie* of Cotuthba, submitted to the Society sereral 
years since, of which by some inadvertence no notice had been taken. 

A duplicate of the article was now furnished. 

It appears that the bird it described as new by the Zoological Society in 1832, 
thus depriving tbe author here of the priority of discovery and publication. 

Specimens of Cinnyris Mahrattensis and Rynchosa Capensis — presented 
by M. Bouoass. 

A specimen of Raia Thouriniana — presented by Captain Lloyd, Indian 

Specimens of Squalus Zygosna and Maximus — presented by Mr. F. Shaw, 
of the Surveying Vessel Flora. 

A collection of skins of birds, of snakes, fishes, Crustacea and MoUusca— 
presented by Lieut. Montriou, Indian Navy, and Mr. F. Shaw. 

This collection was received only a few days ago but the following genera and 
species have been determined. 

Birds, the Genera, Dicrurus, Ardea, and Carbo : Snakes, Dryinus and Hy- 
drophis : Fishes, Trichiurus, Polynemis, Golieides, Pleuronectes, Tetradou, 
Clupea, Chanda, and Pimelodes : Crustacea, Sepia, Loligo, and Monoculns : 
Sheits, Balanus, Pholas f Psammotea, Area, Cardium, Cytherea, Venus, Ceri- 
thium, Turritella, Pyrula, Nerita, Neritina, Ampullaria, Dolium, Cassis, Oliva, 
Rotella, and Calyptroea. 

Of these genera, the following species have been ascertained : Dicrurus Indi- 
cus, Trichiurns Argenteus, Polynemus Paradiseus, Golieides Rubicunda, Plen- 
ronectes Pan, Tetradon Patoca, Clupea Aclara, Chanda Ruconius, Pimelodes Etor ; 
Monoculns Polyphemus ; Balanus Striata*, Pholas Orientalis, Cerithium Teles- 
copinm, and Sulcatum ; Pyrula Vespertilio, Dolum Pomum, and Cassis Areola. 

The Python Amethystina, presented some months ago by Mr. Chunk, died 
during the very cold weather of last month. He changed his skin at the begin* 
niog of December, and refused to eat afterwards ; remaining in a semi-torpid 
condition till the coming on of the (for this country) extreme cold of the middle 
of January. 

A collection of skins of birds — presented by W. D. Smith, Esq. 

A memoir by Messrs. Falconer andCAUTLET, on the peculiarities of two 
new species of fossil Hippopotamus, found in the Siwdlik range, was read. 

The great distinction between the Hippopotamus of the sub-Himdlayas and 
the fossils described by Cuvisa, and also the existing animal of South Africa, 
consists in its having six incisor teeth, in lieu of four. This marked difference 
has led the authors to a subdivision of the genus into Hexaprotoden and Tetra- 
protodtm. The former comprising the two or more varieties hitherto discovered 
in India, in a fossil state. Their account will appear in the outcoming volume 
of die Physical Researches. 

A series of Geological specimens from the Shekhawlti country, were 
presented by Mr. Falconer. 

A memoir on a Geological collection made in the country .between 
Hyderabad and Nagpur, and presented to the Society by the collector, 
Dr. Malcolmson, with a descriptive map, was submitted. 
[This will shortly be published in the Journal.] 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


VI. — Meteorological Register. 


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No. 50.— February, 1836. 

I. — Account of Rumbdwe, one of the States in the Interior of Malacca, 
By Lieut. J. F. Nbwbold, 23rd Regt. Madras Native Infantry. 

Rumbdwe has generally been accounted by the Portuguese and 
Dutch Governments at Malacca as the principal of the states in the 
interior ; but their ideas, like our own, until of late years, of the 
relative situation of these states, both political and geograpical, appear 
to have been very erroneous. At the present time, indeed, much 
interesting matter remains in obscurity, and must remain until the 
peninsula has been more thoroughly explored. 

These notions of the superiority of Rumbdwe over the sister state 
arose probably from the circumstances of its proximity to, and early 
connexion with, Naning ; and from that of its capital being the crown- 
ing place of the deputed sovereign from Menangkdbdwe. 

Tradition ascribes its name to a large Marabdwe tree, anciently 
growing near its western frontier, on one of the banks of the Mara- 
bdwe stream, not far from its embouchement into the Rumbowe branch 
of the Lingie river. 

There was a small hamlet here, when 1 visited the place in 1 832, 
consisting of four or five Malay houses. The word Marabdwe is 
supposed to have been corrupted into Rumbdwe. 

The area of Rumbdwe proper, not including the dependencies, is said 
not to be quite so spacious as that of Naning. The nearest point of 
its frontier is distant about 25 miles N. W. from the town of Malacca. 

Boundaries. — It is bounded towards the N. E. by Srimindnti and 
Sungie Ujong ; towards the south, by part of Naning and Johdle ; to the 
west, by part of Naning and Salengore, and to the east, by part of 
Srimindnti and Johdle. • 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

62 Account of Rumbdwe, one of the [Feb. 

The boundary marks with Srxmindnti are the mountains of Lepat, 
Cdjang, and Gdnong tdjoh ; with Sdngie Ujong, Bdkit Augim, part of 
the right branch o^ the Lingie river, and ParenHan tingih ; with Naming* ; 
with Johdle, the hill of Bdkit Pdbet ; and with Salangore, the Lingie 

Rumbdwe contains two divisions, viz. Rumbdwe Uld and Rumbdwe 
Jlir ; each under its four Sdkus, who are all subject to the control of 
one Panghulu. 

The Lingie river forms the channel of communication, by water, 
of Rumbdwe with the straits of Malacca, into which it falls about eight 
miles to the eastward of Cape Rachddo. This river is about 450 yards 
broad, and takes a north -by- easterly course into the interior, to the 
distance of about six miles, when it divides into two branches. The one 
to the left, called Battang Pennar, goes up to Lingie, and the Sdngie 
Ujong tin mines, taking a N. W. by N. course ; and the one to the 
right, called Battang Pendgie, takes a N. E. by E. course, to Sander, 
in Rumbdwe. It has its rise among the mountains of this state. The 
three principal posts of Rumbdwe are situated on the banks of Battang 
Pendgie ; viz. Sempong, six miles from the mouth at the point of the 
river's bifurcation; Padds, on the right bank, five or six miles further 
up ; and Bander, about eight miles beyond Padds. 

The river, up to Sempong, is navigable for vessels of 125 tons, 
ranging from 3| to 7 fathoms, high- water, and vessels of nine tons may 
pass up, without much difficulty, to Padds; and to Lingie, on the other 

In entering the mouth of the river care must be taken to avoid the 
eastern bank, in consequence of hidden rocks, which run off to sea. 
The channel near the western bank is deep and safe. 

Regarding Padds, the following remarks are extracted from some 
notes taken during a trip up the river in 1833. Two or three miles 
in advance of Ramoan China Kechil, on the right bank of the river, 
on the summit of a small hill commanding it, is Raja Ali's (the long 
de pert dan Besdr) stockaded house. The place is named Padds, from a 
small stream that flows into the river about a quarter of a mile nearer 
Sempong. The river, several hundred yards above and below Padds, 
had been partially blocked up by large trees felled completely across. 
In one place we passed through a formidable chevaux de frise of point- 
ed stakes, bound together, and running from bank to bank. 

On this part of the river the stockade bears most : it is most 
judiciously placed to annoy an enemy passing up with so many 
obstacles in his course. We contrived to get over them with consl- 
• See paper on Naaing, vol. IV. 297. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1886.1 State* in the Interior of Malacca. 63 

derable difficulty, although the trees had since been cut in two, and 
broken down. At high-water, they might however be readily passed. 
The river was blockaded in this fashion during the Naning distur- 
bances, and the engineer on this occasion was no other than our friend 
in the boat, the Laks-amdna of Rumbdwe. Sempong, as before stated, 
is situated at the point of the river's bifurcation. In 1833, it consisted 
xmly of two or three huts ; in the foremost of which was a small 
battery, consisting of seven swivels, and an iron 3-pr. of sufficient range 
to command both branches of the river. It is the place selected by the 
Rumbdwe chiefB to levy the duty on the tin passing down from Sdngie 

At the close of 1833, and commencement of 1834, many fugitives 
settled here, in consequence of the disturbances at Lingie, together with 
a small colony from Sumatra, under a PangKma named Rammer. The 
place is now strongly stockaded by the long de pertuan Muda Sayad 
Saban, by whom every encouragement is held out to settlers. 

Population. — Rumbdwe, including Kroh and Tamping, contains about 
9»000 inhabitants. The principal places are Bander, Sempong, Chembong, 
Rating, and Battu Ampar. Chembong, with its environs, is said to contain 
about 600 houses, and drives a petty trade in timber, dammer, and 
wax, which are bartered for opium, cloths, iron utensils, and tobacco. 

Chembong is the residence of the Panghuld of Rumbdwe ; Bander, 
Padds, and Sempong those of the long depertdans. 

Besides Malays are several aboriginal tribes inhabiting the steeps 
of the mountains, and the forests, who subsist principally by hunting. 
The natives give them the general appellation of Orang Ben da, people 
of the soil or country. 

They are subdivided into several tribes : among the most remarkable 
of which are the Uddi, Sakkye, Jakdn, and Rayet Utan. I have seen 
several specimens of the two last, but do not perceive any material 
dissimilarity between them, save that the latter, by enjoying freer 
intercourse with the Malays, have become more civilized ; at least, as 
far as a shew of dress and ornaments is implicated. 

They differ much from the descriptions given of the Semang in the 
interior of Quedah, and the thick-lipped, woolly-haired Papuan. Their 
features are of the Malay caste ; their hair sometimes straight, like that 
of the generality of Asiatics, but more frequently curling ; at the same 
time, very different from the frizzly locks of the African. 

Their stature is shorter, but they do not differ much in complexion 
from the Malay. 

The Malays entertain a high estimation of the skill of those singular 
tribes in medicine, and the knowledge of the virtues of herbs, roots, 
k 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

64 Account of Rumbdwe, one of the [Fbb. 

plants, &c. investing their sages, Pdyongs, even with supernatural 
powers, such as the Tdjoh Besawye, &c. 

These tribes are to be found over the whole of the interior of this 
part of the peninsula, particularly in Uld Colang, Sdngie Ujong, Johdle. 
Jompdle, Jellabu, Uld Attar, and Segdmet. They are skilled in the com- 
position of the celebrated upas poison, with which they tip the points 
of their arrows. The Sdmpitan, a long tube, through which the poison- 
ed darts are blown, and a spear, are their favorite weapons. The cloth 
that encircles their loins is made from the fibrous bark of the Terrap 


The influence of their Botins, or chiefs over the election of the Pan- 
ghdld of Sdngie Ujong, has been mentioned. In Johdle, they exert a 
similar power. It may be also remarked here, that in Rumbdwe there 
are two distinctions of the high Malayan tribe called Bddoanda, viz. 
Bddodnda Jakdn, and Bddodnda Jawa. The Panghdlds of all these 
states must necessarily be of one of these two tribes. 

Government. — Rumbdwe was formerly under the immediate sway of 
its Panghdld and Ampat Suku; but of latter days, the long de pert dan 
Mdda claims equal, if not superior power to the Panghdld. 

The first chief who assumed the title of long de pertdan Mdda of 
Rumbdwe was Rdja Assil, the son of the second MenangkdbSwe prince 
Raja Adil ; he was appointed by the then long de pertdan Besdr (his 
son-in-law Rdja Itam), with the concurrence of the Panghdlds of the 
four states ; and it is stated, had assigned to him, as a subsistence, 
two-sixths of the duty levied on the tin passing down the river from 
Sdngie Ujong, (the duty was then 2 dls. per bhar,) and the revenues of 
the districts of Kroh and Tampin, near the foot of the mountain of 
that name. 

In 1812, Asbil was driven out of Rumbdwe, as previously mentioned, 
by the Panghdld and Sdkds, assisted by Raja Alt; and died in 
Naning in 1814 or 15. Raja Ali supplanted him; but, being 
elected as long de-pertdan Besdr in 1832, was succeeded in the Mdda- 
ship by his son-in-law, the present chief, Sayad Saban. 

This office being an innovation on ancient usage is, consequently, 
secretly disliked by the Malays, especially where its privileges are so 
ill defined and unsettled; and one in which right would appear syno- 
nymous with might. 

Another change within the last few years has taken place in the 
constitution of this state ; instead of the council of the Ampat, or four, 
Sdkds, it consists now of eight, or the Suku long de-ldpan ; who, with 
the Panghdld, now form a deliberative body, like the Archons of 
Athens, of nine. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] States in the Interior of Malacca. 65 

The Panghdld is alternately elected from the two tribes, Bddodnda 
Jakdn and Bddodnda Java. The following circumstances, according 
to tradition, led to this custom: 

" When the king of Johore appointed nine Panghdlds over the 
nine Negri* in the interior of Malacca, the heads of the leading tribes 
in Bmmbdwe, viz. those of the Bddodnda Jakdn and Jawa, disputed 
regarding the superiority of their respective claims to the honor. His 
Highness of Johore, after due deliberation, came to the decision that 
the selection of a Panghdld should not be made from one tribe exclu- 
sively, but that each should have the privilege alternately." 

This judgment, we are assured, gave entire satisfaction, and at all 
events, seems to have been adhered to in subsequent elections. 

It must not be omitted here to state, that the title of Lllah Mdhd* 
rdja was given by the king to the Panghulus of the tribe Bddodnda 
Jakdn, and that of Sddia Rdja to those of the Bddodnda Jawa; with 
the exception of this custom, the office of Panghdld is hereditary, 
agreeably to the law of Perpati Sabdtang prevailing in Menangkdbdwe, 
and provided the heir be not insane or an imbecile. The present 
Panghdld is of the tribe Bddodnda Jakun, he succeeded his predecessor 
Bahdgo, of the tribe Bddodnda Jawa, in 1819. 

Sukus. — [J nder the Panghdld *re the eight Sukus, or heads of the tribes, 
into which the population of Rumbdwe is divided ; and who act as 
their representatives in councils of state, where like the former SCk&s 
of Nanmg and Sungie Ujong, they possess considerable influence. 
Nothing of any public importance can be agreed on without their 
concurrence ; and their unanimous vote on disputed points bears down 
that of the Panghdld. The long de-pertuan Besdr and Muda always 
exert more or less influence over their councils. The signature of the 
Sukus is necessary to the ratification of any treaty, or other similar 
public document. 

Formerly there were only four Sdkds who had share in the councils, 
vi». those of Rumbdwe Ilir ; but latterly those of Rumbdwe Ulu have 
been admitted, as alluded to above. This change was effected by the 
policy of the two long de-pert&ans, in order to lessen the influence of 
the Panghdld and former S&kds, and to increase their own. 

The names of the tribes and titles of the individuals who represent 
them are as follow : 

Rumbdwe llir. 
Tribes. Heads 

Bftttu Ampar, Gompar 

Pays K&mbaBarrat,.. .M£ra 

If ancal Sangsikra Pahlawaa. j 

Tig* Neolk, Bongta de Balaog. J 

eads of tribes. I 
ar Maharaja. I 
If £ra Boagsa. Y < 

Rumbdwe Vl&. 
Tribes. Heads of Tribes. 

Paya K&niba Darrat, .... Sama Raja. 

Batta Ballang, Andika. 

Sa Melongang, Mcndalika. 

Sri Lummah, Scnda Maharaja. 

To this list may be added the names of four inferior tribes, which 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

66 Account of Rumbowe.omof the [F»*. 

being scanty in number, and most of them of foreign origin, are repre- 
sented by the heads of the more important tribes, viz. Txga, Battu, 
Anak Malacca, Anak Achi, (children of Malacca and Achin,) and Tan- 
nah Dattar. The Bddodnda tribes are represented by the Panghdlds. 

Malays, strangers to Rumbdwe, while residing there, are amenable to 
the head of the tribe to which they belong. Settlers are immediately 
classed in their respective tribes. Those from Menangkdbowe generally 
enter that of Bdttu Ampar, which is the principal of the five tribes that 
originally emigrated from Menangkabowe ; viz. those of Muncal, Bdttu 
Baliang, Tiga Bdttu, and Tannah Dattar. 

A man marrying into another tribe becomes a member of that of 
the woman, as also the children. 

Some of the tribes have peculiar privileges; it is said that the 
Bddodndas, though guilty of the highest crimes, are exempt from capital 
punishment ; banishment and fines being the only penalty to which 
they are liable. The circumstance of the Pa ngh d lds of the independ- 
ant states being necessarily Bddodndas has already been adverted to*. 

Although the Malays, like the Greeks and Romans, entertain the 
highest veneration for old age, still the claims of descent supersede 
those conferred by years, particularly with regard to the heads of 
tribes, who have precedence in the councils of the state, conformably 
to the rank of the tribe they represent. An instance of this, and the 
power sometimes exercised by the Sdkds in election, fell under my own 
observation. At Sdngie Sipdt, on the frontier of Rumbdwe, in 1833, 
among the assembly of Malay chiefs there, I observed a boy, whose 
dress and weapons betokened some rank, and to whom a considerable 
degree of deference was shewn by the natives. On inquiring, I found 
him to be the head of the principal tribe, and that, although a younger 
brother, he had been elected by the Siikds as the head of his tribe or 
clan, in consequence of his elder brother's imbecility. This boy affixed 
his name, or rather his mark, (for neither he nor any of his seven 
compeers could write,) immediately after the Pang hu Id of Rumbdwe, 
before the rest of the Sdkds, some of whom were venerable old men, 
and grown grey in office. 

Mantris. — There are two Mantris in Rumbdwe, viz. Suroh Raja, and 
Andika Mantri, both of the tribe Bddodnda Jawa. 

Their functions are ill defined, but are principally, I believe, to assist 
the chiefs with their advice. 

• The dirision of the people of these states into tribes, some of which bear 
the names of places in Menangkabowe, is a strong additional proof of their 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] 8 fates in the Interior of Malacca. 67 

They have no vote in councils, and their influence must be almost 
entirely personal. 

Laksdmana. — The Laksdmanaswre also two, Pajsa* and Khatib. The 
navigation of the river and maritime matters are entrusted to these 

PangUmas. — The war-chiefs, or PangKmas, are four in number, vis. 
two Pangltma Prangs, Pandika Raja, and PangUma Dallam. Their 
duties are similar to those of the former PangUmas of Naning. 

Pertama. — There is another officer, appointed by the long de pert (km 
Bes&r, whose functions, fortunately for the liege subjects of Rumbdwe, 
are seldom called into exercise. This is the Pertama, or executioner. 
The modes of putting criminals to death are generally confined to the 
Panckong \^ r and Sdlang ^U. 

Hie former is decapitation : the latter has been already described. 

Passing up the Rumbdwe river, on some high ground on the left bank 
between Sempong and Pddas, a leafless, blighted tree was pointed out 
to me by one of the Laksdmana* who stated the foot of it to be the 
place where criminals, subjects of Rumbdwe, were put to death by 
Sdlang *JL». 

Religion. — The inhabitants of Rumbdwe, like those of the other states 
of the interior, with the exception of the aborigines, profess the tenets 
of Islam. They are divided into seven Mdkuns, or parishes, to each of 
which is attached a mosque, with distinct establishments of priests, as 
in Naning. 

A Kazi named Ha'ji Hashim Sri Lummah presides over the whole. 
The religious customs, fasts, and festivals are similar to those observed 
in Naning. 

Visit to Rumbdwe. — As Rumbdwe has seldom been penetrated by Eu- 
ropeans, the following memoranda, from my note book, of a visit paid 
to the chiefs at its capital. Bander, in 1832, by the then Governor of 
the Straits, the Honorable Mr. Ibbstson, and Brigadier Wilson, C. 
B. may not perhaps be wholly devoid of interest. 

Early on the morning of the 21st October, I joined from camp at 
Alorgajeh, the Governor's suite at TdJbu, the principal village of 
Naning, and late the residence of the er-Panghtld Dholl Satad. 

After breakfasting under one of the thatched quarters that had es- 
caped the pioneer's axe and brand on the late evacuation of this out- 
post, the party started on horseback along a foot-path, through a wood- 
ed country with the Rumbdwe hills on the right, to Chirdna putih, the 
last village of Naning. This was formerly a populous place. And the 
residence of the ex-Panghuld's sons, but we found it now entirely de- 
serted, and its houses falling into rapid decay and ruin. Here it was 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

68 Account of Rumbdwe, one of the {Fb». 

stated that Dholl Satad had a manufactory for gun-powder daring hia 
late resistance to the Company's troops. 

Leaving Chirdna putih to the left, the path ahruptly turns to the right, 
over or rather through a muddy odwah, and leads towards the foot of 
Gdnong T ampin. Along the skirt of this mountain, through a dense 
forest, the party had to travel in Indian file, the narrow foot-path being 
in several places blocked up by large forest trees lying across to Qatar 
Feringi, or the Frank's grave, which is a mere mound in the jungle. 
This is one of the boundary marks of the Rumbdwe and Naming territo- 
ries, and is traditionally said to be the grave of a Portuguese officer, 
slain by the natives in one of those frequent skirmishes which took 
place between the followers of the gallant Albuqubrqu* and the " re- 
bellious Menangkdbowes" The path to Cdnidng, from Qatar Feringi. 
lay through the jungle at the foot of the Rumbdwe range, and gradually 
improved as we approached that village. Cdnddng is a populous hamlet, 
the first in the Rvmbowe side of the boundary line, and is situated at the 
foot of the mountain of Gdnong Rumbowe, on whose steep sides, amidst 
luxuriant forests, appeared singular patches of partially cleared ground, 
and a few rude huts, the habitation of the lords of the woods and rocks, 
the Jakdns. None of their sylvan eminences however, nor their 
attendant Hamadryades, condescended to favor the party with their 

From Cdnddng to Pddang Ldko, the forest decreased in size and 
denseness, and here and there were traces of clearing and cultivation. 
A few small verdant patches, not deserving the name of plains, and 
two or three rivulets, were passed through. The distance from Cdnddng 
to Pddang Ldko is about three miles. 

From Pddang Ldko to Lxgon, the road is bad, passing for the most 
part over heavy rice-grounds. The cultivation increased progressively 
as the belt of forest, the natural boundary between Naning and Rumbdwe B 
was left behind, until we reached the banks of the Rumbdwe river at 
Logon. This stream was just fordable ; its waters muddy, and evident- 
ly swoln by the rains. 

After passing by a miserable path over a very extensive and well 
cultivated sheet of rice-ground, where the horses were frequently up 
to the saddle flaps in mud, fording another stream, and crossing a 
broad swampy plain, from the grassy tufts of which flew the startled 
lapwing and whistling plover, the cavalcade halted before the mud fort 
of Bander. From its gate issued a motley crowd of well-dressed 
Malays, brandishing spears, muskets, pemurasses, (a sort of blunder- 
buss,) and umbrellas of state, white and yellow, headed by the Mtida 
of Rumbdwe, and one of the sons of the long depert&an Besdr, Raja Ali. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 836.] States in the Interior of Malacca. 69 

The Governor, and Brigadier Wilson, were received by these chiefs 
with every demonstration of welcome and respect, conducted into the 
fort, and ushered by Raja Ali into a large temporary building, appa- 
rently erected for the occasion, opposite the Raja's primitive palace of 

A salute from the fort jinjals was then fired, much to the discomfi- 
ture of one of the pieces, which, possibly from not being accustomed 
to powder, burst into divers rust-incrusted fragments. 

Refreshments were served in, on a large fiat a tray ; they consisted 
principally of dried fruits, dates, conserves, and sweetmeats, in which, 
ss usual, sugar and oil were manifestly predominant. These were 
placed on small China dishes, and a number of minute cups of the 
same material, filled with the steaming infusion of Souchong, fresh from 
China, sans sucre et sans lait, were warmly pressed upon us. 

In the evening, Raja Ali introduced two antique ladies, dressed 
with almost more than Spartan simplicity. The one his mother, the 
Piince ss Dowager Tuanku Putih, and the other, his venerated kins- 
woman, his aunt. These ogresses of high degree would have rivalled 
in flow of language and exuberance of gesticulation the most vivacious 
dowagers, date 1770, Madame du Deffand always excepted. 

Tuanxu Putih is represented to be a woman of strong masculine 
mind, and to have considerable influence over her son Raja Ali. 

The fort of Bander consists of low mud walls, now covered with 
grass, inclosing a space of ground about 80 yards square. 

Around and outside of the walls runs a strong and high palisade. 
Six high cavaliers of wood, roofed in with a tap, overlook the faces of 
the work. On each of their platforms two iron guns are mounted, 
except on that over the gate-way, where there is a serviceable brass 
gun, bearing the mark of the Dutch East India Company ; the date 
1756, A. D. and the maker's name, Pstbr Sbsst. 

Besides the 12 guns in the cavaliers, were 18 or 20 jinjals lying 
about the parapets. The houses of the Raja and his personal attend- 
ants are within the area comprised by the fort walls. 

After passing the night on mattresses and pillows, covered with dirty 
red silk, embroidered in gold, and which had evidently been abstracted 
from the Zenana, the party left Bander early on the following 

The Governor and Brigadier Wilson proceeded en route to Malacca 
via Pddas and the Lingie river. Lieut. Balfour, of the Madras Artil- 
lery, and myself, returned by Brissti, to camp, which we reached the 
same evening. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

70 Account of Rumbtiwe* one of the Malacca States. [Fbb. 

Satad Sa'ban, the present long depertdan Mdda o/[ Rumbowe, is the 
son of an Arab named Satad Ibrahim by his concubine Sri Kamis, a 
Malay slave girl, a Khtina-zdda of Zain-ud-Din, formerly Caption 
Maldyu in Malacca. He is a native of Chembong in Rumbowe, whither 
his father, a rigid zealot, had proceeded to promulgate and expound 
the tenets of the Koran. 

His son, Satad Saban, principally resided in Rumbowe, but occa- 
sionally at Malacca. Being naturally ambitious, he early sought to 
connect himself by marriage with die ruling families in Rumbowe, and 
Siac, in Sumatra. He first married a daughter of the long de pertuan 
Mdda of Jallabu, Raja Sabun, a son of the second Menangkabowe 
prince, Raja Adtl. He then crossed the straits, and obtained the 
hand of one of the Siac chief's daughters. His next matrimonial con- 
nexions were with Raja Ali's family. 

Satad Saban is young, active, and intriguing ; but at present well 
disposed to the British Government. Without the bigotry of his father 
he entertains a thorough contempt for the apathetic opium-eating 
Malay chiefs, his colleagues in power. He has a taste for war, and 
proved of great service in placing his father-in-law. Raja Am, over 
the heads of his competitors. His activity both for and against the 
troops in the Naning expeditions are well known. 

By his own talents and address, the religious influence of his father, 
and from his Arab extraction, a circumstance to which the Malays 
invariably pay great deference and respect, and his high connexions, in 
the securing of which he has shewn great tact and forethought, this 
adventurer has risen to the Mada-nhxp of Rumbowe, and is now aspiring 
to the entire sovereignty of the states in the interior. 

Bknnie, the present Panghdlu of Rumbowe, is an elderly, grave person, 
with an unpl easing cast of features purely Malayan. He is at heart 
inimical to the claims of the Muda and Raja All During the dis- 
turbances at Lingie, in 1833, he shamefully deserted his stockade, 
leaving it with several guns, and a quantity of ammunition, in the 
hands of the vassal chief Katas ; not without being strongly sus- 
pected of having received a considerable bribe for this piece of treachery. 
He assisted the ex-Panghdld of Naning during the time he was in 
arms against Government. Bsnnib is addicted to opium-eating, and 
like other Malays of this class, is not, as experience has shewn, proof 
against the temptations of a bribe coming in the shape of this fasci- 
nating drug. 

Among the Sdkus, few are men of any talent or worthy of any 
particular notice. Pakkat, an aspirant to the Panghulu-ship, and Suroh 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Quotations from Original Sanscrit Authorities, 71 

Raja, one of die Mantris, are much looked up to by the Malays, with 
whom their opinions and councils have considerable influence. 

I had an opportunity of hearing a very long improviso speech from 
the latter of these Malayan Cicero*, at Sdngb Sipat, on the boundary 
question. His position, unlike that of European orators, was a squat- 
ting one, on his hams, with the knees pliantly folded in front. The 
style of his address, like that of the generality of Asiatics, was grave 
and pompous ; but the flow of his words easy and unbroken, except by 
a lew little attentions bestowed on his betel-pounder ( GobikJ, by which 
his right-hand was kept in almost continual motion. 

The speech, however, was so long, that the Pangh&lu of Rumbdwe 
was fairly snoring before the customary Ah, bagitu lak / announced 
the finale of the effusion. Touching the gift of eloquence, I have 
observed that the Malays of the interior have generally a better and 
freer manner of expressing themselves than those of the coast ; the 
language in which they clothe their sentiments is far more figurative, 
and full of metaphors, drawn from natural objects, and cannot fail to 
strike the hearer as highly pleasing and simply poetical. Their popular 
traditions are seldom put to writing, being committed to memory by 
some of their elders, and sometimes by old Malay ladies of rank, who 
are regarded by the simple natives, much in the light of a casket 
containing a valuable gem. Many of their customs are singular and 
peculiar, and deserving of more attention than has hitherto been paid 

II. — Quotations from Original Sanscrit Authorities in proof and illustration 

of Mr. Hodgson's Sketch of Buddhism. 

[Continued from page 38.} 

The Swdbhdvika Doctrine. 

1. All tilings are governed or perfected by Swabhdva* : I too am 
governed by Swabhdva. (Ashta Sahasrika.) 

2. It is proper for the worshipper at the time of worship to reflect 
thus : I am Nirliptf, and the object of my worship is Nirlipt ; I am 
that God (Iswara) to whom 1 address myself. Thus meditating, the 
worshipper should make puja to all the celestials : for example, to 
Vqjra Satwa Buddha, let him pay his adorations, first, by recollecting 
that all things with their Vija mantras came from Swabhdva in this or- 

* Swa, own, and bhava, nature. Idioijncrasit. 
f Intact and intangible, independent. 
L 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

72 Quotations /ram original Sanscrit [Fbb. 

der: — from the vija* of the letter Y, air ; from that of the letter R, fire ; 
from that of the letter V, or B, water, and from that of the letter L, 
earth ; and from that of the letter S, Mount Sumtort. On the summit 
of Sumtr is a lotos of precious stones, and above the lotos, a moon 
crescent, upon which sits, supremely exalted, Vajra Satwa. And as 
all (other) things proceed from Swabhdva, as also does Vajra Satwa, 
thence called the self-existentf. (Pujd hand.) 

3. All things and beings (in the versatile universe) which are alike 
perishable, false as a dream, treacherous as a mirage, proceed, according 
to some, from Swabhdva, (nature,) and according to others, from God, 
(Iswara ;) and hence it is said, that Swabhdva and Iswara are essentially 
one, differing only in name J. (Ashta Sahasrika.) 

4. At the general dissolution of all things, the four elements shall 
be absorbed in Sdnydkdr- Akdsh (sheer space) in this order : Earth 
in water, water in fire, fire in air, and air in Akdsh, and Akdsh in 
S tiny at a, and SUnyata in Tathata^, and Tathata in Buddha, (which 
Mahd S(*nydta\\) and Buddha in Bhdvana, and Bhdvana in Swabhdva. 
And when existence is again envolved, each shall in the inverse order, 
progress from the other. From that Swabhdva, which communicates 
its property of infinity to Akdsh, proceeded into being, in Akdsh, the 
letter A. and the rest of the letters ; and from the letters, Adi Buddha^ 
and the other Buddhas ; and from the Buddhas, the Bodhi-Satwas, and 
from them the five elements, with their Vija Mantras. Such is the 
Swabhdvika Sansdr; which Sansdr (universe) constantly revolves between 
Pravritti and Nirvritti, like a potter's wheel. (Divya Avaddn.J 

• Root, radix, see*. 

f This may teach us caution in the interpretation of terms. I understand the 
dogma to announce, that infinite intelligence is as much a part of the system of 
nature as finite. The mystic allusion to the alphabet imports nothing more 
than its being the indispensable instrument and means of knowledge or wisdom, 
which the Buddhists believe man has the capacity of perfecting up to the stand- 
ard of infinity. 

X See the note on No. 3, on the Yatnika system. 

§ Tathata, says the comment, is Satya Juyan ; and Bhdvana is Bhdva or Satta, 
i. e. sheer entity. 

H See note on quotation 1 of the section A'di Buddha. 

H Here again I might repeat the caution and remark at quotation 2. I have 
elsewhere observed, that Swdbhdvika texts, differently interpreted, form the basis 
of the Aiswarika doctrine, as well as that the Buddhas of the Swdbhdtnkas, who 
darive their capacity of identifying themselves with the first cause from nature, 
which is that cause, are as largely gifted as the Buddhas of the Aiswarikas, deriv- 
ing the same capacity from A'di Buddha, who t# that cause. See remarks on 
Remusat apud Journal of Bengal Asiatic Society, Nos. 32, 33, and 34. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Authorities on Buddhism. 73 

5. Mahd Sdnydta is, according to some, Swabhdva, and, according 
to others, Iswara ; it is like the ethereal expanse, and self-sustained. 
In that Mahd Sdnydta, the letter A, which the Vija Mantra of Updya*, 
and the chief of all the Vija Mantras of the letters, became manifest. 
(Rucha Bhdgavati.) 

6. Some say creation is from God : if so, what is the use of Yatna 
or of Karma fP That which made all things, will preserve and destroy 
them ; that which governs Nirvritti, governs Pravritti also. (Buddha 
Charitrakdvya. ) 

7. The sandal tree freely communicates its fragrance to him who 
tears off its bark. Who is not delighted with its odour ? It is from 
Swabhdva. (Kalpalata.) 

8. The elephant's cub, if he find not leafless and thorny creepers 
in the green wood, becomes thin. The crow avoids the ripe mango J. 
The cause is still Swabhdva. (Do.) 

9. Who sharpened the thorn ? Who gave their varied forms, 
colours, and habits to the deer kind, and to the birds ? Swabhdva / It 
is not according to the will fichchha) of any ; and if there be no desire 
or intention, there can be no intender or designer^. (Buddha Charitra.) 

10. The conch, which is worthy of all praise, bright as the moon, 
rated first among excellent things, and which is benevolent to all 
sentient beings, though it be itself insensate, yields its melodious 
music, purely by reason of Swabhdva. (Kalpalata.) 

11. That hands and feet, and belly and back, and head, in fine, 
organs of whatever kind, are found in the womb, the wise have attri- 

• Upaya, the expedient, the energy of nature in a state of activity. See the 
note on No. 6, of the section A'di Sang ha. 

f See the note on quotation 9 of this head. Yatna and Karma may here be 
rendered by intellect and morality. 

X These are assumed facts in Natural History ; but not correct. 

§ Here is plainly announced that denial of self-consciousness or personality 
in the causa causarum which constitutes the great defect of the Swabh&vika 
philosophy: and if this denial amount to atheism, the Swabhdvikas are, for the 
most part, atheists ; their denial also of a moral ruler of the universe being a neces- 
sary sequel to it. Excepting, however, a small and mean sect of them, they all 
affirm eternal necessary entity ; nor do any of them reject the soul's existence be- 
yond the grave, or the doctrine of atonement. Still Newton's is, upon the whole, 
the right judgment, ' Deus sine providentia et dominio nihil est nisi fatum et 
nature.* The Swdbhdcika attempts to deify nature are but a sad confusion of 
cause and effect. But, in a serious religious point of view, I fail to perceive 
any superiority possessed by the immaterial pantheism of Brahman s over the 
material pantheism of the Buddhists. Metempsychosis and absorption are 
common to both. 

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74 Quotations from original Sanscrit [Feb. 

bated to Swabkdva ; and the union of the soul or life (A'tma) with body, 
is also Swabkdoa. (Buddha Charitra Kfoya.) 

12. From Swabkdva (nature) all things proceeded ; by Swabkdva 
all things are preserved. All their differences of structure and of habits 
are from Swabkdva : and from Swabkdva comes their destruction. All 
things are regulated (suddka) by Swabkdva. Swabkdva is known as 
the Supreme. (Pujd hand* — from the Rucka Bkdgavmti, where the sub- 
stance is found in sundry passages). 

13. Akdsk is Swdbkdvika, because it is established* governed, per- 
fected (tuddhaj by its own force or nature. All things are absorbed in 
it : it is uncreated or eternal ; it is revealed by its own force ; it is 
the essence (A'tma*) of creation, preservation, and destruction ; it is the 
essence of the five elements ; it is infinite ; it is intellectual essence 
(Bodkandtmika). The five colours are proper to it; and the five 
Buddha*; and the letters. It is SCnydta; self-supported; omnipre- 
sent : to its essence belong both Pravritti and Nirvritti. This Akdsk, 
which is omnipresent, and essentially intellectualf, because infinite things 
are absorbed into it, is- declared to be infinite. From the infinite nature 
of this Akdsk were produced all moving things, each in its own time, 
in due procession from another, and with its proper difference of form 
and habits. From the secret nature of Akdsk proceeded likewise, 
together with the Vij Mantra of each one, air with its own mobility ; 
and from air, fire with its own heat ; and from fire, water with its 
intrinaical coldness ; and from water, earth with its own proper solidity 
or heaviness ; and from earth, Mount Sumtoru with its own substance 
of gold, or with its own sustaining power (Dkdtwdtmika) ; and from 
Sumtoru, all the various kinds of trees and vegetables ; and from; them, 
all the variety of colours, shapes, flavours, and fragrances, in leaves, 
flowers, and fruits. Each derived its essential property (as of fire to 
burn) from itself; and the order of its procession into existence from 
the one precedent, by virtue of Swabkdva, operating in time. The 
several manners of going peculiar to the six classes of animate beings 
(four-legged, two-legged, &c), and their several modes of birth, (ovi- 

• One comment on the comment says, A'tma here meant stkdn or dlaya, i. e. 
the ubi of creation, &c. 

f Akdsk ii here understood as synonymous with Sunydta, that is, as the 
elemental state of all things, the universal ubi and modus of primal entity, in a 
state of abstraction from all specific forms : and it is worthy of note, that amidst 
these primal principles, intelligence has admission. It is therefore affirmed to 
be a necessary end, or eternal portion of the system of nature, though separated 
from self-consciousness or personality. In the same manner, Prdjna, the sum 
of all things, Diva nature, is declared to be eternal, and essentially intelligent, 
though a material principle. 

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1836.] Authorities on Buddhism. 75 

parous, &c.*) all proceeded from Swabhdva. From the Swabhdva of 
each mansion or habitat (Bhavana) resulted the differences existing 
between the several abodes of all the six orders of animate beings. 
The existence of the foetus in the womb proceeds from the Swabhdva of 
the union of male and female ; and its gradual growth and assumption 
of flesh, bones, skin, and organs, is caused by the joint energy of the 
Swabhdva of the foetus, and that of time, or the Swabhdva of the foetus, 
operating in time. The procession of all things from birth, through gra- 
dual increase, to maturity ; and thence, through gradual decay, to death, 
results spontaneously from the nature of each being ; as do the differ- 
ences appropriated to the faculties of the senses and of the mind, and 
to those external things and .internal, which are perceived by them. 
Speech and sustenance from droaacd idod in .mankind, and the want of 
speech and the eating of grass in quadrupeds, together with the birth 
of birds from eggs, of insects from sweat, and of the Gods (DevatdaJ 
without parentage of any sort : all these marvels proceed from Swabhdva, 
(Comment an the Pajd hand, quotation 12.) 

The . Aiftw,*jti*A System. 

1. The self-existent God is the sum of perfections* infinite, eternal, 
without members or passions ; one with all things (in Pravritti), and 
separate from all things (in Ntrvritti), in&uformed and formless, the 
essence of Pravritti and of Nhvriitif . (Swayambhd Purdna.) 

2. He whose image is Sdmydta, who is like a cypher or point, 
infinite, unsustained (in Ntrvritti), and sustained (in Pravritti), whose 
essence is Ntrvritti, of whom all things are forms (in Pravritti), and - 
who is yet formless (in Ntrvritti), who is the Iswara, the first intellectual 
essence, the A'di Buddha, was revealed by his own will. This self- 

• By etcsetera, understand aiwayt (more Brahmanorum). That Buddhism forma 
an integral part of the Indian philosophy is sufficiently proved by the multitude 
of terms and classifications common to it, and to Brihmanism. The theogony 
and cosmogony of the latter are expressly those of the former, with sundry addi- 
tions only, which serve to prove the posteriority of date, and schismstical seces- 
sion, of the Buddhist $. M. Cousin, in his course of philosophy, notices the 
absence of a sceptical school amongst the Indian philosophers. Buddhism, when 
fully explained, will supply the desideratum ; and I would here notice the 
precipitation with which we are now constantly drawing general conclusions 
relative to the scope of Indian speculation, from a knowledge of the BrAhmanical 
writings only — writings equalled or surpassed in number and value by those of 
the Budddutt, Joint, and other dissenters from the existing orthodox system of 
Vydta and Seaiera A'chirya. 

f Pravritti, the versatile universe ; Ntrvritti, its opposite, this world and the 
B*xt. Pravritti is compounded of Pra, an intensitive, and vritti, action, occu- 
pation, from the root va, to blow as the wind; Ntrvritti, of Mr, a privative, and 
vritti, as before. 

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76 Quotations from original Sanscrit [Fkb. 

existent is he whom all know as the only true Being ; and, though 
the state of Nirvritti he his proper and enduring state, yet, for the 
sake of Pravritti, (creation), having become Pancha-jnydndtmika, he 
produced the five Buddhas thus ; from Swi-suddha-dharma-dhdtujajnydn, 
Vairo chana, the supremely wise, from whom proceed the element of 
earth, the sight, and colours ; and from Adarshana-jnyan, Akshobhya, 
from whom proceed the element of water, the faculty of hearing, and 
all sounds; and from Pratyavekshana-jnydn, Ratna Sambhava, from 
whom proceed the element of fire, the sense of smell, and all odours ; 
and from Samta-jnydn, Amitdbha, from whom proceed the element of 
air, the sense of taste, and all savours ; and from Krityanushtha-jnydn, 
Amogha Siddha, from whom proceed the element of ether, the faculty 
of touch, and all the sensible properties of outward things dependent 
thereon. All these five Buddhas are Pravritti kdmang, or the authors 
of creation. They possess the five jnyans, the five colours, the five 
mudras, and the five vehicles*. The five elements, five senses, and 
five respective objects of sense, are forms of themf. And these five 
Buddhas each produced a Bodhi-Satwa, (for the detail, see Asiatic 
Society's Transactions, vol. xvi.) The five Bodhi-Satwas are Srishti- 
kdmang, or the immediate agents of creation ; and each, in his turn, 
having become Sarvaguna, (invested with all qualities, or invested with 
the three gunas,) produced all things by his fiat. (Comment on quot. 1 .) 
3. All things existent (in the versatile universe) proceed from some 
cause (hetu) : that cause is the Tathdgata% {Adi Buddha) ; and that 

• See Appendix A. 

t The five Dhyani Buddhas are said to be Pancfia Bhuta, Pancha Indriya, and 
Pancha Ay at an dkar. Hence my conjecture that they are mere personifications, 
according to a theistic theory of the phenomena of the sensible world. The 
6th Dhyani Buddha is, in like manner, the icon and source of tbe6th sense, and 
its object, or Manasa an 1 Dharma, i. e. the sentient principle, soul of the senses, 
or internal sense, and moral and intellectual phsenomena. In the above passage, 
however, the association of the five elements is not the most accredited one, which 
(for example) associates hearing and sounds to Akdsh. 

X This important word is compounded of Tatha, thus, and gata % gone or got, 
and is explained in three ways. 1st, thus got or obtained, viz. the rank of a 
Tathdgata, obtained by observance of the rules prescribed for the acquisition of 
perfect wisdom, of which acquisition, total cessation of births is the efficient con- 
sequence. 2nd, thus gone, viz. the mundane existence of the Tathdyata, gone so 
a$ never to return, mortal births having been closed, and Nirvritti obtained, by 
perfection of knowledge. 3rd, gone in the same manner as it or they (birth or 
births) came ; the sceptical and necessitarian conclusion of those who held that 
both metempsychosis and absorption are beyond our intellect (as objects of 
knowledge), and independent of our efforts (as objects of desire and aversion— at 
contingencies to which we are liable) ; and that that which causes births, causes 

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ISM.] Authoritie* on Buddhism. 77 

which is the cause of (versatile) existence is the cause of the cessation 
or extinction of all (such) existence : so said Sdkya Sinha. {Bhadra 

4. Body is compounded of the five elements : soul, which animates 
it, is an enamation from the self-existent. (Swayambhn purdna.) 

5. Those who have suffered many torments in this life, and have 
even horned in hell, shall, if they piously serve the Tri Ratna (or Triad), 
escape from the evils of both. (Avaddn Kalpalatd.) 

6. Subandu (a Raja of Benares) was childless. He devoted himself 
to the worship of Iswara (A'di Buddha) ; and by the grace of Iswara 
a sugar-cane was produced from his semen, from which a son was born 
to him. The race 41 remains to this day, and is called Ikshava Aku. 
(Avaddn Kalpalatd. J 

likewise (proprio vigore) the ultimate cessation of them. The epithet Tathagata, 
therefore, can only be applied to A'di Buddha, the self •existent, who ii never 
incarnated, in a figurative, or at least a restricted, sense; — cessation of human 
births being the essence of what it implies. I have seen the question and 
answer, • what is the Tathdgata ? It does not come again,' proposed and solved 
by the Raheha Bhagavati, in the very spirit and almost in the words of the Veda*. 
One of a thousand proofs that have occurred to me how thoroughly Indian 
Buddhism is. Tathagata, thus gone, or gone as he came, as applied to A'di 
Buddha, alludes to his voluntary secession from the versatile world into that of 
abstraction, of which no mortal can predicate more than that his departure and 
his advent are alike simple results of his volition. Some authors substitute this 
interpretation, exclusively applicable to A'di Buddha, for the third sceptical and 
general interpretation above given. The synonyme Sugata, or ' well gone, for 
ever quit of versatile existence,' yet further illustrates the ordinary meaning of 
the word Tathdgata, as well as the ultimate scope and genius of the Buddhiet 
religion, of which the end is, freedom from metempsychosis ; and the means, perfect 
and absolute enlightenment of the understanding, and consequent discovery 
of the grand secret of nature. What that grand secret, that ultimate truth, that 
single reality, is, whether all is God, or God is all, seems to be the sole propo- 
situs) of the oriental philosophic religionists, who have all alike sought to 
discover it by taking the high priori road. That God is all, appears to be the 
prevalent and dogmatic determination of the firahmanists ; that all is God, the 
preferential but sceptical solution of the Buddhiet* ; and, in a large view, I 
believe it would be difficult to indicate any further essential difference between 
their theoretic systems, both, as I conceive, the unquestionable growth of the 
Indian soil, and both founded upon transcendental speculations, conducted in 
the very same style and manner. 

• That of Sdhga Sinha, and said by the Buddhiet* to belong to the solar line 
of Indian Princes. Nor is it any proof of the contrary, that the Paurdniia 
genealogies exhibit no trace of this race. Those genealogies have been altered 
again and again, to suit current prejudices or partialities. The Branmans who 


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76 Quotations from original Sanscrit [F*B. 

7. When all was void, perfect void, (Sunya, Mahd Sunya) the trili- 
teral syllable Awn became manifest, the first created, the ineffably 
splendid, surrounded by all the radical letters (Vijd Akshara), as by a 
necklace. In that Aum, he who is present in all things, formless and 
passionless, and who possesses the Tri Ratna, was produced by hi* 
own will. To him I make adoration. (Swayambhu purdna). 
The Kdrmika System. 

1 . From the union of Updya and Prqjnd?, arose Manas, the lord 
of the senses, and from Manas proceeded the ten virtues and the ten 
vices ; so said Sdkya Sinha. (Divya Avadan.) 

2. The being of all things is derived from belief, reliance, (prat y ay a,) 
in this order : from false knowledge, delusive impression ; from delusive 
impression, general notions ; from them, particulars ; from them, the 
six seats (or outward objects) of the senses ; from them, contact ; from 
it, definite sensation and perception ; from it, thirst or desire ; from it, 
embryotic (physical) existence ; from it, birth or actual physical exist- 
ence ; from it, all the distinctions of genus and species among animate 
things ; from them, decay and death, after the manner and period 
peculiar to each. Such is the procession of all things into existence 
from Avidya, or delusion : and in the inverse order to that of their 
procession, they retrograde into non-existence. And the egress and 
regress are both Karmas, wherefore this system is called Kdrmika. 
(Sdkya to his disciples in the Racha Bhagavati.) 

3. The existence of the versatile world is derived sheerly from 
fancy or imagination, or belief in its reality ; and this false notion is 
the first Karma of Manas, or first act of the sentient principle, as yet 
unindividualized ? and unembodied. This belief of the unembodied sen- 
tient principle in the reality of a mirage is attended with a longing 
after it, and a conviction of its worth and reality ; which longing is 
called Sanscdr, and constitutes the second Karma of Manas. When 
Sanscdr becomes excessive incipient individual, consciousness arises 
(third Karma) ; thence proceeds an organised and definite, but arche- 
typal body, the seat of that consciousness, (fourth Karma ;) from the 
last results the existence of [the six sensible and cognizable properties 
of] naturalf objects, moral and physical, (fifth Karma.) When the 

obliterated throughout India every Teitige of the splendid and extensive litera- 
ture of the Buddha*, would have little scruple in expunging from their own sacred 
books the royal lineage of the great founder of Buddhism. 

* See the note on quotation 6 of the section A'di Sangha. Also the note on 
quotation 1 of the Yatnika system. 

t So I render, after much inquiry, the Shad Ay at an, or six seats of the senses 
external and internal ; and which are in detail as follows: R*p*, Savda, Ganda, 

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1836.] Authorities on Buddhism. 79 

archetypally embodied sentient principle comes to exercise itself on 
these properties of things, then definite perception pr knowledge is 
produced, as that this is white, the other, black ; this is right, the 
other wrong, (sixth Karma.) Thence arises desire or worldly affection 
in the archetypal body, (seventh Karma,) which leads to corporeal 
conception, (eighth,) and that to physical birth, (ninth.) From birth 
result the varieties of genus and species distinguishing animated nature, 
(tenth Karma,) and thence come decay and death in the time and 
manner peculiar to each, (eleventh and final Karma.) Such is the evolu- 
tion of all things in Pravritti; opposed to which is Nirvritti, and the 
Rasa, Sparta, D karma. There is an obvious difficulty as to Spars*, and some 
also as to D karma. The whole category of the Ay at an* expresses outward things : 
and after much investigation, I gather, that under Rupa is comprised not only 
colour, hut form too, so far as its discrimination (or, in Kdrmika terms, its 
existence) depends on sight ; and that all other unspecified properties of body 
are referred to Sparta, which therefore includes not only temperature, roughness, 
and smoothness, and hardness, and its opposite, but also gravity, and even extend- 
ed figure, though not extension in the abstract. 

Here we have not merely the secondary or sensible properties of matter, but 
also the primary ones j and, as the exittence of the Ay atom or outward objects 
perceived, is said to be derived from the Indriyd*, (or from Manor, whieh is their 
collective energy,) in other words, to be derived from the sheer exercise of the 
percipient powers. Nor is there any difficulty thence arising in reference to the 
Kdrmika doctrine, which clearly affirms that theory by its derivation of all things 
from Prafyaya (belief), or from Avidya (ignorance). But the Indriyd* and 
Ayatdna, with their neeettary connexion, (and, possibly, also, the making Avidya 
the source of all things,) belong likewise to one section at least of the Swabkd- 
vika school ; and, in regard to it, it will require a nice hand to exhibit this 
Berkleyan notion existing co-ordinately with the leading tenet of the Swabkdvikas. 
In the way of explanation I may observe, first, that the denial of material entity 
involved in the Indriyd and Ayatdn theory (as in that of Avidya) respects solely 
the versatile world of Pravritti, or of specific form* merely, and does not touch 
Che Nirvrittikd state of formative powers and of primal substances, to which 
latter, in that condition, the qualities of gravity, and even of extended figure, in 
any sense cognisable by human faculties, are denied, at the same time, that the 
real and even eternal existence of those substances, in that state, is affirmed. 

Second, though D karma, the sixth Ayatdn, be rendered by virtue, the appro- 
priated object of the internal sense, it must be remembered, that most of the 
Swabkdvikas, whilst they deny a moral ruler of the universe, affirm the existence 
of morality as a part of the system of nature. Others again (the minority) of 
the Swabkdvikas reject the sixth Indriya, and sixth Ayatdn, and, with them, the 
sixth Dkydni Buddha, or Vajrd Satwa, who, by the way, is the Magnus Apollo 
of the Tdntrik&s, a sect the mystic and obscene character of whose ritual is 
redeemed by its unusually explicit enunciation and acknowledgment of a " God 
above all.*' 

The published explanations of the procession of all things from Avidya appear 
to me irreconcilably to conflict with the ideal basis of the theory. 
m 2 

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SO Quotations from original Sanscrit [Fbb. 

recurrence of Nirvritti is the sheer consequence of the abandonment 
of all absurd ideas respecting the reality and stability of Pravritti, or, 
which is the same thing, the abandonment of Avidya: for, when 
Avidya is relinquished or overcome, Sanscdra and all the rest of the 
Karmas or acts of the sentient principle, vanish with it ; and also, of 
course, all mundane things and existences, which are thence only 
derived. Now, therefore, we see that Pravritti or the versatile world 
is the consequence of affection for a shadow, in the belief that it is a 
substance ; and Nirvritti is the consequence of an abandonment of all 
such affection and belief. And Pravritti and Nirvritti, which divide 
the universe, are Karmas ; wherefore the system is called Kdrmika. 
(Comment on Quotation 2.) 

4. Since the world is produced by the Karma of Manas, or sheer 
act of the sentient principle, it is therefore called Kdrmika, The 
manner of procession of all things into existence is thus. From the 
union of Updya and of Prdjna, Manas proceeded ; and from Manas, 
Avidya ; and from Avidya, Sanscdr ; and from Sanscdr, Vijnydna ; and 
from Vijnydna, Ndmarupa ; and from Ndmardpa, the Shad Ay at an* ; 
and from them, Vedana ; and from it, Trishna ; and from it, Upaddn ; 
and from it, Bhava ; and from it, Jati ; and from it, Jaramarana. And 
from Jdtirupya Manas, (i. e. the sentient principle in organized animate 
beings) emanated the ten virtues and ten vices. And as men's words 
and deeds partake of the character of the one or the other, is their 
lot disposed, felicity being inseparably bound to virtue, and misery to 
vice, by the very nature of Karma. 

Such is the procession of all things into existence from Manas 
through Avidya ; and when Avidyd ceases, all the rest cease with it. 
Now, since Avidyd is a false knowledge, and is also the medium of all 
mundane existence, when it ceases, the world vanishes ; and Manas, 
relieved from its illusion, is absorbed into Updya Prajnat. Pravritti is 
the state of things under the influence of Avidyd ; and the cessation of 
Avidyd is Nirvritti : Pravritti and Nirvritti are both Karmas. (Another 
comment on quotation 2.) 

* i. e. colour, odour, savour, sound, the properties dependent on touch, (which 
are hardness, and its opposite, temperature, roughness and smoothness, and also 
I believe gravity and extended figure,) and lastly, right and wrong. They are called 
the seats of the six senses, the five ordinary, and one internal. In this quotation 
I have purposely retained the original terms. Their import may be gathered 
from the immediately preceding quotations and note, which the curious may 
compare with Mr. Colbbrookb's explication. See his paper on the Bmuddhy 
philosophy, apud Trans. Roy. As. Socy. quarto vol. 

t The VdmdcHrat say into Prajna Updya : see note on quotation 6 of the 
section A'&i Sangha. 

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1836.] Authorities on Buddhism. 81 

5. The actions of a man's former births constitute his destiny*. 
fPunya paroda.J 

6. He who has received from nature such wisdom as to read his 
own heart, and those of all others, even he cannot erase the characters 
which Vidhdtrif has written on his forehead. (Avadan KalpalatdJ 

7. As the faithful servant walks behind his master when he walks, 
and stands behind him when he stands, so every animate being is 
bound in the chains of Karma. (Ditto.) 

8. Karma accompanies every one, every where, every instant, 
through the forest, and across the ocean, and over the highest moun- 
tains, into the heaven of Indra, and into Pdtdla (hell) ; and no power 
can stay it. (Ditto.) 

9. Kanal, son of king Asoka', because in one birth he plucked 
out the golden eyes from a Chatty at, had his own eyes plucked out in 
the next ; and because he in that birth bestowed a pair of golden eyes 
on a Chaitya, received himself in the succeeding birth eyes of unequal- 
led splendour. (Avadan KalpalatdJ 

10. Sa'kta Sinha'b son, named Ra'hula Bhadra, remained six 
years in the womb ofhis mother Yabodra. The pain and anxiety of mother 
and son were caused by the Karma* of their former births. (Ditto.) 

1 1 . Although I had required (Sdkya speaks of himself) a perfect 
body, still, even in this body, defect again appeared ; because I had yet 
to expiate a small residue of the sins of former births. (Lallita Vistara.J 

The Ydtnika System. 
1 . Iswara fA'di Buddha) produced Yatna from Prajna§ ; and the 
cause of Pravritti and Nirvritti is Yatna ; and all the difficulties that 

• DaHrya, identified with A 1 diBudd hub j the theistic, and with Fate, by the atheis- 
tic doctors. The precise equivalent of the maxim itself is qpr * conduct is fate.' 

t Bramha t bnt here understood to be Karma. 

X Chaitya is the name of the tomb temples or relic-consecrated chnrches of 
the Buddhistt. The essential part of the structure is the lower hemisphere : 
shore this a square basement or Toran always supports the acutely conical or 
pyramidal superstructure, and on all four sides of that basement two eyes are 
placed. WhereTer the lower hemisphere is found, is indisputable evidence 
of Buddhism, e. g. ' the topes' of Matukdlaya and of Pe$Aawar. In niches at 
the base of the hemisphere are frequently enshrined four of the fire Dkyani 
Buddha*, one opposite to each cardinal point. Ak$hobhya occupies the eastern 
aich ; Ratna Mombhdva, the southern ; Amitabha, the western, and Amoyhariddhe, 
the northern. Vairochana, the first Dhydni Buddha, is supposed to occupy the 
centre, invisibly. Sometimes, however, he appears visibly, being placed at the 
right-hand of Akihobhya. 

% This, as I conceive, is an attempt to remedy that cardinal defect of the 
older Swdbhdvika school, viz. the denial of personality, and conscious power 
and wisdom in the first cause. To the same effect is the Karmika assertion, 

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8? Quotations from original Sanscrit [Fib. 

occur in the affairs of this world and the next are vanquished by Yatna 
(or conscious intellectual effort). (Divym Avadan.J 

2. That above mentioned I sworn, by means of Yatna, produced the 
five Jnydns, whence sprang the five Buddhas. The five Buddhm, in 
like manner, (i. e. by means of Yatna,) produced the five Bodki satoa* .• 
and they again, by the same means, created the greater Devatas from 
their bodies, and the lesser ones, from the hairs of their bodies. In 
like manner, Brahma 1 created the three Lokas* and all moving and 
motionless things. Among mortals, all difficulties are overcome by 
Yatna ; for example, those of the sea by ships, those of illness by medi- 
cine, those of travelling by equipages — and want of paper, by prepared 
skin and bark of trees. And as all our worldly obstacles are removed 
by Yatna, so the wisdom which wins Nirvritti for us is the result of 
Yatna ; because by it alone are charity and the rest of the virtues ac- 
quired. Since therefore all the goods of this world and of the next 
depend upon Yatna, Sa'kya Sin ha wandered from region to region to 
teach mankind that cardinal truth. (Comment on Quotation 1.) 

3. That A'di Buddha, whom the Swabhaoikas call Swabhdva, and the 
Aiswdrikas, Iswaraf, produced a Bodhi satwa, who, having migrated 
through the three worlds, and through all six forms of animate exis- 
tence, and experienced the goods and evils of every state of being, 
appeared, at last, as Sdkya Sinka, to teach mankind the real sources of 
happiness and misery, and the doctrines of the four schools of philo- 
sophy! ; and then, by means of Yatna, having obtained Bodhi-jnydn, 
and having fulfilled all the Pdramitds (transcendental virtues), he at 
length became Nirvdn. (Divya Avadan.J 

4. Sa'kya Sin ha, having emanated from that self-existent which, 
according to some, is Swabhdva, and according to others, is Iswara, 
was produced for the purpose of preserving all creatures. He first 
adopted the Pravritti Mdrga (secular character), and in several births 
exercised Yatna and Karma, reaping the fruits of his actions in all the 
three worlds. He then exercised Yatna and Karma in the Nirvritti 

that Manas proceeded from the union of Updya and Prdjna, Karma I under- 
stand to mean conscious moral effort, and Yatna, conscious intellectual effort. 
Their admission in respect to human nature implies its free wilt, as their assig- 
nation to the divine nature implies its personality. 

• The celestial, terrene, and infernal divisions of the versatile universe. 

t Passages of this entirely pyrrhonic tenure incessantly recur in the oldest 
and highest authorities of the BuddhUtt ; hence the assertion of the preface 
that Sugatism is rather sceptical than atheistically dogmatic. 

X Expressly called in the comment the Swobhdvika, Aiswdriia, Yatnikd, and 
Kdrmika systems. I find no authority in Sangata books for the Brahminical 
nomenclature of the Bauddha philosophical schools. 

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1856.] Authorities on Buddhism. 83 

Mdrga (aecetical or monastic character) essaying a release from this 
mortal coil, fulfilling the ten virtues from the Satya to the Dwdpara 
Yuga, till at last, in the Kali Yuga, having completely freed himself 
from sublunary cares, having become a Bhikskuka*, and gone to Buddh 
Gyd, he rejected and reviled the Brihmanical penance, did all sorts of 
true penance for six years under the tree of knowledge on banks of the 
Niranjana river ; conquered the Namuchimaraf, obtained Bodhi-jnydn, 
became the most perfect of the Buddhas, seated himself among the Bodhi 
satwas, (Ananda ' Bhihshu' and the rest,) granted wisdom to the simple, 
fulfilled the desires of millions of people, and gave Moksha\ to them 
and to himself. (LalUta Vistdra.J 

5. A hare fell in with a tiger : by means of Yatna the hare threw 
the tiger into a well. Hence it appears that Yatna prevails over phy- 
sical force, knowledge, and the Mantras. (Bhadra Kalpavadan.) 

6. Nara Sinh a (Raja of Benares) was a monster of cruelty. Satta 
Swam a Raja, by means of Yatna, compelled him to deliver up 100 
Bajkumdrs, whom Nara Sinha had destined for a sacrifice to the gods. 
(Bhadra Kalpavadan.) 

7. Sodhana Kuma'ra found a beautiful daughter of a horse-faced 
Raja named Druii a. By means of Yatna he carried her off, and kept 
her ; and was immortalized for the exploit. (Swayambhu Purdna.J 

A'di Buddha. 
1 . Know that when, in the beginning, all was perfect void (Mahd- 
sunydta§), and the five elements were not, then A'di Buddha, the stain- 
less, was revealed in the form of flame or light. 

* Mendicant : one of the four regular orders of the Bauddhas. — See the Preface. 

t A Dotty* of Kdnehanapara, personification of the principle of evil. Bodhi* 
jnydn is the wisdom of Buddhism. Ananda was one of the first and ablest of 
Sa'kta's disciples. The first code of Buddhism is attributed to him. 

X Emancipation, absorption. 

§ The doctrine of Sunydta is the darkest corner of the metaphysical laby- 
rinth. 18 kinds of Sunydta are enumerated in the Raktha Bhagavati. I under- 
stand it to mean generally space, which some of our philosophers have held to 
be plenum, others a vacuum. In the transcendental sense of the Buddhist*, it 
signifies not merely the universal ubi, but also the modus esistendi of all things 
in the state of quiescence and abstraction from phssnomenal being. The Bud- 
dhists have eternised matter or nature in that state. The energy of nature ever 
is, but is not ever exerted ; and when not exerted, it is considered to be void of 
all those qualities which necessarily imply perishableness. Most of the Bud- 
dhists deem (upon different grounds) all phssnomena to be as purely illusory as 
do the Vedantists. The phssnomena of the latter are sheer energies of God ; 
those of the former are sheer energies of Nature, deified and substituted for God. 
See note on quot. A'di Sangha. The Aiswarikas put their A'di Buddha in place 
of the nature of the older Swobh&vikat. See Journal of As. Soc. No. 33, Art. 1. 

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84 Quotations from Original Sanscrit [Feb. 

2. He in whom are the three gunas, who is the Mahd Murti and 
the Vievarupa (form of all things), became manifest : he is the self- 
existent great Buddha, the A'di with, the Makbswara. 

3. He is the cause of all existences in the three worlds ; the cause 
of their well being also. From his profound meditation (DhydnJ, the 
uai verse was produced by him. 

4. He is the self- existent, the Iswara, the sum of perfections, the 
infinite, void of members or passions : all things are types of him, and 
yet he was no type : he is the form of all things, and yet formless. 

5. He is without parts, shapeless, self-sustained, void of pain and 
care, eternal and not eternal* ; him I salute. (Kdranda Vyuha.) 

6. A'di Buddha is without beginning. He is perfect, pure within, 
the essence of the wisdom of thatness, or absolute truth. He knows all 
the past. His words are ever the same. 

7. He is without second. He is omnipresent. He is Nairatmya 
lion to the Kdtirtha deerf. (Nam sangiti.) 

8. I make salutation to A'di Buddha, who is one and sole in the 
universe ; who gives every one Bodhi-jnydn ; whose name is Updya ; who 
became manifest in the greatest Sunydta, as the letter A. Who is the 
Tathagaia ; who is known only to those who have attained the wisdom 
of absolute truth. (Ditto.) 

9. As in the mirror we mortals see our forms reflected, so A'di 
Buddha is known (in Pravritti) by the 32 lakshanas and 80 anuvinjanas. 

10. As the rainbow, by means of its five colours, forewarns mortals 
of the coming weather, so does A'di Buddha admonish the world of its 
good and evil actions by means of his five essential colours J. (Ditto.) 

* One in Nirvritti ; the other in Pravritti ; and so of all the preceding con- 
trasted epithets. Nirvritti is quiescence and abstraction : Pravritti, action and 
concretion. All the schools admit these two modes, and thus solve the difficulty 
of different properties existing in cause and in effects. 

f Comment says, that Nairatmya is ' Sarva Dharmandm nirabhdt lakthanang ,•* 
and that Tirtha means Moktha, and Kdtirtha, any perversion of the doctrine 
of Moktha, as to say it consists in absorption into Brahm : and it explains the 
whole thus, ' He thunders in the ears of all those who misinterpret Moktha, 
there is no true Moktha, but Sunydta.* Another comment gives the sense thus, 
dividing the sentence into two parts, ' There is no atma (life or soul) without 
him : he alarms the wicked as the lion the deer.' The first commentator is a 
Swobh&vika ; the second, an Aitwarika one. 

X White, blue, yellow, red, and green, assigned to the five Dhyani Buddhas. 

For a detail of the lakthanat, anuvinjanat, balas, batitat, &c. ef the neighbour- 
ing quotations, see Appendix A. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1*33.] Authorities on Buddhism. 86 

11 . AtU Buddha delights in making happy every sentient being ; he 
tenderly loves those who serve him. His majesty fills all with reve- 
rence and awe. He is the assuager of pain and grief. (Ditto.) 

12. He is the possessor of the 10 virtues ; the giver of the 10 vir- 
tues : the lord of the 10 heavens ; lord of the Universe : present in the 
10 heavens. (Ditto.) 

13. By reason of the 10 jnydns, his soul is enlightened. He too is 
the ealightener of the 10 jnydns. He has 10 forms and 10 significa- 
tions, and 10 strengths, and 10 basitas. He is omnipresent, the chief 
q{ the Munis. (Ditto.) 

14. He has five bodies, and five jnydms, and five sights; is the 
wsukmt of the five Buddhas, without partner. (Ditto.) 

15. He is the creator of all the Buddhas : the chief of the Mli» 
stomas are cherished by him. He is the creator of Prajnd, and of the 
world ; himself unmade. A liter, he made the world by the existence of 
Prajnd ; himself unmade. He is the author of virtue, the destroyer of 
all things*. (Ditto.) 

16. He is the essence of all essences. He is the Vajra-dtma. Ht 
is the instantly-produced lord of the universe ; the creator of Akdsh* 
He assumes the form of fire, by reason of the Prajnya-rupi-jnyan, to 
consume the straw of ignorance. (Ditto.) 

A'di Prajnd, or Dharnta. 

1 . I salute that Prajnd Parauitd, who by reason of her omniscience 
causes the tranquillity-seeking Srdvakasf to obtain absorption ; who, by 
her knowledge of all the ways of action, causes each to go in the path 
suited to his genius, of whom wise men have said, that the external and 
internal diversities belonging to all animate nature, as produced by her, 
who is the mother of Buddha (Buddha Mdtra) of that Buddha to whose 
service all the Srdvakas and Bodhi-satwas dedicate themselves. (Pan- 
chavimgsati Sahasrika.) 

2. First air, then fire, then water, then earthf, and in the centre of 
earth, Sumdru, the sides of which are the residence of the 33 millions 

• The comment on this passage is Yery full, and Yery cnrions, in as mnch as it 
reduces many of these supreme deities to mere parti o/ spsteh. Here is the 
summing up of the comment : * He (A'di Buddha) is the instructor of the Bud* 
dhms and of the Bodhusatwas. He is known by the knowledge of spiritual 
wisdom. He is the creator and destroyer of all things, the fountain of virtue.' 
Spiritual wisdom is stated to consist of Sila, Samddhi, Pr6jn&, Vtmukhti, and 

t Name of one of the ascetical orders of Buddhists. See Preface. 

X In this enumeration of material elements, Akdsh is omitted : but it is men- 
tioned, and most emphatically, in quo. 4, as in the 50 other places quoted. In 

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86 • Quotations from original Sanscrit [Feb. 

of gods (Devatds), and above these, upon a Lotos of precious stones, 
sustaining the mansion of the moon (or a moon-crescent) sits Prdjnd 
Paramita, in the Lallita-asa* manner* ; Prdjnd, the mother of all the 
gods (Prasu-bhagavatang), and without beginning or end, fanddgant.) 
(Bhadra Kalpavaddn.J 

3. I make salutation to the Prdjnd Devi, who is the Prdjnd Paramita, 
the Prdjnd rupa, the Nir rupa, and the universal mother. (Puja hand.) 

4. Thou Prdjnd art, like A hash, intact and intangible ; thou art 
above all human wants ; thou art established by thy own power. He 
who devoutly serves thee serves the Tathdgata also. (Ashta Sahasrika.) 

5. Thou mighty object of my worship ! thou Prdjnd, art the sum of 
all good qualities ; and Buddha is the Gdru of the world. The wise 
make no distinction between thee and Buddha. (Ashta Sahasriha.) 

6. O thou who art merciful to thy worshippers, the benevolent, 
knowing thee to be the source of Bauddha excellence, attain perfect 
happiness by the worship of thee ! (Ditto.) 

7. Those Buddha* who are merciful, and the Gurus of the world, all 
such Buddhas are thy children. Thou art all good, and the universal 
mother (Sakaljagat Pitd MahiJ. (Ditto.) 

8. Every Buddha assembling his disciples instructs them how from 
unity thou becomest multiformed and many named. (Ditto.) 

9. Thou comest not from any place, thou goest not to any place. 
Do the wise nowhere find theef ? (Ditto.) 

10. The Buddhas, Pratytka Buddhas, and Srdvakmst, have all de- 
voutly served thee. By thee alone is absorption obtained. These are 
truths revealed in all Shdstras. (Ditto.) 

11. What tongue can utter thy praises, thou of whose being (or 
manifestation) there iB no cause by thy own will. No Purdna hath 
revealed any attribute by which thou mayest certainly be known. (Ditto.) 

12. When all was Sunydta, Prdjnd Devi was revealed out of Akdsh 
with the letter U; Prdjnd, the mother of all the Buddhas and Bodhi- 
satwas, in whose heart Dharma ever resides ; Prdjnd, who is without 
the world and the world's wisdom, full of the wisdom of absolute truth : 

like manner, the tot elements are frequently mentioned, without allusion to the 
6th, which howerer occurs in fit places. Omission of thii sort is no denial. 

• L e. one leg tucked under the other, advanced and resting on the bow of 
the moon.crescent. 

f The force of the question is this, the wise certainly find thee. 

J The Buddhas are of three grades t the highest is Mohd Tdnm, the medial, 
Tratyiha, and the lowest, Srov&ka. These three grades are called collectirely 
the Tri-Ydnm, or three chariots, bearing their possessors to transcendental glory.' 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Authorities on Buddhism. 67 

the giver and the ikon of that wisdom; the ever living (Stso/ext); 
the inscrutable ; the mother of Buddha*. (Pujd hand.) 

13. O Prujnd D4vi 7 thou art the mother (Jammi) of all the Bud- 
has, the grandmother of the Bodhi-satwas, and great grandmother of 
all (other) creatures ! thou art the goddess (Isdad). (Ditto.) 

14. Thou, Sri BhagavatiDM Prajnd, art the sum of all the sci- 
ences, the mother of all the Buddhas, the enlightener of Bodhi-jnydu, 
the light of the universe ! (Gunakdranda Vyuha.) 

15. Hie humbler of the pride of Namtuchi-mdra, and of all proud 
ones : the giver of the quality of So/ya ; the possessor of all the sciences, 
the Lakshnu; the protector of all mortals, such is the Dharma Raima. 

16. All that the Buddhas have said, as contained in the Mahd Ydna 
Sdira and the rest of the Sutras, is also Dharma Ratmaf. (Ditto.) 

1 7. Because Buddha sits on the brow, the splendour thence derived 
to thy form illuminates all the ethereal expanse, and sheds over the 
three worlds the light of a million of suns, the four Devatds, Brahma, 
Vishnu, Mahisa, and Indra, are oppressed beneath thy feet, which is ad* 
ranced in the AUr-Asan. O Arya Tdrd ! he who shall meditate on thee 
in this form shall be relieved from all future births. {Sarakd Dhard\.) 

18. Tby manifestation, say some of the wise, is thus, from the 
roots of the hairs of thy body sprang Ahdsh, heaven, earth, and hades, 
together with their inhabitants, the greater Devatds, the lesser, the 
Dotty as, the Siddhds, Gandharbas, and Ndgas. So too (from thy hairs), 
wonderful to tell ! were produced the various mansions of the Buddhas $ 
together with the thousands of Buddhas who occupy them$. From 
thy own being were formed all moving and motionless things without 
exception. (Ditto.) 

19. Salutation to Prdjnd DM, from whom, in the form of desire, 

• Sugatjd, which the V&mach&rs render, ' of whom Buddha was born ; f 
the D+Jbshindchdrs, * bora of Buddha,' or goer to Buddha, as wife to husband. 

+ Hence the scriptures are worshipped as forms of A'di Dharma S&tra, means 
literally thread (of discourse), aphorism. SdJtya, like other Indian sages, taught 
orally, and it is doubtful if he himself reduced his doctrines to a written code, 
though the great scriptures of the sect are now generally attributed to him. 
Bttira is now the title of the book$ of highest authority among the Bauddhas. 

X Composed by Sarvajna Biitrapada of Kashmir, and in very high esteem, 
though not of scriptural authority. 

§ These thousands of Buddhas of immortal mould are somewhat opposed to 
the so called simplicity of Buddhism ! I whate? er were the primitire doctrines 
of Sdkya, it is certain that the system attributed to him, and now found in the 
written authorities of the sect, is the very antipodes of simplicity. 

N 2 

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88 Quotations f rem original Sanscrit [Feb. 

the production of the world was excellently obtained*, who is beauti- 
ful as the full moon, the mother of A'di Buddha, (Jinmdra Matra,) and 
wife of (the other) Buddha, who is imperishable as adamant. (Sddhana 

20. That Yoni, from which the world was made manifest, is the 
Trikondkdr Yanira. In the midst of the Yantra or trikon (triangle) is a 
bindu (point, cypher) : from that bindd, A'di Prajnd revealed herself by 
her own will. From one side of the triangle A'di Prajnd produced 
Buddha, and from another side, Dharma, and from the third side, 
Sangha. That A'di Prajnd is the mother of that Buddha who issued 
from the first side ; and Dharma, who issued from the second side, is 
the wife of the Buddha of the first side, and the mother of the other 
Buddhas. (Comment on quotation 19.) 

. 21 . Salutation to Prajnd Pdramitd, the infinite, who, when all was 
void, was revealed by her own will, out of the letter U. Prajnd, the Sahti 
of Up&ya, the sustainer of all things, (Dharmiki) the mother of the 
world, (Jagat-tndtra ;) the Dhydnrdpa, the mother of the Buddhas. The 
modesty of women is a form of her, and the prosperity of all earthly 
things. She is the wisdom of mortals, and the ease, and the joy, and 
the emancipation, and the knowledge. Pr*ijnd is present every where. 
(Sddhana Mdla.) 

A'di Sangha. 
1 . That A'mkabha, by virtue of his Samta-jnydn, created the Bodhi- 
satwa named Padma-pdni, and committed to his hands the lotosf. 
(Gunakdranda Vytlha.) 

. • Dharmadpa-sangata Kamrupini, variously rendered, * well got from the rise 
of virtue, 1 ' well got from the rise or origin of the world ;' alto as in text, Dhar* 
madya, the source of all things, signifies likewise the yoni, of which the type 
is a triangle. See 20. The triangle is a familiar symbol in temples of the Buddha 
Saktis, and of the Triad. & The point in the midst represents either 
A'di Buddha or A'di Prajnd, according to the tbeistic or atheistic tendency of 
^is opinions who uses it. Oar commentator is of the V&mdch&r or Atheistic 
school, and such also is his text. 

f Type of creative power. A'mitdbha is the 4th Dhyani or celestial Buddha » 
Padma-pdni is his AEon and executive minister. Padma-pdni is the present Divus 
and creator of the existing system of worlds. Hence his identification with the 
third member of the Triad. He is figured as a graceful youth, erect, and bearing 
in either hand a loto$ and a jewel. The last circumstance explains the meaning 
of the celebrated Shadakehari Mantra, or six-lettered invocation of him, via. 
Om! Mane padme horn/ of which so many corrupt versions and more corrupt 
interpretations have appeared from Chinese, Tibetan, Japanese, Mongolese, 
and other sources. The mantra in question is one of three, addressed to the 
several members of the Triad. But the prasen* Divut, whether he be Augustas 
•r Padma-pdni, is every thing with the many. Hence the notoriety of this 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Authorities on Buddkim. 89 

2. From between his (Pa&ma-pdnx $) shoulders sprang Brahma; 
from his forehead, Maha Diva ; from his two eyes, the s«n and moon ; 
from his mouth, the air ; from his teeth, Saraswatt; from his belly, 
Varuna; from his knees, Lakahni ; from his feet, the earth ; from his 
navel, water ; from the roots of his hair, the Indras and other Devoid*. 

3. For the sake of obtaining Nirvritti, I devote myself to the feet of 
Sangha, who, having assumed the three Gunas, created the three worlds. 
(Pujd hand.) 

4. He (Padnta-pdni) is the possessor of Satya Dharma, the Bodhi* 
$atwa t the lord of the world, the Mahd-aatwa, the master of all tha 
J)karma$. (Gunakdranda Vydha). 

5. The lord of all worlds, (SarvaJokddh{pa,)ihe Sri-man, the Dharma 
Raja, the Loktowara, sprang from A'di Buddha* (Jinatmuja.) Such is 
he whom men know for the Sangha Ratna. (Ditto.) 

6. From the union of the essences of Updya and of Prdjndf pro- 
ceeded the world, which is Sangha. 

mantra, whilst the others are hardly ever heard of, and have thus remained 
unknown to our travellers. 

* From A'mitabhm Buddha immediately : mediately from A'di Buddha. 

f Such is the Aiswarika reading. The Prdjnikat read * from the union of 
Prdjna and Updya. 1 

With the former, Updya is A'di Buddha, the efficient and plastic cause, or 
only the former ; and Prdjnd is A'di Dharma, plastic cause, a binnity with 
Buddha, or only a product. With the latter, Updya is the energy of Prdjna, 
the universal material cause. 

The original aphorism, as I believe, is, * Prdjnoupayatmakang jagaia, 9 which 
1 thus translate : ' From the universal material principle, in a state of activity, 
proceeded the world.' This original Sutra has, however, undergone two trans- 
formations to suit it to the respective doctrines of the Triadic Aitwarikat and of the 
Kdrmikat. The version of the former is, Updyprdjnamakang $angha ; that of the 
latter is, Updyprdjnatmakang manata. Of both, the Updya is identical with A'di 
Buddha, and the Prdjnd with A'di Dharma. But the result — the unsophisti- 
cated jagat of the Prdjnikat, became A'di Sangha, a creator, with the Aitwarikat t 
and Manata, the sentient principle in man, the first production, and producer 
if all other things, with the Kdrmikat. Avidya, or the condition of mundane 
things and existences, is an illusion, alike with the Prdjnikat and with the 
Kdrmikat. But, whilst the former consider Awidya tbe universal affection of 
the material tad immediate cause of all thiogs whatever ; the latter regard Avidya 
as an affection of manae merely, which tbey hold to be an immaterial principle 
and tbe mediate cause of all things else, A'di Buddha being their final canse. 
The phsenomena of both are homogeneous and unreal: bnt the Prdjnikat derive 
them, directly, from a material source — tha Kdrmikat, indirectly, from an 
immaterial fount. Our sober European thoughts and languages can scarcely 

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90 Quotations from original Sanscrit [Feb. 

P. S. With regard to the consistency or otherwise of the view of 
the subject taken in the sketch of Buddhism, with the general tenor of 
the foregone quotations, 1 would observe, that the ideal theory involved 
in the Prdjnika, Swabhdvika, and in the Karmika doctrines, was omit- 
ted by me in the sketch, from some then remaining hesitation as to 
its real drift, as well as its connexion with those schools, and no 
other. Upon this exclusive connexion I have still some doubt. For 
the rest* I retain unchanged the opinions expressed in the sketch, that 
the Karmika and Ydtmka schools are more recent than the others— 
that they owe their origin to attempts to qualify the extravagant quiet* 
ism of the primitive Swabhamkas, and even of the Aiswarikas — and 
that their contradistinguishing mark is the preference given by them 
respectively to morals, or to intellect, with a view to final beautitude. 
The assertion of the Ashtasahasrika, that Swabhava, or nature absolutely 
disposes of us, not less than the assertion of others, that an immaterial 
abstraction so disposes of us, very logically leads the author of the 
Buddha Charitra to deny the use of virtue or intellect. To oppose 
these ancient notions was, I conceive, the especial object of those who, 
by laying due stress on Karma and Yatna, gave rise to the Karmika 
and Ydtnika schools. But that these latter entertained such just and 
adequate notions of God's providence, or man's free will, as we are 
familiar with, it is not necessary to suppose, and is altogether impro- 
bable. None such they could entertain if , as I believe, they adopted 
the more general principles of their predecessors. The ideal theory 
or denial of the reality of the versatile world, has, in some of its 
numerous phrases, a philosophical foundation ; but its prevalence and 
popularity among the Buddhists are ascribable principally to that enthu- 
siastic contempt of action for which these quietists are so remarkable. 
Their passionate love of abstractions is another prop of this theory. 

cope with inch extraragancies as these : bat it would seem we mast call the one 
doctrine material, the other, immaterial, idealism. 

The phenomena of the Prdjwka* are sheer energies of matter, those of the 
Karmika*, are sheer (human) perceptions. The notions of the former rest on 
general grounds— those of the latter, on particular ones, or (as it has been 
phrased) upon the putting the world into a man's self; the Greek 4 * pan ton 
metron anthropos." 

Erratum in No. 40, January, 1836. 
Psge 30, line S of note, for « preferred,' read « postponed." 
„ (et patiim) jtr * SangaW rmd • Saagata.' 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.J AuihoriHet on Buddhism. 01 

Dttmiled Bmwmermtion of tome of the primeipmt Attribute* of k'vi Buddba, re- 
ferred to m the proceeding Quotation* under thmt Heed. 

^rfwfinrWTfW^T^lfWTTT * 

vitwfwtinrT M swffaunn ** 
i^Hiitnii«iiirT ** *mtinn ** 

Digitized by VjOOQLC 

93 Quotations froyi original Sanscrit [Feb. 

w*wmif\*#H «• nfwfKi^imi *\ 
m m mm mw MmnT e\ 
w *wsj c%fxw nf v m 8* 
f%*RTf*%fwm »8 apfirofw%f%m 8t, 

fawtftrfwrsm 8* *^far¥WT «< 

¥^?wt *8 irt^mpn tit uw<f*i *< 
w*^?wt ** ^wf^f" »« (JmiOhhit t< 
n fiwfiwn <• f**T*r*r!rT <\ 
f^nreir?rT <^ €lflHflT|«m*v*Nni <* 
^rewwnrr <8 iMMpur <* ^f^PH^rm « 

^nr \ iilf ^ wrfa * *l* 8 wr*r «. 
sirftcwr * ftnw * *«n*rt t thrift 8 

^r^nwf c TOni < ^tjitoew^ X 9 

Digitized by VjOOQLC 

1836.] Authorities an Buddhism. 93 

wnrnrrrprm*^ * 

iratu^ fa'wfir ictwt. ww^ispwi vt 


Digitized by VjOOQLC 

94 Quotations from original Sanscrit t?«*- 


Classified Enumeration of the principal Objects of Bandana Worship. 




Maha- Valrochaaa. 




1. 2. 

Upaya. Prajaa. { Root of thelstic doctriae. 

1. 2. 

Praja*. Upaya. { Root of atheistic ditto. 


2. 1. 3. 
Dharma. Baddha. Saagha. 

3. 1. 3. 
Saagha. Buddha. Dharma. 

I. 2. 3. 

Buddha. Dhanna. Saagha. 


4. 3. 1. 3. 5. 

Amitabha. Akshobhya. Valrochaaa. RataasambhaYa. Amoghasiddha. 


4. 2. 1. 3. 6. 

Piadara. Lochana. Vajradhatwtsvari. Mamaki. Tkra. 

Poncho- Sanghdmndya. 

4. 9. 1. 3. 6. 

Padmapaai. Vajrapaai. Samantabhadra. Rataapial. Viswapaai. 


4. 2. 1. 3. 6. 

Bhrlkuti-tar*. Ugratar*. Sltatara. Rataatara. Viswatar*. 

Matdntara-Pancha- Buddhdmndya. 

1. 2. 3. 4. S. 

Vairochaua. Akshobhya. Ratnasambhava. Amitabha. Amoghasiddha. 

Matdntara-Pancha- Prajndmndyi. 

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 

YajradhfavisYari. Lochana. Mamaki. PandarA. Tari. 

Matdntara-Pancha -Sanghdmndya. 

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 

Saaiaatabhadra. Vajrapaai. Rataapiai. Padmapaai. Viswapaai. 

Matdntara-Pancha' Sangha-Prajndmndyi. 

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 

Sitatari. Ugratfrtl. RatoatiriL Bhrlkatitara. VisratariL 

Matdntara-Pancha- Buddhdmndya. 

4. 2. U 3. 5. 

Amitabha. Amoghaaiddha. Vairochana. Ratnasambhara. Akshobhya. 

Mat dntar a- Poncho- PrajndmndyL 

4. 2. 1. 3. 5. 

Tara. Mamaki. VajradhAtwisvarf. Paadar*. LochanA. 


1. 2. 3. 4. 8. 0. 

Valrochaaa. Akshobhya. RataasambhaYa. Amitaoha. Amoghaaiddha. Vajraaatwa. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Authorities an Buddhism. 95 

1. 9. 3. 4. 5. 6. 

YajradbatwiaTarl. Lockaiii. lUmakl. Pindari. Tira. Yajraaatwatmlka. 
1. 9. 3. 4. 8. 6. 

Samantabbadra, Yajrapaai. R atnapaal. Padnapiai. Yiawapaai. Ghantapini. 
MdmuMya- Sapta-Buddh&mndya. 
1. 9. 3. 4. 6. 6. 7. 

Vipaayi. 8ikbi. Yiswabba. Kakfitaanda. Kanakamani. Kiayapa. Sakyaaiaba. 
6. 4. 9. I. 3. 5. 7. 

Kasyapa. Kakfttaanda. SUM. Yipaayi. Yiswabbfi. Kaaakamnni. Sakyasinha. 
9. 1. 3. 

Akabobkya. Yairoebaaa-YajradbatwfgTarf. Ratnaaambkara* 
8. 6. 4. 6. 7. 9. 

Paadari. Locbana, Amitibba. Amogbaaiddba. Marnaki. Tark. 
4. 9. J. 3. 6. 

Amitibba. Akaaobbya. Yairoebaaa. Ratnaaambbava. Amogbaaiddba. 
8. 6. 7. 9. 

Yajradbarma. Vajrasatwa. Vajrarija. Yajrakarma. 

4. 9. 1. 3. 6. 

Paadari. Locbaai. VajradbitwtaTaH. Mimakf. Tara. 

8. 6. 7. 9. 

DbarmaTajrini. Yajraaatwitmiki. Rataavajriai. KarmaTajriai. 


4. 9. 1. 3. S. 
Padmapiai. Yajrapini. Samantabbadra. Ratnapiai. Ylawapiai* 

8. 6. 7. 9. 
Dbanaapaal. Gbantapiai. Maaipaai. Karmapiai. 

Misrita-Nava-Buddhdmn&y&ndm etc Misrtfa-Nava-Songk&vut&jf&h. 

9. ]. 3. 

Maitreya. Avalokiteawara. Gagaaaganja. 

6. 4. 5. 7. 

Manjngboaba* Samantabbadra. Yajrapini. Sanra-nWaraaa-YiibkambbL 

8. 9. 

Ksbitigarbba. Kbagarbba. 

Mitrita-Nova-BuddhAmndy&nam tie Nava-Dharmdmn&ydh Pauttak&k Buddka-Dkar* 
na-tangha-Atondale P&janakrame it an M&Um, 

9. 1. 3. 
Gandavyfika. Prajna-piramitk. Daaabbomiawara. 
6. 4. 6. 7. 

Saddbarmapnndarika. Samadbiraja. Lankivatira. latbagatagubyaki. 

8. 9. 

LaHta-viatara. Snrarna-prabbi. 


4. 9. 1. 3. 5. 

Sitatiri. MaitriyaaL Bbrikntitiri. Pnakpatiri. Ekajati. 

8. «. 7- 9. 

Dipatari. Vigiawari. Dhfipatiri. Gandbatiri. 

Nova' Devi* Prqjndmndyi. 

9. I. 3. 8. 4. 

Yajraridiiiai. Yasaadbari. Ganapati-bridayi. Maricbf. Uabaiaba-Ytyayi. 

5. 7. 8. 9. 
Paraaaawi. Grabamitriki. Pratyangiri. Dkwajigrakeyfiri. 

o 2 

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96 Notes on Geological Specimens from [Fkb. 


4. 2. 1. 3* S. 

Pindar*. Lochana. Vajradhatwiswari. MAmaki. Tira. 

8. 0. 7. 9. 

Pratyangiri. Vajrasatwatmika. Vasandhara. Guhyeswari. 


4. 2. 1. 3. 5. 

Sikhi Ratnagarbha. Dlpankara. Vipasyl. Viswabha. 

8. 6. 7. 9. 

Kasyapa. Kakutaaada. Kanakamnni. Sakyasinha. 

Mdnuthiyd- Nova-Bvddkdmn&ydh . 

1. ?. 3. 4. 6. 

Dlpankara. Ratnagarbha. Vipasyi. Sikhi. Viswabha. 

6. 7. 8. 9. 

Kakutaanda. Kanakamoni. Kasyapa. Sakyasinha. 

Mdnuthiya - Nava- Prajndmndyi. 

1. 9. 3. 4. 6. 

Jwalavati. Lakshanavati. Vipasyantf. Sikhamalini. Viswadhara. 

6. 7. 8. 9. 

Kakudvati.. Kanthanamalini. Mahidhara, Yaeodhara. 

Nava Bhikshu-Sanghdmndydh. 

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 

Pradipestrara. Ratnaraja. Mahamati. Ratnadhara. A'kaaaganja. 

6. 7. 8. 9. 

Sakalamangala. Kanakaraja. Dharmodara. Ananda. 
Iti Sri-Ekdmndyddi-Natdmndya-Detatdh Samdptdh. 
N. B. The authority for these details is the Dharma Sangraha, or catalogue 
rauonni of the terminology of Bauddha system of philosophy and religion. 

III. — Notes explanatory of a Collection of Geological Specimens from 
the Country between Hyderabad and Ndgpur. By J. G. Malcolm son, 
Assistant Surgeon, Madras Establishment. PL V. 

I had the pleasure of forwarding from Madras, a selection of geolo- 
gical specimens, collected in May, 1833, between the cities of Hyderabad 
and Nigpur. I regret, that circumstances prevented my doing this 
sooner, and that the notes in explanation of the localities whence they 
were obtained, must now be short and imperfect ; I hope, however, 
that the specimens themselves will be of use in illustrating the geology 
of a tract of country hitherto undescribed, and which connects the 
formations of the south-east of the Deccan, with those in the neigh- 
bourhood of the valley of the Narbada. 

From my inability to identify, describe, and figure the numerous 
fossils, discovered in the tract of country between the Godavery 
and the town of Hinganghat, 47 miles south of Nagpur, and the 
importance of these, in reference to the questions as to the relative 
age of the great trap formation of the Deccan, and of the west of 
India, and the clayslate formation of Voysbt, with its associated sand- 
stone*, and the periods of elevation of the granitic rocks, on which 

• See his account of the diamond mines of Banganapilly.— As. Res. xriiL 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQLC 

1836.} the Country betweeu Hyderabad and Ndgpur. 97 

they appear universally to rest ; I am induced, contrary to my former 
intention, ^to take to England with me, those specimens of which 
there are no duplicates. The separation of the collection would greatly 
lessen its value, by depriving me of the opportunity of comparing, 
with each other, and with arranged collections, the fragments of those 
of which duplicates were not preserved, and of thus restoring the 
fossils of which no perfect specimen was found. A selection of the 
most perfect were, also, sent to Mr. Ltbll, but as he considers it 
requisite that numerous species should be ascertained previous to 
arriving at any conclusion as to the age of the fossiliferous rocks, it 
may be for the advantage of Indian geology, to submit the rest of the 
specimens- to him ; and on the characters being determined, to return 
a portion of them to India. There are, however, a sufficient number 
of duplicates to illustrate the outlines of the geology of the interesting 
tract of country referred to, and to connect the singular phenomena 
observed, with others, to the west and east of the route, and in the 
countries of the peninsula to the south, and the Bengal provinces to 
the north. The outline map includes several places, inserted in the 
plans published along with Dr. Votsbt's papers and Captain Jbnkin's 
Account of the Mineralogy of Nagpur, p. 199, of the 18th volume of 
the Asiatic Researches ; the interval between which, it will assist in 
filling up. I shall seldom use mineralbgical terms, except I have had 
an opportunity of comparing the specimens with those collected by 
persons well acquainted with the science ; and when they do occur, 
an examination of the specimens will afford the means of correcting 
any errors that may be fallen into. The geological relations of the 
strata were ascertained with as much care as the nature of the country 
permitted, and no exertion was spared in tracing them as far as pos- 
sible, both on the plains, at the foot of the hills, and their most 
inaccessible summits. My avocations however were unfavourable, and 
a person more at leisure would find an ample field to reward his labours. 
He must, however, be prepared to pursue his examinations in the height 
of the hot season, when the grass and wood jungle are less luxuriant, 
and the plains free from their covering of jawdri and other grain. 

Some account has already been published* of the country between 
Masulipatam and Hyderabad, on which I had not an opportunity of 
making many observations. One or two points, however, deserve to 
be noticed, as the specimens collected in this part of the route are 
similar to those found north of Hyderabad as far as Nirmal, and throw 
some light on appearances on which important inferences have been 
too hastily founded. 

* Asiatic Researches vol. xviii. 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 

98 Notes on Geological Specimens from [Fbb. 

At page 70, volume ii. of the Gleanings in Science, a desire ia 
expressed by a gentleman at home, stated to be of high scientific 
acquirements, that specimens should be collected from the face of the 
hill of Beirwarah, where it has been cut through by the Kistmak 
river ; and the author of the queries seems to be impressed with a 
belief, that a lake had formerly existed some way above it, towards 
Warapilly. The distance, however, between the Warapilly ghat and 
Beirwarah, is considerable ; and I do not think, that there are any 
decided appearances at the former of the blue limestone of the day- 
slate formation* having constituted the margin of a lake. The strata 
at the upper part of the rising ground to the north of the river are as 
hard as those lower in the valley, or on the opposite bank. A specimen 
of this rock, of a pure white color, and of great hardness, which I broke 
from the summit of the ascent above Warapilly, well known to travel- 
lers from the difficulty of riding over the large smooth slabs of marble, 
and which would have been admirably adapted for lithographic purposes, 
had it been free from minute crystals of quartz, was sent to you about 
three years ago by Captain Smith of the Madras Engineers. The 
junction of this rock with the granite to the north, could not be 
seen, the country being flat, and covered with low jungle. Jaspers and 
fragments of trap are found in the bed of the river, and the granite to 
the north is intersected by numerous dykes of greenstone, usually run- 
ning from S. E. by E. to N. W. by W. To the south of the river, 
the country is lower, and for some way beyond the town of Dachapilly, 
the limestone, usually dipping slightly to the south, continues to be 
the surface rock ; which, whenever I have met with it, on the Kistnah, 
at Cuddapah, near Auk, and the diamond mines of Banganapilly, and 
at Tarputri in Bellary, or in the neighbourhood of the Wurdah, affords 
the best indications of success to experiments in boring ; copious springs 
spontaneously rising from it, or being lost in the interstices between 
its nearly horizontal strata. 

At Beirwarah, the river Kistnah appears to have cut a channel 
through the short ridge of hills, which terminates on either side in 
rather precipitous cliffs, and admits the stream into the great alluvial 
plains extending to the mouths of the Kistnah and Godavery. Above, 
the country has much the appearance of having once been an exten- 
sive lake, the bottom of which now forms the rich plain extending to 
Condapilly to the N. W., and Munglegherry to the south of the river. It 

• I me this term of Dr. Voybey, bat think its adoption more objectionable 
than argillaceous limestone, used by Colonel Cullbn in the Madras Transac- 
tions. It would be better to characterise it as " blue limestone," " Cuddapah 
limestone," or other term inrolnng no opinion as to its geological relations. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] the Country between Hyderabad and Ndgpur. 99 

is probably here, that Captain Herbert's correspondent observed that 
the •• hardness and composition of the rock appeared to differ, accord- 
ing to the pressure they have been subjected to." I believe, that, spe- 
cimens of the rocks of the bottom of the hill, have been sent to the 
Asiatic Society by Dr. Bbnza, and that they are composed of the pecu- 
liar gneiss of the coast. Felspar is common, and some of the varieties 
possess considerable beauty. There are the remains of a rock pagoda 
cut in a mass of compact felspar, above the road, leading along the 
edge of the precipice over the river, portions of which have fallen, the 
natural fissures of the rock exposing it to this kind of decay. On the 
top of the hill the soft friable white rock, No. 2*, is found, and is carried 
away by the natives for the purpose of whitening the walls of their 
houses. It corresponds exactly with specimens from Vizagapatam, 
described as gneiss by Heynb, and containing imperfect garnets. It 
3s not, however, either its site as lying above other rocks, or its ex- 
posed situation, that has led to its decay, so much as the composition of 
the ridge where the edges of the strata rise to the south. The strata 
dip at a very considerable angle a little to the south of east. A care- 
ful survey of the bills from the summit shows, that they are short 
insulated ranges, such as are found over the Circars and other tracts, 
rising from a level country ; and that had a lake existed in the plain 
above, every slight rise of the river would have carried its waters 
round tbeir shoulders to the north and south. The rise in the line of 
bearing of the strata of the hill north of the river, and the appearance 
of that to the south, do not support the opinion that the lake was 
drained by the river deepening its channel. I do not know whether 
it can be supposed to derive any support from a tale told of the river 
god (Krishna) having induced the patron of the hill, who seems to be 
a form of Shiva, to permit him to get his head through, and that then 
he forced a passage. The granitic hills of Condapilly are seen a few 
miles to the N. W. ; and in the midst of the plain, rising out of it 
like an island, are some great masses of hornblende rock, No. 6 ; and 
Dr. Bbnza informs me that he saw dykes of the same kind of green- 
stone passing through the gneiss at Beirwarah. A mile and a half 
further on the road to Hyderabad is a quarry of granitic rock, devoid 
of hornblende, and containing only a very little felspar and a few scat- 
tered garnets. A little beyond this, the rocks assume the decided cha- 
racters of the great granite formation of the Deccan, with which Dr. 
Voysby's papers have made your readers acquainted. The geological 
structure of the Circars is in nothing so peculiar, as in the extensive 

9 The Humbert refer to specimens deposited in the Society's Cabinet.— Ed, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

100 Notes on Geological Specimens from [Faa. 

distribution of the singular sandstone-like gneiss described by Hbynb ; 
and which, in hand specimens, it is often impossible to distinguish 
from the sandstone also found in many localities : and I do not know 
a more interesting subject of inquiry, than that of ascertaining whe- 
ther this singular rock is metamorphic, and the sandstone altered by 
the intrusion of the great masses of porphyry so commonly found 
near these equivocal rocks, and by the numerous greenstone dykes and 
masses scattered over the whole of these districts. The diamond mines 
of Mulavelly are at no great distance from Condapilly, to the right of 
the road, situated in a basin between hills covered with jungle. The 
sides of which, one-third from the top, were found by Dr. W. David- 
son to be strewed with a sandstone conglomerate ; but he was pre- 
vented getting to the top by the approach of night. Fragments of 
this are found in the gravel, of which I believe specimens have already 
been sent to the Society, intermixed with much kankar : and from 
some pits in the valley, most of the lime used in the district is pro- 
cured. The soil of the country on the Hyderabad Military road, after 
leaving the alluvial plain above Beirwarah, is formed of decomposed 
granite, but contains much lime. This admixture, and the kankar 
nodules, are probably of recent origin ; as I observed, in a valley to the 
right of the road north of the hill fort of Yeralagundah, about 18 miles 
from Beirwarah, a stream trickling over granite rocks, and depositing 
lime on all the branches and rocks around. Some pieces of stone of 
considerable size have thus been formed, and recent specimens, con- 
taining remains of branches, or of grass, easily crumble to pieces, and 
are carried away by the stream. The source of the spring I was pre- 
vented from ascertaining, by the approach of night ; and as an excuse 
for leaving this and other interesting circumstances unexplored, I 
must state, that being in Medical charge of the European regiment, 
during a sickly season, I could not command my own time of marching, 
or sufficient leisure. 

The character of the granite of the Deccan continues well marked 
throughout the remaining part of the route to Hyderabad, and dykes 
and imbedded masses of a fine crystalline greenstone or hornblende 
rock of great hardness are frequently seen. These last have occasion- 
ally irregular shapes, and in one or two instances, that of the italic 
or other irregular curve ; and near Secunderabad, they appear to be 
connected with the dykes, in the neighbourhood of which they are 
found. It was also frequently observed, that the various substances 
entering into the composition of the granite in the neighbourhood of 
these dykes or masses, formed very large and distinct crystals ; and 
the imbedded greenstone, though often intimately unked with the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 836.] tke Gmntry hetwten Hyderabad md Ndgpur. -iW 

granite, was in others more loosely connected, and easily separated by 
the progress of decomposition, leaving rounded cavities in the rock. 

A circumstance of more importance, however, is the occurrence of 
the beds of kankar in this tract, being, as far as I have observed, al- 
ways near some of the greenstone dykes or beds, and frequently under 
or intermingled with masses of granite, which is in a rapid state of 
decay : these are usually rounded, partly from the progress of decom- 
position, and sometimes from the tendency to concentric forms, which 
k occasionally undoubtedly assumes. The small detritus is in some 
places accumulated to a great depth, and it has been stated by Dr. 
Chbistib, that this debris is, at a considerable depth, again consoli- 
dated by pressure. In the Edinburgh Journal of Science, 1 828-29, this 
is also mentioned as a met, common to the rocks of other parts of 
India. With every respect for his authority, I cannot avoid the con- 
viction, that the inference was founded on imperfect observation, and 
that it has since been employed in Europe, in support of an ill-founded 

No. 15, is " Mhurrum" or gravel found in deepening a well at 
Bolaram, (six miles from Secuuderabad,) upwards of 50 feet deep, 
during the very dry season of 1832, and is not in the slightest degree 
consolidated. A loose block, which had resisted decomposition, was 
found above it, and contains mica, (No. 15,) a rare ingredient in the 
granite of Hyderabad. Much of the debris at Secuuderabad is, how- 
ever, consolidated by lime, which is seen to agglutinate the fragments, 
or to pass in vein-like lines or nodules through the gravel. Occa- 
sionally there are only a few fragments of quartz or felspar scattered 
through the kankar, or they appear to be inserted into the surface, as 
in No. 10, which is extremely hard. Generally, however, the agglu- 
tinated gravel is friable, and the cement less obvious. The debris is 
also sometimes united into pulverulent masses, by the oxidation of the 
iron contained in the sienite ; but this takes place at the surface, and 
seldom acquires any great degree of hardness. Specimens of the 
granite in the neighbourhood of Hyderabad are numbered 14; and 
the appearance of the surface of that polished by the continual passage 
of hyenas, in the entrance of the caverns formed in the pile of gneiss 
or granite of the " Chfti hill," near the cantonment, has been 
described in the 1st volume of the Journal of the Asiatic Society, (No. 
12.) The greenstone occasionally has distinct crystals of felspar 
scattered through it, without the porphyry thus formed, losing the 
remarkable degree of toughness possessed by the black rock ; but, as 
observed by Sir H. Davt, the decomposition of the felspar is more 
rapid than of the other parts, (No. 19.) The greenstone is familiarly 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

102 Notes on Geological Specimens fro* [Feb. 

known by the name of" black granite/' and forms, when finely polish- 
ed, the beautiful tombstones of the Golconda mausoleums, and the 
pillars of that in which Hyder and Tippu Sultan are deposited, at 
Seringapatam. The remarkable quartz veins in the neighbourhood of 
Hyderabad have been described by Voysey and Christie ; it is there- 
fore only necessary to mention, that they occasionally exhibit a more 
or less regular crystallization, and at the . same time, acquire the fine 
tints of the amethyst. It is seldom that they are sufficiently regular 
and perfect for the purposes of the lapidary ; such specimens were, 
however, discovered a few years ago, close to the European barracks, 
and at a little distance from a great greenstone dyke, but not in direct 
contact with the quartz bed containing the crystals, which, on the 
contrary, passes into the ordinary sienitic granite of the country. The 
colour of the amethystine quartz seems to be derived from magnetic iron 
ore, which is disseminated in grains both through the milky quartz 
and the granite, amongst which they are found, and has not been noticed 
elsewhere in the neighbourhood. The amethystine quartz was again 
met with 60 miles north of Secunderabad, near Bekanurpettah, in loose 
masses, along with that variety of laterite found near Beder, and 
described by Voyset, and which is seen along the coasts of Malabar 
and at Boranghur in the Southern Concan resting on basalt. The rising 
ground on which they were found is composed of granite ; but the 
country around is of a black trap soil, and numerous low fiat ranges 
of basaltic hills are seen to the north, the east, and the west. A vein 
of white quartz is also met with as at Secunderabad, but the specimens 
differ, in containing irregular shaped geodes of agate, lined with crys- 
tals, or a red opake mamillary quartz, approaching to calcedony. The 
iron in these is usually imperfectly mixed with the quartz, and from 
the appearances above described, and the quartz having in several 
specimens been changed into a red jasper, the surrounding trap may 
be supposed to have altered the rocks. The colouring matter seems 
to have been afforded by the laterite, which is found in the neighbour- 
hood apparently in dykes, and in contact with the quartz which inter- 
sects the granite : but there being no section, and the water-worn 
surface only being visible, no evidence could here be obtained, in 
support of any of the opinions entertained by geologists, relative to 
this singular formation. The amethysts are also found south of Jan- 
ganapilly, and at Kamareddypettah, and Mr. W. Geddes met with 
them, of a greenish yellow tinge, south of Balcondah. 

Granite Tract between Hyderabad and the Nirtnul Hills. 
The valleys and some plains about Bekanurpettah are composed of 
black soil, mixed with calcedonies, &c. ; and to the west of the road 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] the Country between Hyderabad and Ndgpur. 108 

are some flat hills, which 1 had not an opportunity of examining. 
They corresponded in their steep sides and flat summits with the trap 
hills to be presently described, and Mr. Geddbs informed me, that 
they are formed of amygdaloidal trap, based on decaying granite. With 
these interruptions, the granite continues to Kamareddypettah, but 
the mamillary eminences, and the tors and logging stones formed 
from their decomposition, are of more rare occurrence. The granite, 
however, still continues to exhibit the lamellar structure, and is easily 
split into large slabs. In some instances, where the lamellae are thin, 
the vertical fissures which frequently intersect them in right lines, and 
greatly assist the progress of decomposition, cause the rock to break 
into regular rhomboids. The last " tor stones" observed on the road 
to Nagpur were north of Jakrampilly, where they occurred on a lofty hill, 
on which there is a small pagoda. After leaving the basaltic hills near 
Bekanurpettah and Jungampilly, black soil is seen in the valley below 
a large tank, and some dykes of greenstone pass the road in the direc- 
tion of S. by E. to N. by W. at Kamareddypettah : the granite is 
lamellar white, with black mica and some hornblende, and fragments 
of amethystine quartz are scattered about. A little to the north of the 
town, on ascending a very gentle ascent, the red soil and granite give 
way to black soil, derived from decomposed trap rock, which is concen- 
tric on the top, but lower down is arranged in imperfect strata. On 
descending the hill to the north, the black soil conceals the granite 
for a short distance ; but at the bottom of the hill, and in the bed of a 
small water-course, it is seen of the same appearance as before. 
Immediately beyond this, there is a very remarkable hill, which is seen 
from a considerable distance standing out from the gently indicat- 
ing country, and possessing the peculiar form of the trap hills of the 
Deccan. It lies five miles north of Kamareddypettah, and four miles 
south of the village of Nagger, and is marked on the specimens as 
the "hill of Nugger." On approaching it by a very gradual ascent, 
the soil changes to black ; and all at once the hill rises with nearly 
perpendicular sides, constituting a narrow ridge, about half a mile in 
length, and of a shape approaching to that of an Italic /running 
nearly N. by E. to S. by W. The hill is entirely formed of basalt, as 
its form had led me to expect. Above and in the body of the hill it 
has a concentric globular structure, the external layers of which are 
remarkably soft, and on the top of the hill resemble a peperino ; lower 
down it is soft, of a greenish color, and soapy feel, (Nos. 66 and 69.) 
The nuclei left undecayed on the top, are exceedingly hard and tough, 
of a deep black colour, and contain large crystals of olivine, and small 
globules of calcedony. Many small but very characteristic specimens 
p 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

104 Note* en Geological Specimens from [Fa*- 

of this last mentioned mineral, which had been imbedded between the 
concentric nodules, were picked up (No. 67). At the bottom of the 
hill, the basalt loses its concentric form, and occurs in tables or laminae, 
having the appearance of having been subjected to violent forces, it 
sounds under the hammer when struck. Various specimens of the 
trap are much loaded with iron, sometimes in grains of a reddish brown 
colour ; at others, it appears as if it had been partially smelted, and is 
not very different in its appearance from some examples of laterite. 
Much of the " kankar" that abounds in the soil is coloured with iron, 
while other portions are perfectly white ; it is not, however, confined 
to the soil, as it was observed to have formed between two laminae of 
the basalt, and by the gradual deposition of the lime, to have nearly 
broken up the upper stratum. From between some of the vertical 
fissures in the tables, and round the large rounded masses that occur 
in them, a formation of "kankar" projects ia several places half a foot 
from the surface of the rock. It was evident, that the water loaded 
with lime, percolating through the alluvial black soil, or through the 
rock itself, gradually deposits the earth, where its accumulation is 
favoured by circumstances, of which the most important is the occur- 
rence of an impervious rock or soil below that supplying the lime ; 
and this explains the absence of organic remains in this recent forma- 
tion, except where, in sous rich in lime, it forms round the roots of 
plants, and unites with itself, here and there, a fresh- water shell. No. 
47, is a specimen illustrative of these views, taken from the south bank 
of the Godavery. The rock over which the river flows is granite, 
intersected by some great dykes of greenstone, (No. 44,) whose surface 
has a smooth metallic coating where washed by the stream. They 
project eight or ten feet, and are divided into numerous rhomboidal 
masses by fissures, into which lime hat been deposited ; and in the 
bed of the river, numerous fragments of calcedooies, zeolites, and other 
minerals found in volcanic rocks, are partially cemented by lime. The 
banks are mostly composed of black cotton soil, and the lower part is 
covered with small irregular loose slabs, resembling the dried cow-dung 
used for fire ; which are found in situ projecting from the bank, and 
connected above with portions formed round the roots of plants, and 
below with other layers spread out between different strata of the 
alluvial earth. 

From the top of the hall of Nugger above spoken of, numerous in- 
sulated hills, and short ranges of a similar form, are seen to rise from 
the granitic tract to the east and west, but they do not observe any 
particular line of bearing, although the whole group seems to pass 
in a direction from east to west, like the other basalt ranges of the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] the Country between Hyderabad and Nigpur. 103 

table land. From this hill to four or five miles north of NJrmul (a 
large town nine miles north of the Godavery) as in almost all other 
parts of the peninsula, is intersected by numerous greenstone dykes, 
which generally run from N. by W. to S. by £. These dykes are of 
great importance to the agriculture of the country, as the granitic soil 
is extremely thin and poor, except in the valleys, where the day form* 
ed by the decomposed felspar accumulates, and bears fine crops of 
rice, for which water is collected in tanks, often in a great measure form- 
ad of natural mounds of rounded or angular fragments of greenstone, 
which is little subject to decomposition. At Jakrampilly, there is a 
remarkable dyke of this kind, which, can be traced for several miles by 
a series of tanks on one side of it : it is. also remarkable in exhibiting, 
where it rises into a small hill near the village, the gradual transition 
of the granite into the greenstone, and in the latter, having a tendency 
to split into* regular forms/ When once a fissure, however small, m 
fanned, the rain washes a gradually increasing portion of lime and 
other soluble parts of its surface into the interstices, until the masses 
are separated, in* which the alteration* of, temperature probably assist. 
It i* difficult to account for the manner in which the greenstone passes 
into granite in this instance ; but it is evident* that it has been raised 
by the, granite above the continuation of the dyke at either end of the 
hill. I have been more minute in the- description of the hill of Nug- 
ger, principally with the view of affording some information relative to 
the distinction of the basalt ridges, which have burst through the gra- 
nite of theDeccan, from the greenstone dykes, which are of such frequent 
occurrence. The presence of olivine ; the soft wacke in which the 
globular basalt is embedded ; the less crystalline structure ; the pas- 
sage into amygdaloid containing calcedonies, zeolites, &c. and the gra- 
nite in the neighbourhood of all the smaller masses of basalt, differing 
little from that at a distance, may perhaps be sufficient to distinguish 
these important rocks from each other. The separation of the differ- 
ent ingredients of the granite into large crystals, and the insulated 
masses of greenstone found in it near the dykes, prove, that the rock 
had been softened by heat ; but judging from the appearance and great 
length of many of these dykes, I do not think that they were of con- 
temporaneous formation with the rock through which they pass. Near 
one of these, at Secunderabad, a smooth, wall-like dyke of white gra- 
nite passes through the sienite. 

At Balcondah, 21 miles north of Jakrampilly, these dykes occur on 
the large scale, and the granite is much separated into its constituent 
parts, the felspar being of a fine red colour. Nine miles further north, in 
the bed of the Godavery, the felspar is of a still more beautiful red 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

106 Notes on Geological Specimens from [Feb. 

colour ; bat good specimens could not be removed. Veins of quartz also 
occur at Balcondah, with turbid milky spots* as if altered by heat, and 
large imbedded crystals, (No. 42.) 

* Sfchel Hills ; locally known as the Nirmul range. 

Nirmul is surrounded by granite hills, containing much hornblende 
and a little schorl ; and the summits of some of them appear to resem- 
ble the greenstone of Jakrampilly, but they were not examined. After 
passing some small ranges of hills, the ascent of the Nirmul chain 
commences five or six miles north of the town, and the road continues 
amongst lofty hills covered with forest, by a succession of ascents and 
descents, for 40 miles, when it descends by the Muklegandy ghat to 
the town of Eidlabid, nearly on the level of the flat country of Berar. 

The southern ascent of Nirmul ghat, is the most deep and difficult, 
the hills not rising in a series of terraces as they do to the north ; yet 
it is not easy to ascertain the precise direction of the part of the hill 
range over which this pass leads, on account of the projecting spurs 
and low hills at their base, the thick forest with which it is covered, 
and from its having something of a curved form. The general direc- 
tion is from W. N. W. to E. S. E., which corresponds with that of 
the Sichil range, to which these hills belong, and which extends 
from the great lake water of Lonar to the neighbourhood of Munga- 
pett, where the silicious fossil wood (marked " fossil wood," Munga- 
pett), was found in 1828. On approaching the hills, the granite is 
observed to become soft, and to decompose rapidly. In the bed of a 
stream it has a remarkable concentric appearance, which was also ob- 
served in the centre of the hills south of Thitnoor, where it is covered 
by trap, on which fossils were found. No schistose rock was found 
here, but 20 miles to the east of Nirmul, and a few miles south of the 
mountains, hornblende slate occurs on the granite, and along with it the 
magnetic iron ore described by Voysbt in the Journal of the Asiatic 
Society, vol. II. It is not a sand, as might be inferred from his de- 
scription ; but the grains of iron are either mixed with the hornblende 
or occur in a sandstone-looking gneiss, from which the hornblende had 
disappeared. Specimens of the rock, which I saw dug up, and of the 
sand formed by pounding it on protruding masses of granite, are for- 
warded. The softer pieces were at once reduced to powder, while the 
harder were first roasted ; and the one was then easily separated by 
washing in small shelving hollows dug in the clay. It is then melted, 
and its quality said to be improved by using teak branches : the iron 
is soft, but part is used in the mixture from which wootz steel is form- 
ed. The strata of the schists have been broken and elevated, but the 

• Also called " Sheiha." 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1636.] the Country between Hyderabad and Nugpur. 107 

dip and direction are in no two places the same. Here also, the granite 
was seen, in the bed of a torrent, in thin concentric scales, not unlike 
the extremities of petrified trees, caused by the unequal waste of .the 
compoi^P parts, the quartz projecting unaltered. 

On approaching the hills, the soil gradually became black, with scat- 
tered fragments of calcedony; and at the first part of the ascent, 
which is for some distance very gradual, a singular fragment (No. 49) 
of semi- vitrified matter was met with, containing small white crystal* 
of felspar. It could not be distinguished from a piece of granite fused 
in a steel furnace, with which it was compared by Dr. Voysby. At the 
same place there were fragments so much like iron slag, that till I 
found them in a large mass resembling a dyke, I supposed that they 
were the product of a furnace, (No. 49.) The granite continues the 
surface rock a little farther, passing into a black hard basalt, inter- 
mixed with many white spots, apparently of felspar ; but I saw none of 
them rounded or distinctly crystallized, forming amygdaloid or green- 
stone porphyry, such as occur at the lower part of the pass leading to 
Eidl&bad. On ascending the last part of the base of the hills, the 
surface was strewed with calcedonies, quartz, (No. 52) and other 
minerals of the same family, and amongst them, a few fragments of a 
softish white clayey and silicious stone, containing small shells of fresh 
water families. The trap then became softer, more vesicular with 
calcedonies, zoolites, &c. imbedded, and the surface covered with tabular 
crystals of the same kind as those so remarkable in thePoonah trap rocks ; 
and latterly concentric, the external layers decomposing, and the nucleus 
lying in a soft greenish wacke. I spent several hours in ascending the 
highest points of the range, but was unable to discover any beds of fossil 
shells ; large blocks of quartz were, however, observed, with a singu- 
larly angular surface, and sometimes with fine capillary crystals, much 
of which was found with the fossil fragments ; and afterwards, in the 
same position and partaking of the characters of the fossiliferous 
masses found in situ. These blocks were seen extending along the 
steep face of the hill at the same level as if they had been forced out of 
the mountain, or rather, as if the basalt, when erupted, had covered, 
and partially melted the bed on which it lay, and thus caused the sin- 
gular appearance of those blocks. The highest summit east of the 
pass is caped by some horizontal strata, having some resemblance to 
sandstone that had been altered and blackened by heat ; what its real 
nature was, I could not determine. 

The hills, for 44 miles by the road, are arranged in terraces with 
steep sides and flat summits, rising now and then into conical eleva- 
tions, with rounded or flat tops, and inclosing narrow valleys, abounding 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

108 Notes on Geological Specimen* from [Feb. 

in streams, or small table lands with water every where near the 
surface. On some of the ridges, the globular basalt becomes columnar* 
near which no trace of fossils, and hardly any calcedonies have been 
found. A thick wood and grass jungle, composed of very different 
plants from those most common on the granite hills, cover the whole 
tract, and render it unhealthy for the greater part of the year. In a 
deep valley, about the middle of the hills, where the Kurm or Kurrum 
river passes through them, the basalt is seen to rest on friable granite, 
(as near Nfrmul to the south and Eidlibad to the north, and at one or 
two other places,) and a level plain of considerable extent and deep 
black colour extends to Etchoda to the neighbourhood of the shelly 
rock. The fossils were first found at Munoor, and between that village 
and Thitnoor, which is near the top of the Maklegandy ghaut. The 
most remarkable were found in the beautiful grey chert 41 , which either 
projects from the basalt in which it is imbedded, or rests in large 
blocks on the surface. The side on which they rest is remarkably 
smooth and even, while the others are rough and covered with bivalve 
shells of great size, and some of them having the epidermis still entire, 
resembling a recent bed of shells on the sea shore. A few univalves 
also occur converted into flint, and it is remarkable, that one small 
bivalve, thus altered, retains its colours. The masses are evidently in 
situ, and have probably been consolidated by the basalt, with which 
they are surrounded, or on which they rest. Some specimens exhibit 
a mixture of sand and mud, merely slightly agglutinated and intermixed 
with fragments of shells ; the greater part is converted into chert 
spotted with fragments, or containing the shells in a perfect state ; in 
other places, the materials have arranged themselves into an enamel* 
like substance around irregular cavities containing fine crystals of 
purplish quartz, and in one specimen a formation of cakspar has taken 
place. Throughout the rock perfect bivalve shells, both closed or open, 
occur in the situation in which they had lived and been entombed. 
The most perfect are closed, and some of them are easily separated 
from the rock to which they are slightly united at a few points only ; 
they are filled with the stone, mixed with fragments of minute shells, 
and some are entirely converted into chert, which retains the form 
even of the ligaments so completely as almost to lead one to expect to 
be able to open them. 

Between Munoor and Thitnoor, masses of red chert project from 

amongst the basalt, and contain various shells, mostly univalves of 

small size, and some of them evidently belonging to fresh water 

genera. Near to these many fragments of different kinds were found 

• See labels on •pecimesfl. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] the Country between Hyderabad and Ndypwr. 109 

lying loose on the surface, and abounding in shells of various families. 
(See specimens.) Those in the green crystalline mass, resembling an 
ore of* copper, were in many instances converted into quartz crystals, 
retaining the perfect form of the shells ; one of these of exquisite 
beauty, which has been unfortunately broken, was found in the interior 
of a larger one : others were imbedded in a tough white clay rock, so 
soft as to soil the fingers. The greatest part consisted of a siliceous 
rock, partly converted into a black bituminous flint, or a coarse quartz, 
partially altered into calcedony, into which the majority of the shells 
were converted. Some, on the contrary, retained the structure of the 
shell unaltered, and effervesced with acids. 

Amongst these, the fragments containing the fossil seeds of chara, 
associated with fresh- water shells, were found. The gyrgonites were 
not observed at the time the specimen was found, but the rock to 
which it belonged could not be far distant, as the shells are of the 
same species as in other specimens, having a similar mineralogical 
structure. In other fragments, remains of grasses appearing half con- 
sumed were seen ; and in the large protruding mass of red chert, 
containing shells converted into calcedony, I discovered what I take 
to be the tooth of an herbivorous quadruped. A few of the shells I ' 
believe to be marine, and at the distance of half a mile, the principal 
masses of grey chert, containing the large marine shells, were found. 

On descending towards Thitnoor, granite is seen at one place, and - 
above, much quartz, having a slag-like surface of the kind seen above 
Nirmul occurs. A few specimens of black chert, with shells, were 
picked up in the bed of a nulla at Thitnoor, where it was also found' 
in situ. A loose piece of reddish and green flint, with shells, was also 
met with in a ravine three miles further north. Much lime and kankar 
here mixed with the black soil, or was deposited in the water- 
} ; the greater part probably derived from the decomposed basalt, 
or from such layers of a soft white limestone, as were found between 
the laminae of basalt, in digging pits to obtain water for the troops, 
when encamped at Etchoda. A compact stratified limestone, however, 
occurs in the vicinity. 

The pass from Thitnoor, called the Muklegandy ghat, is formed 
of several terraces, of which three only are remarkable, and a steep 
descent between each. The surface rock of the second terrace is a 
rough, white limestone, which appeared to be consolidated in nodules, 
until it was broken, and found to consist of a great variety of shells, 
many of great size, but difficult to remove entire, forming a rock of a 
crystalline texture. The strata are horizontal, and in one place, where 
it is cut through by a torrent, the rock is 12 feet thick, and is seen to 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

110 Notes on Geological Specimens from [Fs». 

rest directly on granite of a reddish color. The shells are of very vari- 
ous forms : several belong to the genus Ostrea of Linnjbub ; one very 
perfect Cardia was entire, both valves being connected, and one frag- 
ment, of a very large shell, has the water- worn appearance often seen 
on the sea- shore. The edges of the large shells are harder than the 
rest of the rock, and stand out from it, which has led the natives to 
compare its surface to the impression left by the feet of sheep, and to 
name it " Bakri ke piun ka patthar." Over the surface, many frag- 
ments of basalt, calcedonies, &c. are scattered, derived from a lofty 
spur of the higher point of the mountain, which rises precipitously 
from the terrace within a few hundred feet of the fossil strata. A very 
remarkable mass of soft peperino, resembling ashes, of which a specimen 
is forwarded, seemed to proceed from the limestone, where it begins to be 
lost amongst the debris of the mountain ; and amongst the loose frag- 
ments, were some very tough clayey stones, having the forms of small 
univalve shells adhering and embedded. 

The facts above described, and the nature of the different fossil beds, 
more especially this great accumulation of marine shells resting imme- 
diately on granite, and the fossil seeds of chare, now perhaps first found 
in India, leave no doubt on my mind, that this wild mountain country, 
now covered with a dense forest, had once been the bed of an inland 
sea or great estuary, on whose shore the chare and associated fresh- 
water shells had flourished. 

On descending the pass towards Eidla'bid, the rock changes to 
amygdaloidal trap, with occasional masses of greenstone porphyry, 
having large crystals of felspar imbedded. The opake milk-white 
quartz, and the beautiful white porous crystalline mineral, which accom- 
pany the fossils, were found here, and were not met with elsewhere. 
At the foot of the pass, granite re-appears, and protrudes in great 
masses from the soil, for about four miles on either side of the town 
of Eidlabid*. 

Basaltic Tract between Eidlabdd and Ndgpur. 

The greater variety of rocks that occur between Eidlib&d and Nag- 
pur, and the interesting appearances they exhibit, will render it necessary 
to enter somewhat more into detail in describing the localities whence 
the specimens were collected ; so as to afford the means of determining 
their relations to each other, and to the fossil deposits already described 5 
as well as to the great western trap formation, and the stratified rocks 
to the north and south. 

* The localities of some other minerals found in the Nirmul hills are marked 
on the specimens. The blood-red chert found in the Talley of Ankni is 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] the Country between Hyderabad and Nagpur. Ill 

The bed of the small river of Ekllabid (see map) is covered by 
numerous fragments of the argillaceous blue limestone, so well known 
as underlying the diamond breccia in the Cuddapah district south of 
the Kistnah. Three miles higher up, the stream runs over the slightly 
inclined strata of a fine white sandstone, having some quartz fragments 
imbedded, rising towards some lofty ranges of trap formation to the 
east, (the Manik-gurh hills 4 ",) and are some places converted into a 
quartz-like mass, as is seen in some of the Cuddapah sandstones. It 
probably rests on the blue limestone, which is seen to pass into a soft 
bluish or reddish clayslate in the bank of a stream a few miles north. 

About 10 miles N. of Eidlabid, the limestone is found on the surface, 
forming smooth slabs, having much calcareous spar and rock crystal 
between the strata, and in their veins through the rock, and in the 
course of the natural figures, numerous small round perforations are 
arranged in lines, and occasionally filled with soft calcareous matter. 
On a rising ground south of Zeynid, the marble had occasionally a dip 
of 40 degrees ; but for the most part it was nearly horizontal, and the 
direction of the dip was quite irregular. In the nala of Zeyn&d, which 
runs over limestone, there is much tuff, having small pieces of the 
limestone imbedded, and evidently formed from the water of the stream 
(specimens No. 85) ; a similar formation is, however, found in a few 
places on the high level ground to the S. W. To the east of the village 
a gently rising ground extends nearly N. E. and S. W. for about three 
miles, and terminates in a small hill, which rises rather abruptly. The 
slope is formed of nearly horizontal slabs of marble, the edges of the 
strata being exposed by the gradual rise of the surface. In following 
the ridge to within half a mile of the little hill to which it rises, a 
singular appearance presented itself : a dyke of perfectly vertical strati- 
fication, about three feet in thickness, projects two feet from the general 
surface ; its exterior is singularly irregular and altered, the constituents 
of the rock being formed into crystalline or flint-like minerals of lime, 
argil, or silex, while the internal structure retains the characters of the 
blue limestone. On following this natural wall for about half a mile, 
it is concealed by globular basalt, which has burst through the strata, 
and in forming the termination of the little ridge, has covered the 
surrounding limestone, of which a portion has been so singularly dis- 
placed. The basalt is vesicular, and resembles much of that found in 
the Nirmul hills. No fossils were found here ; but in the ascent from 
the second terrace of the Muklegandy ghat, where the great bed of 
marine shells was incumbent on granite, the same limestone was seen 

• The Manik-gurh hills run from N. by E. to S. by W. almost at right 
sagles to the Nirmul range. 
Q 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

112 Notes on Geological Specimens from [Fe*. 

in sitA, greatly broken up by the eruption of the precipitous trap ridge, 
on which it was seen. The thickness of the grass and wood jungle 
prevented its being traced with sufficient accuracy. Fragments of the 
same rock were also seen* at Thitnoor ; and a very similar rock was 
observed in horizontal strata at Muneer, not far from some great 
blocks, containing marine fossils, in one specimen of which small 
univalve shells were found. But as this locality was only examined 
by torch light, I could form no judgment as to the formation being 
the same ; although the total absence of fossils in the blue limestone, 
over extensive tracts in which I have searched for them, incline me to 
think that they are different. 

The relative age of the blue limestone and great trap formation, to 
which these hills belong, being ascertained by these and other facts ; it 
may be hoped, that a careful comparison of the fossils will assist in 
determining the period to which other rocks occurring to the north 
and south belong. I have not been able to detect amongst them any of 
the Himalaya fossils ; but some fragments found in indurated clay at 
Jirpoh, near the hot springs in the valley of the Nerbada, and in a 
specimen from the Gawilgurh fossil rock, described by Dr. Votsbt in 
the 18th vol. of the As. Res. appear to belong to some of the same 

The march to the Payngunga river is over a flat country of black 
soil, modified in some places by a mixture of earth derived from slate 
day, which appears occasionally at the surface, and of the same kind as 
that found below the limestone of Cuddapah, or which takes its place 
under the diamond breccia of Banganapilly. Jaspers, striped red and 
white, are found in the black soil. Scattered over this extensive plain 
are a number of small conical hillocks of white kankar, apparently 
formed by springs issuing from the centre, and now dried up : in some 
of them the apex is a little depressed. Several long straight ranges 
are seen at a distance, generally flat on the summits, but occasionally 
rising into cones, with a lengthened base, corresponding to the direc- 
tion of the hills. About half up the greatest height a remarkable line 
extends all along, on which the summits appear to rise as on a terrace, 
or like the parallel roads of Glen Roy. 

The pebbles of the Payngunga are principally calcedonies of a red* 
dish color and the blue limestone. No. 93 is a specimen of the 
calcareous sandy tuff from the banks of this fine river ; it is found as 
high as 25 feet above the water at the fort ; and is always horizontal, 
with black soil between the layers, which are from an inch to three 
feet thick. The surface is irregular, but seldom or ever shoots into 
branches like the tufa of the Godavery, and holes occasionally occur in 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1835.] the Country between Hyderabad and Ndgpur. 113 

the layers, from a deficiency of lime ; in other places, it projects three 
or four feet, in consequence of the soft soil being washed away. In one 
of the specimens, numerous recent shells are imbedded, which corre- 
spond in situation to a layer of these left in the sand by the last fall of 
the river ; and it is evident, that the tufla is formed from the infiltra- 
tion of the lime with which the black soil and the water of the river 
abound, into layers of sand. In all these rivers, and in the stream of 
Bibbery and others running into the Godavery above Badrachellam, 
beds of limestone conglomerate, cementing agates and calcedonies, are 
continually forming. 

The country between the Payngunga and Kair has at all seasons 
many springs and streams of pure water ; which give a lively and 
beautiful green to the vegetation, when the surrounding country is 
burned up by the scorching heats of May*. The first of these streams 
is at Lingtee, the water of which is loaded with lime, which it depo- 
sits on its bed in a thick incrustation of tuff. Loose pieces of branches, 
petrified by lime, were found on the banks, and a wall of kankar six 
feet high in contact with No. 95, seemed to have been formed from a 
spring which had gushed from a fissure in the blue limestone, which is 
here the surface rock, and rests on a reddish, very friable slate clay, as 
is seen in a section a mile further down the stream. The black flint, 
No. 96, resembling anthracite, was found higher up. This stream, 
which, in the driest weather, has sufficient water to drive a mill, is said 
to have its source about six miles distant in a low range of hills, over 
which the road passes more to the east, a little to the north of Ur- 
juna, and three and a half miles from Lingtee. At this village, a 
small stream takes its rise in a hot spring, whose temperature, as it 
gushes from beneath the wall of a half ruined reservoir was, in Decem- 
ber, 1833, almost 87*. Copious springs also rise in the bed of the 
little stream ; and globules of gas are extricated from round holes in 
the mud ; but on endeavouring to collect a quantity, it was found that 
there were considerable and irregular intervals between each jet of air, 
nor did it always issue from the same place. The springs rise through 
the blue limestone so often mentioned/which, in a section in the north 
bank, is seen to have been raised by some violent forces, in a very 
singular manner, so as to form a series of irregular piked gothic arches, 
overlaid by partially broken but horizontal strata. The spaces within 
the arches are filled with fragments of the same rock, all evidently 
forced from below. The bed of the stream has a covering of sand, 

• The tame was observed of the beautiful stream at Bibbery, in the month of 
May, 1828, and inclines me to think, that it derives iu source in springs like 
those of Kair, to be presently described. It rises in the Nlrmui range. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

114 Notes on Geological Specimens from [Fib. 

which, some way below, is agglutinated by lime into a tolerably hard 
rock. The sand is derived from a quartoze sandstone, which crops out 
in two or three places from the ascent south of the spring. The strata 
are not horizontal, but neither the dip nor line of bearing could be 

North of Urjuna the rock is concealed by the soil as far as the 
Pindee ghat, nearly a mile distant, which passes over the steep low 
range, in which the Lingtee nulla rises. Its top is rounded, but on 
either hand, several conical summits are seen outlying from the range, 
which extends for some way from N. W. to S. E. On leaving the 
plain of Urjuna, the blue limestone disappears, and the hill is found 
to be composed of the usual black concentric basalt, the nuclei of which 
are exceedingly hard, and contain much olivine : they are imbedded in 
a soft grey or greenish wacken. I was surprised to find the road and 
a ravine descending from the hill strewed with the limestone I had left 
below, and did not quite credit the guide, who pointed to the top of 
the hill as the locality from which they came. I, however, soon came 
to it in situ, in its characteristic large smooth slabs, which render it so 
difficult to pass on horseback. They were observed to be slightly 
convex upwards, to be very much fissured in various directions, and if 
taken in the mass, to have a slight anticlinal dip, although on the top 
the slabs were horizontal and several places remarkably altered, as 
if they had been half fused ; the argillaceous and siliceous matters hav- 
ing arranged themselves into beautiful streaks of a pale blue enamel, 
passing into calcedony, or crystallized in minute prisms. Some parts 
of these strata had acquired a deep black color, and a flinty hardness. 
On descending the hill on the opposite side, the same appearances 
presented themselves, and left no doubt of the limestone having been 
raised from its connections by the intrusion of the basalt, which had 
slightly bent the strata, and in doing so, had caused the numerous fis- 
sures, and the alteration of structure. North of the Pindee ghat, 
there are a number of very low rising grounds, flat on the top, and 
composed of black globular trap rocks : and on the valleys, many large 
coarse masses of calcedony are scattered ; of which, on a slight exa- 
mination, I saw none in the hills. Near this, the limestone, No. 97, 
was found in the bed of a nulla. A little farther on, there are two 
very black conical hills of trap, and at their feet, great fragments of 
rock crystal, but of no beauty, and having cavities lined with calce- 
dony. From hence to Kair, the country is more level, rising however 
a little, to the right of the road ; and four miles from the Pindee 
ghat, and the same distance from Kair, I found the sandstone, Nos. 99 
and 100. It was only seen in a small nulla where its strata appeared 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 836.] the Country between Hyderabad and Ndgpur. 1 1 5 

to be horizontal/and was white, red, or of a fine yellow, easily decom- 
posed, and having small metallic veins passing through its substance, 
No. 100, and in one or two places, passed into a breccia, cemented by 
lime. No other rock is found at a higher level. I had been induced 
to examine this extensive slope, as the occurrence of the blue limestone 
suggested the probability of a sandstone or breccia being found above 
it, as at Cnddapah, before I discovered the sandstone at Urjuna, and 
near Eidlab£d ; I was therefore much gratified by finding it, although 
differ ent in mineralogical characters. The country did not afford any 
section, but the sandstone probably rests on the blue limestone, which 
is met with at a lower level, two miles to the north-east. A mile and 
a half south of Kair*, the road crosses a small river, where there are 
some masses of travertine several yards square, which have been carried 
down by the stream : they are entirely composed of petrified branches 
and leaves, with a cement in some parts of considerable thickness, and 
more or less crystalline, or resembling kankar. 

The stream rises near the town in copious hot springs, whose water 
is considered to be exceedingly pure and delicious ; but when taken 
from one of the springs, where it can be directly received, was found to 
be acid to the taste, and, on boiling, deposited lime, which the carbonic 
acid had held in solution. Bubbles of gas are also extricated with the 
water, from one of the springs. The lime separates in its course, giving 
a whitish appearance to the water of the pools, while it sparkles near 
the springs and in the rapids, as was the case also at Lingti. The 
temperature of the spring, in 1831 and 1833, was 87* and is the same 
in May, June, and December ; but the difference to the feelings, accord- 
ing to the temperature of the air, is so great, as to have led to the 
belief that it is cold in the day and hot at night ; the thermometer, 
however, showed that it was the same at 3 p. m. and 5 a. m. of the 5th 
June, when that of the air was 100° and 81°. The principal spring 
rises at the root of a great Banian tree below the pagoda, and is stated 
by the devotees to flow in the same profusion the whole year, which 
they account for by saying that it flows from the Ganges at Benares. 
This and other springs form a stream, that increases as its course is 
followed downwards, notwithstanding that much is directed to gardens, 
and a fine sheet of paddy in the bend of the river thus formed. About 
half a mile below the spring, the first formation of rock is found cross- 
ing the stream like a dyke, but of considerable breadth ; others more 
remarkable are found lower down, and after a winding course of 2£ 
miles, it seems to cease. The congeries of branches, roots, and even 

• This small town roast not be confounded with a large place of the same 
name on the Godayery. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

116 Notes on Geologic*! Specimens from [Feb. 

trees, sometimes hollow, and always in concentric rings of deposit, 
forms a beautiful sight when in masses of several tons weight. The 
strata were seen in one place to be 12 feet thick, and to rest on the 
common black alluvial soil ; near this, it had filled the original bed of 
the stream, and forced it to find another channel : and in two places, a 
fall of three or four feet, forming a pretty cascade, seemed to be occa- 
sioned by the growth of the rock, and the wearing away of the channel 
below. The deposit often conceals the remains of plants, with a smooth 
coating of considerable thickness and firmness, frequently rounded in 
irregular sections of large circles ; in others, in nodulous forms of great 
beauty, covering over the extremities of the smaller or larger branches* 
and occasionally preserving the wood in an hermetically-sealed cavity. 
The roots of the Banian now and then pass into the empty tubes, as 
if they were the mould on which they are formed ; others probably 
form on the weeds, which flourish in the wildest luxuriance along the 
banks : one of these I found to be 24 feet in height. Recent shells, 
such as now inhabit the stream, were found in many places enveloped in 
the stone. One fine specimen of lynuuta was attached to the side of 
the rock, as if it had been arrested there by the deposit of stone around 
it, and which has taken its shape ; its fine surface, where it adhered, 
being that of the fresh shell ; while the coating exhibited the color and 
fracture of the tufla of the hillocks south of the Payngunga, and others 
exactly similar, near the town of Kair. Roots and branches were 
seen to He in the deep water without a coating of stone ; but the series 
of observations so accurately described by Mr. Ltkll was completed* 
by finding where the stream fell over some rocks, a plant still living* 
whose roots were thickly interwoven, and the leaves on a level, and just 
above the water, cemented into a mass of firm white tufia. (Specimens 
of the water and tufa were formerly sent.) 

The spray seemed, therefore, to produce the deposit more quickly ; 
but specimens of moss growing below the water were also converted 
into sharp brittle spiculae. 

Below, some blocks were softened, and as if in part redissolved. 
Amongst the petrified plants, one tree l£ foot in diameter was seen ; 
and also a few leaves ; but these were rare, 1 suppose from their rapid 
decay and smooth surface ; one of them seemed to belong to a species 
of lotus seen in a pool above, and another seemed to be the leaf of aloe. 
In some places the tuffa was sandy, and in one or two slightly tinged 
with iron ; some of it had a fine crystalline appearance, and considerable 
hardness ; while other specimens could not be distinguished from kan- 
kar. A tendency to the formation of a bluish white scum was observed 
on the surface of the still water, both here and at Lingtee : a slight 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] the Country between Hyderabad and Nagpur. 117 

smell resembling sulphur was also occasionally perceived ; and at the, 
latter, our people procured water of a very offensive taste, although per* 
fectly clear, from a well which I did not see. 

The water abounds with animal life, and the banks are covered with 
a profuse vegetation, amongst which many fine insects were seen ; and 
in the hot season, all forms of life seem to gather round this oasis in 
the black burned-up country around. The banks and water affording 
so much food, vast numbers of birds of different species, game, doves, 
kings-fishers, herons, &c. are collected together, whose habits a natu- 
ralist might spend months in observing, without exhausting the field of 

AD the springs seemed to be equally loaded with calcareous matter, 
and similar formations by springs now closed up are seen on a rising 
ground down the river. Here too, the globular trap again appeared on, 
the surface in several places, of small extent ; one was a little to the 
west of the greatest formation of travertine, and another below the ford 
where the hard nuclei were surrounded by layers of a grey friable wacke 
like that of the Nirmul hills, and are curiously divided into compart- 
ments by tuffkceous partitions. Near to this, the blue limestone is again 
found in extensive slabs, slightly raised from its horizontal position ; 
but as usual in nq regular direction, the strata occasionally meeting 
each other at an obtuse angle. The same remark applies to the rock as 
seen to the north of the springs on the road to Won, and to almost 
every other place where I have met with it. Near the last mentioned 
bed of basalt, some irregularly inclined strata of blue rock, having a 
granular sandstone-like aspect, were seen, and at no great distance, 
large loose masses of vesicular scoria? were found, (specimens Nos. 
109, 115.) 

But the most interesting appearances are seen, in a small irregular 
rising ground, above the pagoda at the principal spring, which will be 
best understood by an inspection of the specimens 104. The basis of 
the rock is a tough white limestone, projecting from the gentle risinjr 
ground in very irregular masses, passing into curious and beautiful 
jasperous minerals, often coated with minute rock and other crystals ; 
and the whole is, perforated by large cavities, and even holes, evidently 
formed when the rock had been erupted in a semifluid state. Much, 
tufla is associated with these altered rocks, filling up many of the cavi- 
ties, and having various minerals imbedded. I believe that few places 
exhibit so many of the most interesting effects of volcanic action, as the 
small district around Kair ; more especially in altering a stratified rock 
of apparently uniform structure, so as to form a great variety of mine- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

118 Notes on Geological Specimens from [F*B. 

rals*. A good deal of sandstone has been used in the old buildings, 
which the inhabitants stated to be brought from Sacra, five miles to the 

To the north of Kair, the limestone resumes its blue color ; the soil 
is black, and a little further on, mixed with calcedonies, &c. In the 
nulla at Won, quartz sand, sandstone, and a mineral resembling pud- 
ding-stone were picked up ; and at the foot of the hill, the remarkable 
vegetable fossil figured in the fifth number of the Madras Journal, and 
now deposited in the museum of the Bengal Society. The small hill 
of Won is composed of sandstone of different colors, red, white, and 
yellow, and waved lines of a black color from disseminated iron, pass 
through it in various directions — the composition of which is the same 
as that in which the fossil is contained, and No. 100, from between 
Urjuna and Kair. The strata have been elevated by the convulsions 
to which the rest of the district has been subjected, and have a dip 
from the apex of the hill, varying from 35 to 55 degrees : their direc- 
tion on the southern face of the hill, is nearly from E. to W., but to 
the west they turn off towards the rising ground on which the town is 
situated, the line of bearing of the strata being from S. E. to N. W. 
The swell of the hill extends some way to the east, but the country is 
on the whole level. This sandstone is also found to the eastward in 
the basin of the Wurdah and Godavery, beyond Chanda. 

Sand derived from these rocks forms the soil for two miles north 
of Won : between that and the Wurdah, it consists of the basaltic 
black soil, and the gravel of that river is composed of calcedonies, 
agates, &c. of which a calcareous conglomerate, in horizontal strata, 
two or three feet thick, has been formed, No. 123. 

At Waronah, white sandstone and a yellow slate, apparently belong, 
ing to the clay slate formation to which Votsbt refers the blue lime- 
stone, is used in building ; and one obtained from a hill five miles dis- 
tant, which I had not time to visit. Most of the pagodas between 
Hingan ghat and Chanda are built of the same materials. Between 
Waronah and Chiknee the country is level, well cultivated, and the 
water within a few feet of the surface ; much fever prevails after the 
rains, although there is no wood or marsh. Basalt protrudes from 
the level soil, and near it, the bed of a small nulla displays strangely 
altered strata of the red slate clay, seen at Lingtee, which is broken 
up, and intermixed with crystalline nodules and layers of calcareous 

• In some specimens, the surface has the appearance of a semifased brick, which 
had assumed something of a regular arrangement, whilst the centre is composed 
of the blue limestone little altered. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] the Country between Hyderabad and Ndgpur. 119 

•par, having a red clay in the interstices. The specimen (No. R. 5) 
gives an imperfect idea of the singular appearance of this rock. At 
Dyegham, two miles further north, and about the same distance south 
from Chiknee, it is seen dipping to the west of south at a consider- 
able angle, is much fissured, and is reticulated with beautiful veins of 
calcareous spar, filling up the vertical interstices, which vary from a 
line to half an inch in breadth ; they intersect each other in all direc- 
tions without disturbance, and were evidently formed at one time. 

To the east of this, and of the village of Chiknee, there is a very 
gentle rise of the country, and concentric basalt and great round trap 
boulders are seen wherever the soil has been removed. On this are 
found numerous great blocks of indurated clay, of remarkable hard- 
ness, and exhibiting all the varieties of that mineral, of flinty slate, of 
compact schist, and of semi-opal*. Many of these masses are also 
found imbedded in the basalt ; and on a very careful examination, the 
inference could not be avoided, that they owed their different appear- 
ances to the greater or less heat to which they had been exposed. 
Most of them are full of large and small univalve shells, many of 
which are of fresh- water genera. Many of the shells are changed 
into opal, others are covered, or their shape taken and preserved by 
quartz crystals ; while the shells of a few can be separated unaltered, 
and effervesce with aids. The spines of the small shells are often 
insulated in cavities in the rock, and their crystalline surface is often 
very beautiful, when examined with the microscope. Some vertebras 
and the head of a fish were met with ; but from the great toughness of 
the rock, part only could be broken off, and a portion of the same 
block was converted into a red flint, with shells changed into opal. A 
large loose block of a slaty structure was found near this, containing 
fragments of very large bivalve shells of great thickness, along with 
wood converted into a black flint, intersected by fine veins of a light 
purple opal; and other bivalves which had been crushed together, 
were found in a flinty state on the upper part of the rising ground. I 
do not think that I go beyond the limits of correct inference, in sup- 
posing these shells to have lived in a mud formed from the decompo- 
sition of the clay-slate found in the neighbourhood, and through which 
the trap is seen to have burstf. 

• Loose specimens of this rock was seen by Mr. W. G books, Surgeon of the 
Madras European Regiment, in 1829, who directed my attention to ascertain 
their position. 

f Shells were first found here by Mr. W. Gbddes, late of the Madras Medi- 
cal Establishment. 
a 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

126 Notes on Geological Specimens from [Feb. 

The country to Naugri continues to be composed of basalt, Which m 
in some places tabular, with green earth between the laminae ; and the 
soil is covered with calcedonies, ribbon and pudding stone, jaspers, 
resembling those found m the Nirmul hills, to which the whole cha- 
racter of the formation remarkably assimilates, and leaves no doubt of 
their belonging to one great period of protrusive violence. 

At Naugri, fossils like those of Chiknee are formed ; and with the 
conical masses of calcedony, having a smooth flat base of cachelong, the 
centre being filled with quartz crystals and calc spar; which were 
afterwards seen in situ at Hingan ghat, inserted between the globular 
basalt with the apex downwards, the peculiar appearance of the base 
being perhaps caused by slow cooling. 

At Hingan ghat, a number of blocks, loose, of a black and red chert, 
containing silicified branches of dicotolydonous trees, and a very perfect 
portion of a palm (date ?) tree were discovered : and the same kind of 
rock, but without fossils, protruded from the basalt a little below 
Colonel Lambton's tomb. The basalt was globular, but seems to have 
had a tendency to form five or six-sided prisms. The rest of the 
route to Nagpoor is over a level country, from which a few insulated 
trap hills rise abruptly, on whose summits basaltic columns are occa- 
sionally met with. On the south side of the small range of hills near 
the city, these columns are very regular, and inclined' to the south, at 
an angle of 45°, in consequence of which many of them have fallen. 
The flat top of the hill forms a pavement of the ends of similar co- 
lumns perpendicular to the horizon. The round flat topped hill of 
Sitabuldee, which is accurately described by VoVsey in the 18th volume 
6f the As. lis. is separated a few hundred yards from the extremity of 
this range, and rests oh a decomposing granitic rock ; its great and 
irregular masses show a similar tendency to crystalline arrangement, 
and thin sheets of calcedony are found in the joints. 

To connect these observations with those published in the As. Re- 
searches and Journal, on the countries south of the Nerbada, it is 
necessary to mention, that at the cantonment of Kampty, eight miles 
north of N£gpoor, the sandstone is met with in the north bank of the 
Kanan river ; and a mile higher up, the granite has been forced through 
the strata, bending or converting them into quartz rock. The crystals of 
felspar and plates of mica are remarkably large, and mica slate is seen 
in a quarry a few hundred yards distant. Beyond this are some small 
hills of upraised gneiss ; near to which a conical hill of curiously 
altered rock, resembling that above the hot springs of Kair, has burst 
through a limestone, which it appears to have converted into a fine 
crystalline bed, like that found in the primitive districts of Scotland. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] the Country between Hyderabad and Nagjmr. 121 

From the summit of thie volcanic rock the basaltic hill of Sitabuldee 
and others are seen to the south and west ; and at the same distance 
to the north, the rounded mica slate and granitic hills of Ramtesk, 
which extend into the Bengal territory south of Sigur. 

An examination of the map will impress more strongly, than any 
thing I can urge, the importance of examining the whole Sichel or 
Shesha range, from the great lake water of Lonar, (to which the atten- 
tion of your readers was called in the number of Journal for June, 
1834,) to the fossil beds of the Nfrmul hills ; and from thence to Bibbery, 
the fossiliferous localities above Mungapett, and the hot springs of 
Byorah and Badrachellam. Other hot springs are also said to be 
found in the Nirmul range, regarding which I could get no correct 

There are three other points to which it may be well to call the 
attention of such of your readers as may have an opportunity of visit- 
ing these localities. 

1st. Whether the Sichel hills really terminate about Mungapett, 
or are continued in broken ranges towards Rajamundry ? I have long 
considered it probable that the dykes so common in the Circars are 
connected with the great basaltic ranges which cross the Deccan in 
nearly the same direction ; and Dr. Bbnza has recently discovered a 
bed of marine fossils on the top of a basaltic hill five miles south of 
Rajamundry, and a little above the alluvial plains of the mouths of the 

2nd. Whether the basaltic hills near the Manjerah river, on which 
Dr. Voyset discovered fossils, are connected with those of Bekanur- 
pettah and Nugger above described ; and whether they belong to the 
same geological period as the Nirmul hills ? 

3rd. I entertain little doubt that the basaltic formation of the valley 
of Berar and the basin of the Panah river, which falls into the Tapti, 
belongs to the period of eruption which elevated the Nfrmul fossils 
from the bed of the sea ; before, however, coming to this conclusion, 
with reference to the northern part of the valley, the connection be- 
tween the localities of the Nirmul and Chiknee fossils with those of 
the Gawilgurh hills (A. R. vol. 1 7th) must be ascertained. 

4th. The exact relations of the crater of Lonar to the great volcanic 
district to the N. W. where fossils have not yet been met with. 

But as the difficulties opposed to the investigation of the greater 
part of such wild and unhealthy tracts will probably prevent these 
desiderata being soon supplied ; I hope that a sufficient number of orga- 
nic remains have been obtained from the central point of the district, 
to enable an experienced geologist to arrive at a tolerably correct esti- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

122 Description of a New Species of Columba. [Fib. 

mate of the relative age of part of the great trap formation of the 
N. W. of India, which the President of the Geological Society in the 
anniversary address to that body in 1833, stated to be quite unknown: 
" no vestiges of secondary or tertiary formations having been detected 
within the region described." 

IV. — Description of a New Species of Columba. By B. H. Hodgson, 
Esq. Resident in Ntpdl. 

The following description of a new species was originally sent to the 
Society six years ago, but it does not appear to have been published. 
It has since been described as new by the Zoological Society in 1832. 
With the description went a drawing, coloured, and large as nature. 
Owing to the tardy appearance of the Society's quarto volume, the papers 
that did appear there had been forestalled : thus red-billed Erolia, but 
also my Circaeetus Nipalensis, take precedence, by two years, of Gould's 
Ibidorhyncha Struthersii and his Hcsmatornis Undulatus, which are the 
same species under new names. Both birds are types of new genera: 
•ee the Journal of the Zoological Society under date Dec. 27th, 1831, 
quoted, pp. 170 and 174. I described them both two years and some 
months previously : as the dates of the papers and the proceedings of 
your Society can prove*. 

Order Rasorbs. Family, Columbid^e. Genus Columba. Species new. 
Columba Nipalensis, (mihi.) 

This elegant species is found in the woods of the valley of Nepal. 
It is seen exclusively in the wild state, and is very shy, seldom or 
never entering the cultivated fields for the purpose of feeding, but 
adhering almost always to the woods, and living upon their produce, in 
the shape of grass, seeds, and berries. 

Except in the breeding season, it is very gregarious, and it breeds, 
I am told, only once a year, laying its eggs in June and July. I cannot 
bring it exactly under any of the A BCDarianf allotments of the numer- 

• We can offer no farther explanation of the loss of the author's MS. than 
was before given (J. A. S. IV.) neither can we find the plate to which he al- 
ludes. Bat we take this opportunity of circulating a lithograph of the Erolia 
and bearded Vulture described in vol. IV., which may serve as a peace offering 
to the justly offended author. —Ed. 

f A. orbits and tarsi plumose. 

B. orbits plumose, tarsi naked, tail even. 

C. orbits plumose, tarsi naked, tail wedged. 

D. orbits naked. 

a. feathers of the neck and quills simple. 

b. feathers of the neck notched at tips. 
«. quills bifid at tips. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 836.] Description of a New Species of Columba. 1 23 

ous species of this genus, according to the specification of those allot- 
ments in the 14th vol. of Shaw's Zoology, as will be perceived by the 
following enumeration of characteristic particulars. 

There is a naked space round the eyes. Two- thirds of the tarsi are 
plumose, the remaining third only being naked, and the toes also are 
naked. The quills are simple at their tips. The feathers of the neck 
are sub-elongated and acuminated at their tips. The tail is even. 

In an earlier vol. of Shaw, the Abcdarian division of the species is 
not carried so far as in the vol. just mentioned : and the following 
disposition of species, to be found in vol. xi. p. 2, of that work, has at 
least nothing inconsistent with the enumeration of significant particulars 
above given in reference to our bird. 
A. tail equal. 

a. orbits naked, feathers of the neck elongated, and acuminated 
at their tips. 

Comparing, for the sake of further illustration, our bird with the 
Columba Li via, or common pigeon, it differs in being larger ; in having 
the soft membrane at the base of the bill less tumid and mealy ; in 
having a somewhat longer tail, and shorter, and more lowly feathered 
tarsi, not to mention the naked space round its eyes, and other diagnos- 
tic particulars, which have been separately explained. 

The wings are about the same length as in the common species ; but 
owing to the tail being longer than in that species, they have the 
appearance of being shorter, and they do not reach within two inches 
of the extremity of the tail. 

What further illustration of this species may be needed will be best 
gathered from a perusal of the details of size and proportions given 
below, and contrasted with those of the common pigeon. I now 
proceed to the plumage, in respect to which our bird bears a strong 
resemblance to the Parabolic pigeon. The principal colour is a dark 
slaty blue, deepened into more or less perfect black in the quills and 
tail feathers ; and shewing clearest on the lower part of the back, on 
the lesser tail and wing coverts above, on the thighs, and on the whole 
of the tail and wing coverts below. Upon the lower part of the hind 
neck, the upper part of the back, the lesser wing coverts above, and the 
most part of the body below, the principal colour is almost superseded 
by a rich purplish tinge ; and all the feathers so tinged, save those of 
the upper back and of the sides of the body, are further adorned by being 
broadly margined or pointed with pale clear bluish grey. The head 
and top of the neck are wholly of the softest bluish grey, which colour, 
as it descends the body, forming in its descent the margins and points 
just noted, gradually decreases in quantity, and fades in hue. It pre- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

124 Asiatic Society, [F«b. 

vails rather on the lower than upper surface of the neck, and in 
respect to the body, is no where seen above, except in the shape of 
soma roundish dots of nearly pure white on the lesser wing coverts. 

The bill is black, shewing faintly a purplish tinge, which is more 
clearly visible in the basal membrane of the bill, and on the naked 
orbits. In front, the legs and feet are black green ; elsewhere, they 
are yellowish. The claws are clear, lively yellow. The iris of the 
eyes hoary grey or white. 

The female is as large almost as the male, from which she differs 
only in having the bluish grey of the head less clear and pale, and in 
wanting almost entirely the purplish tinge, which adds so much beauty 
to certain parts of the plumage of the male, especially the upper part 
of his back, and the lower part of his belly. This species is, I fancy, 
questionless new ; and as it seems to be peculiar to these mountains, if 
not to Nepal proper, Columba Nipalensis would be a very appropriate 
name for it. 

Dimensions and weight of the Columba Livia and Columba Nipa- 

C. L. C. N. 

feet, inches, feet, inches. 

Tip of bill to tip of tail, 11 12$ 

Length of bill (to the gape), 0^ 1 

Dittooftail, 5 6 

Ditto of a wing, 8| 9 

Expanse of wings 2 2 1| 

Length of tarsi, 1| 1 / f 

Ditto of central toe and nail, If 1§ 

Weight, ll$o*. 12* oi. 

Valley qf Ntpdl, Dec. 1829. 

V. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 

Wednesday Evening, the 2nd March, 1836. 

W. H. Macnaghten, Esq. V. P. in the chair. 

Lieut-Col. J. Colvik, Engineers, Lieut. Col. L. R. Stacy, John Nkave, 
Esq. C. S., Lieut. A. Cunningham, Engineers, and Raja Vijaya Govinda 
Singha Behadur, proposed at the last meeting, were ballotted for, and 
duly elected members of the Society. 

Read a letter from Mr. Alexander Beattie, withdrawing from the 

Read a letter from W. H. Macnaghten, Esq. Secretary to the Govern, 
ment of India, Political Department, acknowledging the receipt of a copy 
of the communication from His Excellency Prince Esterhazy. 

Read the following reply from Government to the Secretary's letter, 
written in pursuance of the resolution of the last meeting, in regard to 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1*36.] Asiatic Society. 125 

the oriental manuscripts and printed volumes of the Fort William College 

To James Prinsep, Esq. 
Gtnl. Dept. Secretary to the Aaiatic Society. 


1 »m directed to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, dated the 6th instant, 
aad in reply to state, that the Governor of Bengal accepts the offer of the Asia- 
tic Society to provide rooms for the accommodation of, and to hold accessible 
to the public, the Oriental portion of the late Library of the College of Port 
William, and has ordered the books to be made over on the following conditions : 
The books are to be the property of the Government until the Honorable Court 
of Directors shall decide whether they shall be made over absolutely or not, the 
Society to be ruled of course by their decision. The Government to allow the 
Asiatic Society a monthly sum of 78 Rupees, (stated by the Secretary of the 
College to be the minimum expence for custody of the books,) in consideration 
of the Society's providing for establishment and keeping the books clean and 
in proper repair. All other charges to be provided by the Society. The above 
allowance to cease, in case of the property in the books being made over to the 

Fort William, \ H. T. PRINSEP, 

the 24th Feb. 1836. J Secy, to Govt. 

Resolved, that the Society acquiesce in the terms proposed bv the Go- 
vernment, and that the Secretary do take measures for receiving the 
books and granting receipts for them to the Secretary of the College 
Council in the course of their daily transfer. 


The following books were presented : 

Memoirs of the Astronomical Society, vol. 8th— by the Society. 
Transactions of the Agricultural and Horticultural Society of Calcutta, vol. 
2nd — ly the Society. 
The following by Professor Bopp : 

Grammatica Critica Linguae Sanscritae, two editions, 1829, 1832— by Pro- 
feuor Bopp. 

Glossarium Sanscrirum, 1830— by ditto, 
Nalus, Maha-bharati Episodium, 1830— by ditto. 

Diluvium, cum tribus alHs Maha-bharati praestantissimis Episodiis, 1829 — 
by ditto. ... 

Uber einige Demonstrativst&mme and ihren Zusammenhang mit verscnieaa- 
nen Propositionen und Conjunotionen im Sanskrit und den mit ihm verwand- 
ten Sprachen, 1830. 

Uber den Einfluss der Pronomina auf die wortbildung im Sanskrit und den 
mit ihm verwandten Sprachen, 1832— by ditto. 

Ardschuna's Reise zu Indra's Himmel, nebst anderen Episodcn des Maha- 
bharati— by ditto. 

Conjugations System, 1 vol. 12mo. 1816— by ditto. 
Die Sundflut, 1 vol. 12mo. 1829— by ditto. 

Geological Report of an examination, made in 1834, of the elevated country 
between the Missouri and Red Rivers, by G. W. Pbathbrstonhaugh, U. S. 
Geologist, presented by the American Philosophical Society. 
The following books were received from the book-sellers : 
Bridgewater Treatises, Prout's Chemistry, 1 vol. Kirby on Animals, 2 vols. 
Roget's Physiology, 2 vols. ,.„,..-. 
Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopedia, England, vol. 5th. 
, Greeks and Romans, vol. 2nd. 

• The resolution, by inadvertence, was omitted in the printed proceedings. It 
was to the effect, that as Government had been pleased to transfer the European 
portion of the College Books to the New Public Library, the Society begged to 
tender accommodation in its rooms for the Oriental portion of the same, the Go- 
vernment agreeing to pay the establishment necessary for its due preservation while 
in deposit. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

126 Asiatic Society. [Feb. 

Illustrations of the Botany, &c. of the Him&layan Mountains, and of the 
Flora of Kashmir, by J. F. Royle, Esq. 

Museum of Antiquities, SfC. 

Facsimiles of inscriptions on two slabs of stone at the entrance of a 
very ancient Temple, supposed to be Buddhist, on the Hill Fort of Gua- 
lior, taken by Mrs. Sale, were forwarded by Major Sutherland, Resident 
at Gualior. 

Extract of a letter from Colonel H. Burney, dated Ava 15th January, 
announced the transmission via Rangoon, of a small box containing some 
Buddhist images found by Captain Hannay at Tagoung, 100 miles above 
Ava on the Irawadi. 

41 Optaia Haknay'b last letter is dated from Tsen-bo, (the Sembooa of the 
Map of the Burmese Empire compiled in the Surreyor Generals Office in 1825,) 
three stages above Daman. He must have reached Mogoung on the 5th instant. 
He speaks in the highest terms of the general appearance of the country, and 
estimates the population, particularly on the right bank of the Irawadi, to be 
much more numerous than I had imagined. At Baman he was much interested 
by the Chinese, who were inquisitive but civil ; and he estimates the breadth of 
the Irawadi at Baman, to be full two mile* during the rainy season ! The 
Sherelee and other rivers falling into it are too inconsiderable to have any con- 
nexion with M. Klaproth's Tian-po. 

"I am writing to you in great haste. The cold at Ava this year is unusually 
great ; the thermometer at this moment has fallen to 45% and I am sitting in an 
open verandah without a fire, and shivering under a piercing northerly air, which 
seems to be coming directly from the snowy mountains." 

Extract of a letter from W. Ewer, Esq. was read on the subject of the 
interlined writing on the Lath at Allahabad, which he reported to be in 
too imperfect a state to be copied or decyphered. 

Mr. Ewer reminded the Secretary that he had communicated a draw, 
ing of the trident at Barahaut and the inscriptions on it 10 years ago. 

A letter from Col. Stacy was received, on the point in dispute of the 
relative antiquity of the striking of coin in India. 

A tabular view of the statistics of Muttra was presented by Captain R. 
Wrougiiton, who promised to furnish similar tables of all divisions of the 
country measured by himself as a part of the grand revenue survey. 

An accurate meteorological register, kept in NipsU by Capt. Robinson, 
for 1835 was received from the Resident at Katmandhu. 

A register of the thermometer for the same year, from Mr. Eogeworth 
at Amballa. 

The following models from Nip&l were preseuted by Dr. A. Campbell. 

1. Sugar-caue mill, or press, called Tu*a by the Newars, and Rulu by the 

2. Oil press, called Chikon-ta. 

3. Water-mill, called Pan-Chaki of the northern Doab, and western hills, 
and Kau by the Newars. 

4. Spade, called Koo by the Newars, Kodali by the Parbattiahs. 

5. Crutch, called Kurmuyhan by the Newars, used for breaking the clods and 
pressing the soil. 

6. Roochi-mughan, used by the Newars to cover sown wheat, and Qayha, or 
upland rice. 

7. Chtusu-mughan, used to smooth the flooded beds, in which the seeds of 
the MaUi and Toki is sown, and also prepare the soil for sowing vegetables, 
pepper (red), ginger, &c. 

8. Roo Retcha, used for weeding the flooded rice. 

9. Chong Kooki, used in weeding the Gar/ ha, or dry land rice, coud (a vetch) 
or other drill crops. 

10. Root, used for spreading grain to the sun, and collecting it in heaps after 
its removal from the straw. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Asiatic Society. 137 

11. Ooghan-Okna, used for husking grain. 

12. Rooti, used for making Chaul (rice) from Dkan, and for pounding bricks. 

13. Chou Rummu, bhangy. 

14. Plough, used by Parbuttiahs. 

15. Keka, used to separate seeds from the cotton. 

16. Yeau, spinning wheel. 

17. Wearer's loom. 

18. Rool, carpenter's adze. 

19. Phoho, used as a saw. 

20. Doha, carpenter's chisel. 

21. Lamp. 

22. Tulip. 

23. Specimen of Gapgy upland rice. 

24. Ditto of rice in the valley of Nipal. 

25. Ditto of variety of rice called Main. 

26. Two specimens of mustard seeds. 

27. specimen of pea stalactite. 

28. I Ktto of Nipal soap. 

29. Two pen cases and inkstands. 

30. Two inksta&ds. 

31. Two Buddhas. 

32. NipaM sword. 

33. Ditto ditto. 

Al the following Nipalese Musical Instruments: 

1. Pkonga, (trumpet,) Newari. 

2. Mnhallir (flageolet,) ditto. 

3. Singha, (horn,) Nipal. 

4. Nvg Pheni, or Turi, Parbattiah. 

5. Bantuli, (flute or fife.) 

6. MivKriiknaBeH, Newari flute. 

AIbo, several specimens of Cotton and Woollen cloth manufactured at 
Nip&l* Tibet, and Bhoote, marked from No. 18 to S3. 


The Secretary presented, in the name of Mr. W. Cracroft, a very fine 
collection of the fossil impressions of vegetables and fossil woods in the 
coal and shale of Newcastle in New South Wales, just received from that 
place, along with a number of geological specimens and many rare shells, 
encrinite, &c. 

Mr. C. Bbtts presented a piece of fossil wood from the sandstone above 
the coal beds of Burdwan ; to which the natives give the name of Aturhdr, 
or " giant's bone." 

Three specimens of soil, and five of minerals, of Nipal, and a collection 
of skins of birds, presented by Dr. A. Campbell of NipAl. 

A stuffed Albatross, presented by J. Child, Esq. H. C. Pilot Service. 

A specimen of Eurinorynchus Griteus, or Pigmy Spoonbill, presented 

bv Newoombb, Esq. # , 

"This bird is one of the rarest in the world ; but a single specimen having been 
found before : the Curator was requested to draw a description of it for publica- 

A specimen of Remora, presented by C. W. Smith, Esq. 

A note on the Chasrot her turn, one of the new pachydermatous genera, 
discovered in the Sivalik range, by Messrs. Falconer and Cautlev, was 

The letter accompanying it notices the discovery also of the remains of birds, 
in the same rich fossil field. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


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No. 51.— March, 1836. 

L — Memoir of the Life and Writings of St. Nibrsbs Clajbnsis, sur- 

named the Graceful, Pontiff of Armenia, By Johannes Avdall. 

[Submitted to the Asiatic Society, 1st May, 1829*.] 

At a period when Armenia was labouring under the lamentable 
effects of intestine broils and foreign invasions ; when she was subject- 
ed to the ruinous consequences of dissensions that existed between the 
leaders of the Armenian and Greek Churches, when tyranny and per- 
secution of the most violent kind strode hand in hand in her territories, 
Providence deemed it necessary, out of sympathy for the sufferings of 
I towmmi beings, to raise up a person, who, by a happy combination of the 
qualities of a great mind, with those of a good heart, might be a proper 
instrument of knitting more closely man to man, and of removing dis- 
turbances from the Church of Christ, whose very essence is formed of 
love, meekness, and peace. 

The individual, in whom the illustrious subject of this Memoir found 
a father, was called Apibat, a prince famed for uncommon bravery 
and glorious achievements, who flourished in Armenia, near the close of 
the eleventh century. He claimed his origin from the Pehlavic race, 
and had the happiness of perpetuating his memory by giving birth to 
four sons, known under the appellations of Basil, Shahan, Grsoort, 

• This paper was handed to as by a Member of the Committee of Papers of 
the Asiatic Society for 1829, on his departure for the Cape. It had been unfortu- 
nately mislaid among his papers. Although, (as the author's presentation letter 
says,) " it is not of a scientific nature, and consequently little adapted to the 
taste of the present age,' 1 still, considering that it is descriptive of the public 
acts of the greatest author and divine that flourished in Asia in the middle 
of the 12th century, and illustrative of the religious differences that separate 
the Church of Armenia from that of Greece, it cannot fail to interest many of 
our readers. — Ed. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

130 Memoir of St. Nierses Clajensis. [March, 

and Nierses. The latter was born in the year 1100, in the castle of 
Zovs, which was the hereditary property of Apirat. Allied by the 
ties of consanguinity to Gregory Vikayaser*, who then wielded the 
pontifical sceptre in Armenia, Apirat entrusted to him the education 
of Gregory and Nierses, who were, by the direction of their guardian, 
admitted into the monastery raised on the summit of the Black Moun- 
tain. Gregory Vikayaser, when he had attained to a good old age, 
was by the repeated solicitations of the prince Basil the Sly, and his 
illustrious lady, induced to change the place of his residence, and spend 
the remainder of his days near them, at Rapan, situated in the vicinity 
of the city of Cheson. On his departure from the monastery of the 
Black Mountain, he took with him his wards, Gregory and Nierses, 
having entertained favourable anticipations of their future greatness 
and celebrity. Some time after his having eventually settled in the 
Red Convent, near Cheson, perceiving that his career was daily drawing 
to a close, he sent for Parsick, whom he had previously nominated 
his successor, and for Basil the Sly, to whose kind care and protec- 
tion he intrusted, the lads Gregory and Nierses, the former being of 
the age of about 13 years, and the latter only 10 years, old. He also 
added, in the presence of those by whom he was surrounded, that, 
agreeably to his nomination, Parsick should immediately after his 
death be invested with the pontifical authority of Armenia. On the 
elevation of the latter to that high station, he began to shew the 
greatest regard for the welfare and education of his wards, Gregory 
and Nierses, and accordingly placed them under the superintendence 
of Bishop Stephen, a divine of high attainments and profound erudi- 
tion, in order, that they might by his immediate tuition be instructed in 
theology and the literature of the west. Gregory and Nierses con- 
tinued to proceed in their education with two other fellow scholars, 
named SARKissf and Ignatius, whose valuable productions have per- 
petuated their fame in the recollection of posterity. 

* Vikayaser (<l,fr5f«""frf) is the compound of tUfaf martyr, and *trp love, tig. 
nifying lover of martyrs, which is an epithet given to Gregory in consequence 
of the extreme veneration which he displayed for the memory of martyrs, and 
the great avidity with which be translated their lives from the Greek and Syriao 

f These two worthies are peculiarly distinguished among the divines, who 
flourished in Armenia in the twelfth century. At the special desire of the pon- 
tiff Gregory, Ignatius wrote a commentary on the Gospel of St. Luke, which 
is held in general admiration for the perspicuity of its style and the sensible 
observations with which it abounds. Sarkies claims an equal share of vene- 
ration from his countrymen for his valuable productions, which have been handed 
down to us. They consist of Commentaries on the seven General Epistles, on 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 836.] Memoir of St. Nierses Clajensis. 131 

Pabsick having established the seat of his pontificate at the desert 
of Shughr, in the vicinage of Cheson, felt great interest in frequently 
visiting the Red Convent, in order that his occasional presence might 
enhance the utility and efficiency of the institution. Two years after 
this, considering that the qualifications and good conduct of Grboort 
were worthy of sacerdotal dignity, Parsick conferred on him the order 
of priesthood, when he had just attained the age of 15 years. Removed 
from the Red Convent, Grboort remained with Parsick in the pontifi- 
cal house, where the latter with paternal care and exertions instilled 
into the mind of the former such principles of virtuous habits and 
sound doctrine, as might befit him for the high office which he was 
destined to fill. 

Having enjoyed the pontifical authority for about eight years, Par* 
sick was cut off by sudden death. Before, however, this melancholy 
event, he summoned the dignitaries of the church of Armenia, as well as 
some of the nobility of the country, and in their presence, nominated 
his ward Gregory as successor to the pontificate, presenting him with 
his pontifical robes and sceptre. Accordingly, the bishops and clergy 
of the nation having assembled in the Red Convent, anointed Grboort 
with great honors Pontiff of all Armenia. Though of the age of twen- 
ty years only, the mental and moral qualities of Grboort peculiarly 
adapted him for the responsibility of the high situation. 

Grboort having, by new improvements, strongly fortified the castle 
of Zovs, which had devolved on him after the death of his father, re- 
moved thither the seat of his spiritual government. After the lapse of 
several years, Nibrsbs, at the particular desire of his brother Grboort, 
quitted his monastic seclusion, and entered into clerical orders. During 
the ceremonies of his ordination, the pontiff Grboort bestowed on him 
the appellation of Nibrsbs, in veneration of the memory of Nibrsbs the 
Great*, who was of Parthian and Pehlavic extraction. By what name 
he was originally designated, no mention is made in the works of 
any of our historians. His profound learning and exemplary virtues 
soon raised him to the high dignity of a bishop, in whose capacity he 
was from time to time sent by the pontiff on visitations to the most 
populous provinces of Armenia, for the purpose of enlightening the 
minds of the ignorant, and pouring the balm of comfort into the hearts 
of the afflicted. Wherever he visited, his footsteps were marked with 

the Prayers of St. Grkgorius Narkkensis, and on the Prophecy of Isaiah. 
That of the General Epistles was published in Constantinople in the year 1744 ; 
bat those of the two latter have not as yet been discovered. 

* For particulars of the life of Nierses the Great, vide my translation of the 
History of Armenia, vol. i. page 181. 
■ 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1M Memoir of St. NierM Clajensis. [Marcs, 

national improvements and spiritual good. By bis peculiarly mild tem- 
per and upright principles, he was held in general estimation, and con* 
sidered a very valuable member of the fraternity to which he belonged. 

At this period, it must be recollected, the city of Antioch was in the 
possession of the Latins, who found it necessary to convene a general 
assembly for the purpose of taking into consideration some heavy 
charges that were preferred against Rodolph, the Archbishop of that city, 
to his holiness Innocrnt the Second. Being deservedly distinguished 
among foreigners for the intense zeal they displayed both in the cause 
of Christianity and humanity, the pontiff of Armenia and his brother 
Nibrsss were invited to become participators in the proceedings of the 
council. They met with a very honourable reception from the Latins, 
whose admiration of the graceful tone of their conversation could 
only be equalled by the surprise with which they caught every senti- 
ment which fell from the lips of those bright ornaments of the Armenian 
church. On the conclusion of the meeting, which led to the deposition 
of Rodolph from his episcopal dignity, the pontiff Grrgort went on a 
pilgrimage to the city of Jerusalem, and his brother Nirrsbs having 
returned to the castle of Zovs, performed the duties of a proxy during 
the absence of his brother from the seat of his pontificate. 

Dissensions now arose among the Armenians and Syrians residing 
in some part of Mesopotamia, through the dissemination of the heretical 
doctrines of the Thondrakian sect*, which were calculated to mislead 
the simple and the illiterate. Thulkuran, an Armenian nobleman, 
eminently distinguished for his exemplary piety and benevolence, 
viewed the progress of these heresies with great apprehensions for the 
safety of the established Church of Armenia, and in consequence, 
endeavoured to check the evil, by communicating the state of things to 
the pontiff Gregory, and soliciting him to take measures for effectually 
exterminating the sect. The latter, after giving the subject due consi- 
deration, communicated with his brother Nirrsss on the best way of pro- 

* The founder of this sect was an Armenian by the name of Sumbat, who 
flourished in Armenia in the beginning of the ninth century. He was born in 
Zarehavan, a village situated in the province of Zalcotin ; but in consequence of 
his long residence in Thondrak, he received the appellation of Thondrakensis, and 
his followers were known by that of Thondrakians. His mind was imbued with 
the heretical principles of the Paolicians, and the whole course of his life was 
marked with the greatest moral depravity, impiety, and wickedness. Like the 
Sadducees, he disbelieved the doctrine of future rewards and punishments, and 
in imitation of the opinions of Epicurus denied that God was the creator and 
preserver of the world. He refused his assent to the creed of the graces of the 
: Holy Ghost, the efficacy of the Sacraments of the Church, and the existence of 
tin, laws, and justice. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 836.] Memoir of St. Nierses Clajensis. 1 38 

tecting the Church from the impending danger, and imposed upon 
him the task of addressing a general letter to the Armenian inhabitants 
of Mesopotamia, descriptive of the confession of the orthodox faith of the 
Armenian Church, and contradictory of the heterodox opinions of the 
Thondrakians. Nurses performed the injunctions of his brother in 
such a successful manner, as to silence those who were inimically dis- 
posed towards the Church, and to restore peace and unanimity amongst 
the community of that place. 

In the year 1142, the Grecian emperor Johannes Porphyrigenitus 
led a considerable army into the country of Cilicia, in order to put 
down the power of the Scythians, which had already begun to assume a 
formidable appearance in that quarter. During his short stay in the 
city of Anarzaba, the emperor expressed a desire of having an interview 
with the Armenian pontiff Gregory and his brother Nierses. On their 
being presented to the emperor, they met with a kind reception, and 
were seated next- to his imperial majesty. A conversation then ensued 
relative to the doctrines and ceremonies of the Armenian Church, and 
the sound judgment with which they answered the interrogations of 
the emperor, excited his regard and admiration. This afforded him a 
favourable opportunity of acquiring a correct notion of the state of the 
Armenian Church, and of removing from his mind that unjust prejudice 
with which he was in the habit of viewing the Armenians. The exam- 
ple of their monarch was soon followed by the majority of the people, 
who began to relax in the persecution with which they afflicted a nation 
whom by a common faith they ought to have protected from similar 
cruelties, when inflicted by the unbelieving Musulmans. 

Apprehensive, through the perturbed state of the country, of an 
attack upon his paternal castle of Zovs by foreign invaders, the pontiff 
Gregory consulted his safety by quitting the place of his residence, and 
fixing the seat of his pontificate in the fortress of Hiromcla. Built on 
the confluence of the rivers Marzman and Euphrates, and strongly fortified 
by nature, Hiromcla proved an insuperable bar against an invasion. 
Formerly it was in the possession of the prince Basil the Sly, and 
now it was under the control of the countess Joscelyn. The pontiff 
Gregory and his brother Nierses met with a very hospitable reception 
from this illustrious lady, who felt the greatest delight in rendering 
their situation comfortable, and was exceedingly pleased with their 
charming and edifying conversation. 

On the decease of her husband, who had been seized by Noured- 
Din*, the chief of Aleppo, and who died in confinement, the dowager 
countess Joscelyn thought it safe to quit Hiromcla for Europe. 
♦ Mills's History of the Crusades, toI. i. p. 309. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

134 Memoir of St. Nierses Clajensis. [March, 

Previously, however, to her departure, she made over the management 
of the fortress to the pontiff Gregory and his brother Nirrsbs on the 
following condition : "lam about to quit this place," said she, " and 
proceed to my country. I leave this fortress as a trust in your hands, 
with a desire that in case my son happen to come to this quarter, you 
shall deliver it over to him as his patrimonial property ; but if other- 
wise, you shall be entitled to its possession." On the arrival of young 
Joscelyn in Hiromcla, he was made master of it in conformity with 
the desire of his mother. After a short residence in this place, Joscelyn 
determined to quit it for Europe. In consequence of this intention, 
the fortress was sold to the Armenian pontiff Gregory, who, according 
to the historians Vardan and Kirakus, established in it the seat of his 
pontifical government, and raised there a very magnificent Church, 
embellished with splendid cupolas. 

About the year 1165, when Gregory had attained to a good old 
age, and enjoyed the pontifical office for a period of 53 years, he began 
to be solicitous for the nomination of a successor. He expressed a 
desire of conferring that spiritual dignity on his brother Nierses, 
who was also past the meridian of life. The latter, though the offer 
was several times made to him by Gregory, was unwilling to accept it. 
Finally, anticipating the approach of his death, Gregory ordered a gene- 
ral meeting of all the Armenian bishops, monks, and priests to be held 
in the pontifical house at Hiromcla, for the purpose of considering the 
best mode of nominating a successor to the pontificate. In this assem- 
bly, after making an impressive speech on the approaching termination 
of his career, and the necessity of electing a successor worthy of the 
high station which be filled, he expressed his choice of investing his 
brother Nierses with the pontifical authority, which proposition met 
with the unanimous and cordial approbation of the audience. Nierses, 
who had made up his mind to exchange the troubles of a busy life for 
the sweets of solitude, in vain endeavoured to decline the offer of that 
responsible situation. Overcome by the repeated solicitations of the 
assembly, he was at last obliged to accept the office of the pontificate, 
with a view of promoting the general welfare of the nation. Immedi- 
ately after this, Gregory anointed Nierses pontiff of all Armenia, 
and adorned him with the pontifical robes. He placed in his hand the 
sceptre of authority, and saluted him with the greatest reverence and 
submission as the head of the Church. When the ceremonies of the 
election were over, Nierses rose and delivered a most excellent speech, 
expressive of his acknowledgments for the high honor that had been 
conferred on him, and descriptive of the nature of the responsible duties 
which he was bound to perform in the spiritual dignity to which he 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Memoir of St. Nierses Clajensi*. 135 

was elevated. By this oration the audience were not only assured of 
the zeal and interest which he would feel for the welfare of his flock, 
but were also struck with a forcible conviction of the goodness of the heart 
and the grandeur of the mind, from which these graceful sentiments 
emanated. It was owing to a peculiarly sweet tone of his expressions, 
and a remarkably fascinating flow of the sentiments of his inspired 
mind, that he was distinguished by the appellation of the Graceful, 
Q%m P ^m^, as he was latterly known by the cognomen of Clajensis, 
bf«/*^A in consequence of exercising the functions of his sacerdotal 
office in the fortress of Hiromcla. About three months after the elec- 
tion of Nibrsbs, his brother Gebgory departed this life Anno Domini 
1166, and was entombed in a sepulchre prepared during his life time. 

Soon after the death of his brother, Nibrsbs, the pontiff, set about 
improving the state of the churches, and promoting the spiritual wel- 
fare of his flock. And as the Armenians in that time, like those in our 
days, were dispersed in various parts of the globe, that is to say, in the 
territories of Armenia, in Greece, Persia, Georgia, Aluans, Egypt, and 
other quarters, he found it essentially necessary to extend spiritual 
comforts even to his distant congregation, by sending to them pious and 
able missionaries, for the purpose of curing the wounds of the afflicted, and 
enlightening the minds of the ignorant. Not contented with the good 
that was likely to result from the zealous exertions of these preachers of 
the gospel, he, at the early part of his pontificate, and by the unanimous 
consent of his bishops, addressed a general epistle at great length to the 
people of his Church, which was couched in sentiments full of heavenly 
wisdom*. In this letter, after mentioning the death of his brother 
Gregory, and taking a short view of the relative duties imposed upon 
him by his being elevated to the pontifical throne, he states the 
orthodox creed of the Church of Armenia, which is immediately follow- 
ed by preceptive exhortations best adapted to persons of every age 
and rank. The letter itself is divided into different sections, the first 
of which is directed to conventuals, who are assimilated to the stars ; 
the second, to the primates of monasteries, who are compared to the 
eyes ; the third, to the bishops, who are likened to the head, counte- 
nance, and stewards ; the fourth, to the priests, who are made to re- 
semble parents ; the fifth, to the nobility ; the sixth, to the military 
order ; the seventh, to the citizens ; the eighth, to the husbandmen and 
peasantry ; and the ninth, to the female sex in general. The immedi- 
ate object of the writer was to excite a love of virtue and piety amongst 
his congregation, and to be instrumental in eradicating from their 

* This pastoral epistle was published in Venice with a Latin translation 
in the year 1829. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

136 Memoir of St. Nierses Clajensis. [March, 

minds such unwholesome principles, as are calculated to render human 
nature waste and deformed. There are also extant several epistles 
written by Nibrses to different individuals, about matters temporal and 
spiritual, amongst which his correspondence with the authorities of 
Greece, relative to the contemplated union of the Greek and Armenian 
Churches, claims pre-eminence. Of this I shall have occasion to give 
a detailed account in the following pages : 

The attention of Nierses the Graceful was chiefly engrossed by a 
fervent desire of introducing various useful plans of improvement into 
the Church of Armenia. He succeeded in his endeavours of reforming 
it from the remnants of those irregularities, which were some of the 
baleful consequences of foreign invasions, and which were still predo- 
minant in several parts of Armenia. He strove with great vigilance to 
restore to the Church that splendour, which it enjoyed during the 
glorious reign of the Christian kings of Armenia. He ordered old 
copies of the Prayer Book of the Armenian Church to be brought to 
him from various distinguished monasteries of Armenia major, and by 
a careful comparison of their contents, he modelled the liturgy with 
considerable improvements, which is to this day in general use amongst 
all the Armenians. He made several additions to the Prayers that 
were read on Good Friday and the Pentecost. According to the autho- 
rity of Mukhithar, the pontiff, it appears that up to the time of Nibrsbs 
the Graceful, the Church of Armenia performed the ordination of priests 
and bishops conformably to the custom and ceremonies of the Greek 
Church ; but Nibrsbs, on his elevation to the pontifical throne, adopt- 
ed a new mode of ordination, not materially different from those of the 
sister Churches. 

Prior to the beginning of the twelfth century, poetry was a perfect 
blank in Armenian literature. Though metrical pieces and songs can 
be traced in our history to have been repeated and sung by the Arme- 
nians in different periods, yet no record is handed down to us as to the 
existence of regular poetry in the Armenian language. According to 
a faithful writer 4 ' of that time, great credit is due to Nibrsbs the 

* Niersrs Lambronensis, a contemporary and relation of Nibrsks the 
Graceful, "pay s a handsome and jait tribute to his genius, learning, and virtues 
in a poetical panegyric which be composed on him shortly after his death. In 
alluding to the honor due to him for his being the first who introduced poetry 
into the Armenian language, the panegyrist writes thus : 

±,mJypmLmk -~?fa *H^°¥ # " Wl10 ftrst m ^ 1 8 racc Homeric numbers strung, 
fl*N«Wn r ~~*4j *■••*. And touchingly in fair Armenia sung, 
'k C,mm.Lmimit mbmjk mmt~*q. His verses soothe and elevate the soul, 

(Wi-Ar— ♦-/ > cr **&* And bend our Btubborn hemrti * ^ controL " 

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1 836.] Memoir of St. Niersts Clajensis. 137 

Graceful as the first poetic writer in Armenia, whose talented produc- 
tions have deservedly gained him the title of the Prince of Armenian 
Poets. Gifted by nature with a great genius, Nibrsbs devoted his 
leisure to the composition of melodies, anthems, and hymns, which are 
to this day sung in our Church to the admiration of all. Some of 
these poetical pieces are acrostic, the first letters of the stanzas com- 
posing the name of the author or the entire alphabet of the Armenian 
language. He also wrote several treatises and panegyrics, both in 
prose and verse, on dominical feasts, patriarchs, martyrs, and angels. 
During the days of his priesthood, he composed a brief history of Ar- 
menia in verse, from the period of Haic to the twelfth century. A 
variety of miscellaneous pieces are also extant by this author, several 
of which he wrote before his elevation to the pontifical throne. At 
the express desire of his nephew Apirat, he produced in verse a pathe- 
tic Elegy on the destruction of the devoted city of Edessa by the 
victorious army of ZsNOHi,the chief of Aleppo, which memorable event 
took place on the 23rd of December, 1144*. This little work, which 
abounds with vivid descriptions and patriotic feelings, was for the first 
time published at Madras in the year 1810. Another edition of it 
was lately published by the Asiatic Society of Paris. The European 
public may shortly expect an English translation of it, which I have 
undertaken to executef. On his being raised to the dignity of a bishop 
Nibrsbs produced another excellent work entitled Qtr f\ pt fi " Jesus 
the SonJ," which is a poetical description of the principal events that 
are recorded in the Old and New Testaments. During this time he 
composed that admirable prayer which commences with " I confess 
with faith," 4, mt -——4^ frommmiludtfrJ' t and which is now so popular 
amongst the generality of the Armenians. It consists of twenty- four 
verses, typical of the twenty-four hours of the day, and the number of 
the books of prophecy. Regarding this prayer, the author says in the 
records of old manuscripts, " I have written this in a plain and easy 
style, that it should be intelligible to general readers." It is held in 
such great estimation by my countrymen, that a translation of it into 
twenty-four languages was published in the year 1 823 by the Mukhi- 
tharian Society in Venice ! Nibrsbs was not unaware of the benefit of 
combining utile dulci in the variety of his literary productions. He 

• Mills's History of the Crusades, vol. i. p. 307. 

t The Armenian text was published at Calcutta in 1832. The translation has 
not yet appeared. — Ed. 

X This work is very popular with the Armenian literati, and has run through 
several editions, the latest of which was published at Venice in the year 


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138 Memoir of St. Nierses Clajensis. [March, 

Wrote Several entertaining fables and pleasing enigmas, with a view of 
affording to his countrymen a source of innocent pleasure of the mind. 
Besides those already enumerated, he produced several other little 
works, which, like many valuable antiquities, have not escaped the de- 
vouring jaws of time. 

The fame of the sanctity and wisdom of Nierses the Graceful hav- 
ing spread through various countries of the globe, many distinguished 
individuals addressed him letters comprising questions on the most dif- 
ficult points of religion, which he answered with such skill as to carry 
conviction to the mind of every reasonable being. At the special 
desire of Vardan, one of the venerable monks of the convent of Hagh- 
bat, he undertook writing a commentary of a sublime panegyric on the 
Holy Cross, the production of David the philosopher, distinguished by 
the cognomen of the Invincible. When the work was completed and 
presented to Vardan, he highly admired the profound learning and the 
inspired sentiments with which it abounded. There are also a few 
philosophical treatises extant in our language, which some of our histo- 
rians attribute to the pen of this bright luminary of the Armenian 

Great intimacy existed between Nierses and Georoius, primate of 
the convent of Haghbat, who was eminently distinguished for his piety 
and rectitude of conduct. The latter, who held a constant communica- 
tion with the former, solicited him in a letter to use his endeavours to 
procure a copy of the Memoirs of St. Sarkibs the General. Nierses 
succeeded in obtaining the work, which was written in the Syrian lan- 
guage. He ordered it to be translated into Armenian by a Syrian 
priest, named Michael, who was tolerably conversant with the Arme- 
nian language. This translation was subsequently revised by Nierses 
in the year 1156, while he was a bishop. A copy of this work, written 
m Hiromcla, in the year 1198, about twenty-five years after the death 
of Nierses, is preserved in the library of the Mukhitharian Society at 
Venice. Annexed to this work, which appears to have been transcrib- 
ed from the manuscript of Nierses himself, is a commentary of the 
general Epistles of St. Jambs, St. Peter, St. John, and St. Judb, writ- 
ten in a concise and comprehensive style, and compiled from the works 
of Greek and Syriac theologists, whose names are specified. But who 
was the compiler of this work is not known, as no mention is made of 
him in the old records. In another copy of the same, which was writ- 
ten in the year 1335 at the convent of St. Thaddbus, situated in the 
province of Artaz, the compilation of the work is attributed by the 
transcriber to Nierses. This is, however, a mere conjecture, for it 
can be clearly perceived from the style that it is not the production of 

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1 836.] Memoir of St. Nierae$ Clujmsi*. 1 89 

N* braes. Perhaps a transcript made by him from the original was 
left in the pontifical house at Hiromcla. 

In the evening of his life, Nibrsbs commenced writing a commen- 
tary on the Gospel of St. Matthew. He had performed it as far as 
" Think not that I am come to destroy the law or the prophets : I am 
net come to destroy, but to fulfil," when the termination of his earthly 
career put a stop to its completion. After the lapse of a considerable 
time, it was finished by Johannes Zorzbrbns;s. There is another work 
by the talented Nisrses, which was intended as a guide for monastic 
l^fe, and which he wrote while he enjoyed the dignity of priesthood, 
The profound learning which characterises his writings, the peculiarly 
beautiful style in which they are composed, and the divine spirit of 
benevolence which pervades every page of his compositions, are con* 
vincing proofs that the author of them was endowed with a mind of 
most extraordinary powers, and filled with divine inspiration. His 
voluminous lucubrations, which have been handed down to us by the 
unanimous applause of past generations, are highly creditable both to his 
head and heart as a man, a patriot, a divine, and a philosopher. Few 
can rise from the perusal of his works without being moved by feelings 
of reverence and admiration for the greatness of the mind from which 
they have emanated. Nibrsbs Lamb eon ensis, the grandson of Gene* 
ral Shahan, the brother of Niersbs the Graceful, who was one of his 
distinguished contemporaries, and had many opportunities of personally 
experiencing his mental and moral qualities, pays a just tribute to the 
memory of this paragon of learning in a poetical panegyric which 
minutely treats of the many amiable virtues with which he was adorned. 
The panegyrist properly dwells on the meritorious exertions, which 
Nibbsbs the Graceful made to promote the public good, on his exem- 
plary piety and devotion, his rigid and abstemious habits, his continual 
studies and philosophical reflections, and the warm sympathies with 
which his heart glowed in relieving the distress of the poor, the orphan, 
the widow, the sick, the captive, and others who were doomed to suffer 
miseries and calamities. 

During the pontificate of Niersbs the Graceful, there still appeared 
in some parts of Armenia remnants of a peculiar tribe of Armenians, 
known under the appellation of ULf^ft-A* Arrvordibb*, (the Sons of 

• This people had probably derived their mode of worship from the ancient 
Persians, and perfectly agreed in the tenets of the Goebres of the present day. 
They adhered to the doctrines of Zerdashtof Zoroaster, who considered the 
sun as the grand receptacle of fire, and placed the existence of the Deity in the 
fiery element spread oyer all the nnirerse. 

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140 Memoir of St. Nierses Clajensis. [March, 

the Sun,) who had continued in their ancestorial superstitions, and not 
deviated from paying homage to the sun since the days of Gregory 
the Illuminator, the second Apostle of Armenia. Through the zealous 
exertions of the Armenian missionaries, whom the pontiff Nibrses 
sent to different quarters of the country, the darkness of paganism, 
that had so long overhung the heads of these unbelievers, gradually 
began to vanish, and after the lapse of a few years, the whole of that 
tribe embraced Christianity, and were admitted into the fellowship of 
the Church of Armenia* 

Contemporary with Niersbs the Graceful, there was in Armenia 
Mukhithar, an assiduous follower of ^Esculapius* and eminently dis- 
tinguished for his Medical and Astronomical knowledge. He had the 
gratification of cultivating the friendship of Nibrses, from whose 
conversation he derived the greatest delight and spiritual comfort. 
At the particular request of this celebrated naturalist, Nibrses wrote 
a beautiful poem, descriptive of the beauties and excellencies of heaven- 
ly bodies. He added to it another small poem on the Creation of 
the World, and the mystery of the incarnation of our Saviour** The 
latter is acrostic, the first letters of the verses of it composing 
this sentence (TMP"f *<*bzh % fik^L 'b **r l * < + i^*^-** " Doc- 
tor Mukhithar, accept from Nibrses this poem !" I hope it 
will not be considered here out of place to say, that this learned phy- 
sician has left a very valuable work on Medicine, which is replete with 
wise observations and useful experiments. It was composed during 
the time, and by the desire, of Gregory the pontiff, the successor of 
Nibrses the Gracefulf. 

One of the most remarkable actions that marked the earthly career 
of Niersbs the Graceful, was the contemplated union of the Armenian 
and Greek Churches. This desirable object, which originated from a 
most unexpected event, was undertaken during the life time of his 
brother Gregory, the pontiff, and prior to his being invested with the 
supremacy of the Church of Armenia. But alas for the peace of 
Christianity ! before the laudable undertaking was carried into execu- 
tion, both Armenia and Greece were unexpectedly deprived of the 
only instruments by which such a happy change possibly could have 
been effected ! 

During the last days of the pontificate of Gregory, dissensions 
arose between the two Armenian princes, Thorosb the Great Panse- 

* These two little poems are also published in conjunction with the work called 
<< Jesus the Son." 

f This rare Manuscript work was discovered in the Royal Library of Paris, 
and published in Venice two years ago. 

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1836.3 Memoir of St. Nierses Clajensis. 14 1 

bastus and Lord of Cilicia, and Oshin the Sebastus and Lord of 
Lambron. The reason of this unfortunate difference was, that the 
former insisted upon the latter to profess obedience to himself, and to 
decline becoming tributary to the Greeks, while Oshin thought it 
safer to continue his allegiance to the Greek emperor, than to acknow- 
ledge the ascendency of Thorose. Blinded by selfishness, and provoked 
by mutual resistance, they were at last necessitated to have recourse 
to an appeal to arms, which was attended with fatal consequences to 
both parties. 

The pontiff Gregory, viewing these unfortunate circumstances with a 
spirit of national sympathy, imposed upon his brother Nibrsrs the 
task of effecting a reconciliation between the two princes by his mild 
and fascinating address. Nirrsbs succeeded in his endeavours of 
restoring to them peace and friendship, which were soon after followed 
by a happy alliance between them, Thorose marrying his daughter to 
Hbthum, the son of Oshin. On the celebration of this marriage, Oshin 
desired Nibrsrs to accompany him to Lambron, with a view that its 
inhabitants might be benefitted by his edifying instructions and evan- 
gelical discourses. During their journey they had occasion to enter 
the city of Mamestia, which was then in the possession of the Greeks. 
Here they met Alexius, the protostrator or generalissimo of the Greek 
army, who was the son-in-law of the emperor Manubl, and had come 
thither with the design of visiting the frontiers that belonged to the 
Grecian empire. On his first interview with Nibrsrs the Graceful, 
Alexius was struck with admiration by the grace and learning which 
pervaded every part of his conversation. One day religion being the 
topic of their conference, Alexius expressed a desire of being fur- 
nished with information as to the cause of the division of the Church 
of Christ into so many doctrinal opinions. The promptitude with 
which Nibrsrs answered every question that was put to him, created 
in Alrxius a deep sense of veneration for him as an erudite divine, 
and left no appearance of doubt in his arguments. Nierses convinced 
him that the difference of opinions between the Christian Churches 
merely existed in words and forms, and assured him that the creed 
of the Armenian Church was consonant to that of the Church of 

Alexius desired Nibrsrs to commit the whole of their conversation 
to writing, which he promised to present to the emperor, and to exert 
every nerve in effecting a union between the two Churches. He also 
proposed to him the solution of a few important points, which from 
their intricate nature had created a difference of opinion between the 
divines of the Greek Church. 

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142 Memoir of St. Nierses Clajensis. [MxRcti, 

Niersbs accepted the proposition with great interest, and accord* 
ingly wrote an epistle to him full of sound doctrine and incontrovertible 
proofs. He commenced the latter by saying, " I was extremely 
delighted by the opportunity of holding a conference with you, O 
philanthropic and pious nobleman, respecting the doctrines and forms 
of the Armenian Church! But as sentiments embodied by human 
utterance are liable to be effaced from the tablets of memory, by the 
lapse of time, by reason of the cessation of our remembrance, I do not 
hesitate to furnish you with a written account of all that you were 
pleased to hear from me. I shall endeavour to perform my task with 
as much propriety and precision, as my time and abilities will admit 
of. Encouraged by the love of knowledge, with which you are distin- 
guished, I feel no small alleviation in the execution of my difficult 
undertaking. It may not be perhaps superfluous to add, that all my 
arguments are drawn from that pure source of religious truth, for 
which our divine fathers of old are so deservedly characterised." 

This preamble is immediately followed by an orthodox confession of 
the Holy Trinity, and of the incarnation of our blessed Saviour. It is 
here asserted, that the Church of Armenia admits the duality of nature 
in Christ, and that the Armenians by the term " one nature," acknow- 
ledge by implication an unconfounded union of the divinity and human 
nature of our Saviour. It is also added that the Armenian Church, 
according to old customs, commemorates the nativity of our Saviour on 
the 6th of January, and that it is a gross fabrication that the Arme- 
nians observe the Annunciation day on the preceding day of the Epi- 
phany. That in consequence of a want of olives, the Armenians make 
preparation of unction by the oil of odorous flowers. That they pay 
due reverence to pictures. That in constructing crosses of wood, nails 
are with no other intention affixed to them than with that of joining 
the parts together ; while those made of silver and gold are without 
nails. That the prayer U«<-/»«* l3« " Holy God*," is offered in the Ar- 
menian Church to Jesus Christ, and not to the Father, or the Holy 
Ghost. That the custom of partaking of milk, butter, and cheese, on 

* About half an hour previously to the commencement of high mass, 
the following short prayer is addressed to the Son in the Armenian Church : 

1]m./>p QJ», «»•«-/»** k 4fpf # mmupp. L wVC»4, mp f»m£ymp t(mm% Apt «'£«f i/Irt£«A»£t 

M Holy God, Holy and Mighty, Holy and Immortal ; who wast crucified for us, 
hare mercy upon us/' An erroneous impression had been made on the minds 
of the Greeks, that this prayer was indiscriminately addressed to either of the 
persons of the Holy Trinity, and by this conviction, they traced a fundamental 
error in the doctrines of the Armenian Church. 

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1836.] Memoir of St. Nierses Clajensis. 143 

Saturdays and Sundays during the lent, has now become obsolete 
amongst the Armenian people, and though it is still continued by a 
few of the nobility, its entire abandonment will be effected in a short 
time. That the custom of using pure wine, unmixed by water, in the 
Holy Communion, has obtained in the Armenian Church since the days 
of the blessed Gregory the Illuminator. Finally, the writer explains 
the nature of the abdomedal fasting, which is observed by the Arme- 
nians a few weeks before the commencement of the Lent. 

Alexius, on receiving from Nierses the foregoing epistle, expressed 
his grateful acknowledgments for the same, and permitted him to take 
hi3 departure for Lambron, after having bestowed on him every mark 
of honor suitable to his rank and office. Nierses having remained 
in the latter place for a short time, quitted it for Hiromcla, where he 
met his brother Gregory, the pontiff, and related to him every particu- 
lar of the communication that had passed between him and the Grecian 
generalissimo Alexius. 

On the fulfilment of the immediate object of the letter of Nierses 
the Graceful, on its being put into the hands of the emperor Manuel, 
and the patriarch Michael, they immediately ordered it to be trans- 
lated into Greek, and felt great satisfaction at the opportunity that had 
offered itself of effecting a union between the Greek and Armenian 
Churches. The perusal of the translation tilled their minds with 
admiration of the mild spirit and rare talents of the writer, and afford- 
ed them encouragement to carry the contemplated scheme into exe- 
cution. Hereupon the emperor sent a deputation to Armenia, consist- 
ing of Sumbat and Arukh, both of Armenian extraction, with a letter 
to Gregory the pontiff, dated September, 1 167, expressive of his ear- 
nest desire of seeing the consummation of the happy union which was 
in contemplation. In order to proceed in this undertaking with faci- 
lity and success, he wished that Nierses the Graceful should be sent 
to Constantinople, thinking that the presence of both parties might in 
a great degree be conducive to an amicable settlement of the existing 
differences. The following is a copy of the letter in question : 

" Manuel Comnbnus Porphyrigenitus, ever mighty and great, Augustus, 
emperor of Greece, and faithful king of God Jesus Christ, to his holiness Lord 
Grboory, the excellent pontiff of Armenia, sendeth love and greeting. It is the 
imperative duty of all those, who by the medium of the baptismal font have 
entered into the fellowship of Christ, to have due regard for the fulfilment of 
divine justice, and to display special Care and zeal for the advancement of love, 
peace, and unanimity amongst that class of people, who have Christ as the foun- 
dation of their religion. They are bound to use their unremitting endeavours 
to knit all the Christians with the bonds of union ; to make them followers of one 
shepherd, who became incarnate to save us from perdition, to bring them under 

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144 Memoir of St. Nierses Clajensis. [March, 

the guidance of one pastoral crook ; to cause them to ' lie down in green pas- 
tores" of orthodox faith ; to render them participators of the vital stream of 
wholesome doctrines, and to gather them within the pale of one Catholic 
Church. Elevated by Providence to the highest station that can be allotted here 
to a human being, I consider the duties of governing my empire less sacred, less 
beneficial, than those which oblige me to be instrumental in effecting an union of 
the Christian Churches. Impressed with this conviction, 1 shall, as far as time 
and circumstances will permit, strive to consummate an object, which involves 
the temporal and spiritual welfare of mankind. 

44 It is not less becoming to your excellent fraternity, who have made the 
scriptures and the laws of God your chief studies, and rendered yourselves con- 
versant with the orthodox doctrines of the fathers of the Church, to use your 
friendly and influential co-operation in securing the welfare of the inward man, 
by collecting from the only source of life the dews of truth and salvation. Of 
your desire to promote this laudable object, we have been informed by our belov- 
ed son-in-law Alexius, who delivered to us a letter bearing a detailed account 
of the conference that had taken place between you and him concerning the 
contemplated union of the sister Churches. It is our intention to give due 
deliberation to the state of the Armenian Church, and to institute inquiries into 
the creed thereof. A translation of the letter of your holiness was read by us 
with uncommon interest, and afforded us a source of the greatest satisfaction. 
Assured of the moral and Christian virtues, for which your holiness is so emi- 
nently distinguished, we feel real pleasure in rendering our aid to the consum- 
mation of an object highly desirable both to God and man. 

" With this view we would propose to you to dispatch your brother Nierses 
to our capital, as vce are perfectly convinced that a man of his extensive informa- 
tion, varied knowledge, virtuous conduct, and amiable disposition, will not 
only be able to afford satisfaction to the Head of our Church, and the synod in 
general, but particularly tend to remove the difficulties which will otherwise be 
experienced from time and place. Let the insignificant cause of division, which 
subsists between the two Churches, be removed if it he within the scope of pos- 
sibility ; and let not Christ, who redeemed us from eternal punishment by his 
precious blood, be considered a stumbling block, but the Head of the corner and 
the True Foundation of our faith, which unites us together in spirit. Let Christ 
be the centre of all our religious inquiries, the Anchor of all our spiritual aspi- 
rations, and the Director of all our ecclesiastical affairs. In him we founded our 
belief, to htm our hearts were fixed, and by him our wounds were healed. From 
the Great Bestower of so many blessings you will no doubt obtain for your zeal 
in the sacred cause of Christianity that recompence which is reserved for the 
enjoyment of the elect. We have thought it necessary to depute our faithful 
servant Sumbat, bearing this letter, with directions to induce you to despatch 
your brother Nikrses to Constantinople. He is also authorised to give you 
such other information, as might have a connexion with the immediate object 
of his mission. You may safely credit all that will be said by him on this sub- 
ject. Adieu I" 

While preparations were in progress at the capital of Greece for 
depatching the embassy to Armenia, the pontiff Gregory terminated 
his earthly career. The Church of Syria was also at the same time 

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1836.] Memoir of St. Nierse* Clajensis. 145 

deprived of its supreme pastor, whose station was immediately filled 
by an able and worthy successor. News of the proposed union of the 
sister Churches having spread throughout the Christian countries 
which held a close intercourse with Armenia, the patriarch of Syria 
deputed two learned bishops to Hiromcla, for the purpose of taking a 
part in the proceedings of the council, which was shortly to be held by 
Niersbs the Graceful, for furthering the views of the intended union. 

On the arrival of the embassy at Hiromcla, Sumbat delivered the 
imperial letter to Nibrsss the pontiff, communicating to him many inter* 
eeting particulars on the part of the emperor, and persuading him to 
accompany him to Constantinople ; but the duties of his high office 
rendering his absence from the pontifical house indispensable at that 
very juncture, Nierses sent a reply to the emperor, full of spirit and 
wonderful observations. As the letter itself is of great length, I shall 
here only give an outline of its contents : 

" I had the honor to receive the letter of your Imperial Majesty, addressed 
to my late lamented brother and immediate predecessor in the pontificate of 
Armenia. By the perusal of the inspired sentiments expressed in it by your 
godly Majesty, our hearts thrilled with that inexpressible delight which a person 
feels on rccoTering from the influence of sleep, and enjoying the vivifying beams 
of the glorious orb of day. It is gratifying to us to observe, that your Majesty 
is worthy of not only bearing the name of the true Emmanuel, but also of his 
co-operation in ' breaking down the middle wall of partition between its.' En- 
dowed with these peculiar gifts of heaven, your Majesty is condescendingly 
pleased to accost us with a cheering voice, and propose measures for eradicating 
from amongst us that hatred, which has proved so baleful to the interests of 
Christianity, and the welfare of our country. I am so exceedingly delighted with 
your Majesty's invitation, that I would, even if I were dead, like Lazarus, arise 
from the grave, and obey the divine voice which summons me to your presence ; 
but violent disturbances abroad, and the urgent duties of my avocation at home, 
present insuperable barriers to my paying a visit to Constantinople. Notwith- 
standing these obstacles, I should still feel diffident to attempt discussing a ques- 
tion of so much weight in your august presence, from a conviction that the 
sphere of my knowledge would look like a mere drop in comparison with the 
vast ocean of your Majesty's qualifications. All that were great and noble in 
Armenia, to our national misfortune, have now ceased to exist. The only com- 
fort, with which we cheer our hearts in the melancholy gloom that overhangs 
our civil destinies, is derived from the circumstance of our Church being based on 
the solid foundation of Catholic faith. We place our confidence in the mercies 
of God, that the divine power which excited love and good-will amongst us, 
shall consummate a happy union between, the two Churches. 

" Should your Imperial Majesty be graciously pleased to visit Armenia, for 
the furtherance of this desirable object, you will, by that act of condescension, 
display in your soul the stamp of that humility, with which the heavenly King came 
to the world to bestow salvation on mankind. We are sure that you will join with 
us in the conviction, that the lustre of glory reflected on your mighty empire by 

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146 Memoir of St. Nierses Clajensis. [Marc ft, 

splendid victories, and the aggrandizement of territories, will be cheerless and 
evanescent when contrasted with that of restoring peace to the Church of Christ, 
by blunting the weapons of the incorporate enemy, and suppressing envy and 
hatred, which like cankers have preyed on the very vitals of our spiritual exist- 
ence. Our Lord Jesus Christ, viewing the baneful consequences of pride pre- 
dominant in human nature, had recourse to humility as to an infallible cure of 
the spiritual infirmities under which mankind were labouring ; and by means of 
his divine love and meekness, conciliated the hearts of those who were estranged 
from him by the infringement of his laws and ordinances. In imitation of the 
example set to us by our blessed Redeemer, it behoves your Imperial Majesty to 
make your dictatorial authority subservient to mildness and humility, in remov- 
ing the cause of estrangement that exists between the two nations. % As a tree 
which is bent to the ground is liable to be broken by a sudden and violent effort 
to restore it to its upright position, so a division amongst the members of Christ, 
rendered obstinate by time, is incapable of being removed by force. It stands 
in need of a long and patient application of spiritual ointment, I mean the exer- 
cise of a kind, mild, and conciliatory spirit on the part of your Imperial Majesty 
towards the Armenians placed under the sway of your government. 

" Many of your people, to our great national misfortune, consider that the 
only means of conforming to the laws and justice of God, and of being worthy of 
inheriting the kingdom of heaven, consist in pouring upon us torrents of abuse, 
in destroying our Churches, in breaking our crosses, in overturning our altars, 
in ridiculing our religious ceremonies, and in harassing and persecuting the 
ministers of our Church. This unchristian animosity is carried to such a pitch, 
as to shame the horrid cruelties of the worst of unbelievers. Galled and perse- 
cuted by Moslem despotism, we have hitherto in vain sought protection in the 
sympathies of Christianity. Hence it must be inferred, that such a course of 
action not only fails to unite the divided, but tends to divide the united. The 
first effectual recipe, that can be applied to our spiritual distempers, is to make 
an exchange of the inveterate hatred for human love and kindness, and as a matter 
of consequence, to stimulate thereby the inhabitants of Armenia major to an 
acquiescence in the projected union. We humbly solicit your Imperial Majesty 
to order special prayers to be offered up in all the Churches throughout your 
empire, that the Almighty may be pleased to crown our undertaking with suc- 
cess. We have taken care that similar measures shall be adopted by our clergy 
in every quarter of Armenia. 

" We have also particularly to request, that in case Providence assist us in 
discussing matters on the intended union in a general council, no mark of dis- 
tinction or superiority should be observed between the Greek and the Armenian. 
Let no tone of authority be assumed by the former in denoting such points of 
the doctrines of our Church as are not accordant with those of yours, and no 
fault be imputed to the latter in boldly supporting the truths and dignity of 
their Church. Marks of distinction are only observable in the discussion of 
civil and temporal affairs. It is true that you claim pre-eminence in the attain- 
ment of knowledge and the exercise of earthly power j yet all those who arc 
strengthened by the graces of regeneration in the baptismal font, are according to 
St. Paul * one in Christ Jesus.' If, therefore, it may be pleasing to the Al- 
mighty to smile on our endeavours, and to bring our undertaking to a successful 
termination, we shall, in the assembly to be convened for the purpose, lay Christ 

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1836.] Memoir &f St. Nierses Clajensis. 14? 

as the Rock and the Head of the corner over the two sundered walls of our 
Churches. Let not the subject be discussed with that fruitless and violent 
mode of controversy, which has hitherto been carried on by the sister Churches 
with detrimental consequences on both sides. Let brotherly love, unanimity, 
and an ardour after divine truths distinguish the whole course of the proceed- 
ings of the council. Let us, in accordance with the injunctions of St. Paul, 
bear one another's burden, and the infirmities of the weak, and so fulfil the law of 
Christ.' In laying open our spiritual distempers to the observation of one 
another, let each party reciprocally look for, in the other, a sympathising and 
confidential physician. Whatever may be beyond the reach of our penetration, 
let it be referred to the testimony of those whose judgment and experience have 
rendered them distinguished in the decision of similar questions. Able physi- 
cians do not consider their qualifications under-rated by taking medicines from 
the hands of their scholars, when they are labouring under the attacks of sick- 
ness. The eyes, though sharp enough in seeing the objects presented to their 
gaze, fall short of beholding themselves and the members of the body by which 
they are surrounded ; and on their being attacked with soreness, they seek a 
cure from the eyes and hands of another. What has been stated above, will, we 
hope, be considered sufficiently satisfactory to your Imperial Majesty. We have 
communicated to you multum in parvo, and have desired your ambassador to 
furnish you with such other information, as may be thought to content the ar- 
dour of your curiosity. Adieu 1 Augustus Emperor I May your Majesty live 
long under the protection of the Almighty." 

At the express desire of Sum bat, who was at the head of the em- 
bassy, N1BR8E8 the Graceful drew out another form of the Creed of the 
Armenian Church, being assured that it would tend to throw more 
light on the disputed points of religion, and carry conviction to the 
mind of every philanthropic inquirer. The contents of this letter 
were a clear, distinct, and comprehensive' recapitulation of all that he 
had stated in the former one, presented to Alsxiub, the son-in-law of 
the emperor. The letter commenced with the following beautiful 
preamble : 

" It now becomes us to address ourselves to you, not with eloquence of speech, 
in which we are deficient, but in the truth of the spirit, in which we were in- 
structed by those favoured with divine inspiration. We do not attempt giving 
colour to a schismatical darkness, by clothing our Creed with the light of ortho- 
dox faith, as we have unjustly been supposed to do by others guilty of a similar 
line of conduct ; but what we have stored in the invisible spirit, we embody the 
same in visible writing, by the testimony of our minds, and the dictation of the 
Holy Ghost, who sees, judges and examines the utmost recesses of our hearts." 

After making long and sensible observations on the mystery of the 
Holy Trinity, and the incarnation of Jesus Christ, leaning on the in- 
controvertible testimonies of the Fathers of the Church, he proceeds 
thus : 

" Concurring in the fundamental principles of the Christian religion, we be- 
lieve that the word, who wss made flesh according to St. John, was not changed 
into flesh by being divested of his divine nature, but that by an unconfounded 
u 2 

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148 Memoir of St. Nierses Clajensis. [March, 

union with body, he was actually made flesh, and continued without flesh, as he 
was from the beginning. We believe that there are not two persons in Christ, 
one with flesh and the other without flesh ; but that the very Christ is both with 
flesh and without flesh. He was made flesh by human nature, of which he partook, 
and remained without flesh in divine nature, which he had from the beginning. 
He is both visible and invisible, perceivable and unperceivable by the touch, be- 
ginning and unbeginning in time, the Son of Man, and the Son of God, co- 
essential with the Father in divinity, and concomitant with us in humanity.'' 

After taking a comprehensive view of the mystery of the incarna- 
tion of our Saviour, he dilates on His divine and human wills, and 
clearly demonstrates, that the will of the humanity of Christ was 
always and in every respect obedient to that of his divinity : 

" The human will had no ascendancy over the divine, as in us the passions 
very often domineer over the reason ; but the divine wiU always exercised its 
dominion over the human : for the actions of the human were all guided and 
directed by the power and sway of the divine. 

" In accordance with the doctrine of the wonderful union of the divine and 
human wills that exist in the person of Christ, we concur in the consistency of 
attributing his operations to a natural and supernatural agency. We do not 
ascribe his superior actions only to the divinity, unconnected with the humanity ; 
nor his inferior acts only to*the humanity, unconnected with the divinity. Were 
it not truly proper to connect the great with the little, how could it consistently 
be said that the Son of Man descended from heaven, and that God was crucified 
and bled on the cross ? To the unconfounded union of both the divinity and 
humanity we attribute the divine and human operations of Christ, who some- 
times as a God acted in the superior power of God, and sometimes as a man, acted 
in the capacity of man, as it is easily demonstrated by the whole course of his 
dispensations from the beginning to the close of his divine mission. He felt 
hunger as a man, and fed thousands with a few loaves as a God. He prayed 
for us and on our behalf as a man, and accepted with his Father the prayers of 
all his people as a God. In humanity he was brought as a lamb to the slaughter, 
and was dumb as a sheep before her shearers ; but he is the Word of God, by 
whom the heavens were created, in his divinity. He died in human nature as a 
man, and raised the dead by divine power as a God. He suffered the pangs of 
death as a man, and conquered death by death as a God. It was not the one 
that died, and the other that conquered death ; but it was Christ himself, who 
died, who lives, and who vivifies the dead. For the same Christ, being a man, 
and of a mortal nature, and being a God, and of an immortal nature, not divid- 
ing into two the unconfounded union of the divinity and humanity, so as to 
render the one untormentable and immortal, and the other susceptible of tortures 
and death, he suffered on the cross for the salvation of mankind with the inex- 
plicable combination of these contrarieties, yielding in human nature to tortures 
and death, and in divinity, being free from pain, and immortal. He that died 
in human nature, was alive in divinity ; he that was tortured on the cross, 
remained also free from the pangs of tortures ; he that perspired through fear, 
levelled on the ground his assailants ; he that was unjustly humiliated and 
strengthened by angels, strengthens all his creatures ; he that is Creator of the 
universe, coequal in divinity with the Father, was born from his creature, and 

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1836.3 Memoir of St. Nierses Clajensis. 149 

partook of our nature. He is proclaimed by the preachers of the gospel to be 
perfect God and man, uniting in his person divinity and humanity in a manner 
far surpassing the union of the soul and body ; for the former, being commended 
into the hands of the Father, was separated from the latter, but the divinity con- 
tinued inseparable from both of them*." 

The preceding creed is immediately followed by a detailed account 
of the forms and ceremonies observed in the Armenian Church, similar 
to that which the writer had previously drawn out at the particular 
request of Alexius. It is concluded by the following short para- 
graph : 

•* In the perusal of our letter, wherein the creed and the observances of our 
Church are explained in a comprehensive style, we humbly hope that your 
Gracious and Imperial Majesty will not deny us the candour and sincerity with 
which onr sentiments are embodied in writing. Let us not be suspected of 
parasitical subterfuges in the communication of our thoughts, and let it be 
remembered that we have stated in this nothing which is at variance with simple 
truth, and the genuine effusions of our hearts. 1 ' 

The motives of the writer in making this assertion were to silence 
the mouths of such miscreants of his nation, as had gone over to the 
Church of Greece, and were invidiously endeavouring to baffle the 
consummation of the proposed union, by rendering the doctrines and 
ceremonies of the Armenian Church censurable in the eyes of the 
Emperor and Patriarch of Constantinople. 

On the return of the embassy to the Court of Greece, the letter of 
Nisrsis was put into the hands of the emperor Manuel, who per- 
sonally presented it to the patriarch. A translation of it being read 
before a numerous assembly of the dignitaries of the Greek Church, 
they were struck with admiration at the irresistible arguments which 
it comprised. They were stimulated by its contents to the abandon- 
ment of the inveterate hatred which they bore towards the Armenians, 
and unanimously agreed in effecting the contemplated union between 
the two Churches. The emperor, excited by an intense desire of pro- 
moting this sacred cause, proposed to pay a visit to Armenia, accom- 
panied by some of the learned theologists of Greece, with a view of 
meeting Nlerses the Graceful, and holding with him a conference on 
the religious differences that existed between the two nations ; but he 
was unfortunately prevented from the fulfilment of his intention by the 

• This clear, lucid and unequivocal confession of faith is enough to carry convic- 
tion to the minds of the most fastidious of our accusers, that the Church of Arme- 
xi a is totally free from the heresies of Eutychbs I Let it also satisfy such 
misinformed, misled, and misguided, writers as Mr. Charles Mac Farlanb, 
author of the sublime Tale of Constantinople, entitled " The Armenians," that 
we Armenians are not Eutychians, as he is led to helieve from the misrepresentations 
of the Romanists. 

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150 Memoir of St. Nierses Clajensis. [March, 

commotions which at that time prevailed in the west. He conse- 
quently chose the alternative of deputing in May, A. D. 11 70, to 
Hiromcla, Lezion Master Thborianet, a Greek divine, eminently 
distinguished for his theological and philosophical attainments, with 
Johannes, the learned Abbot of an Armenian monastery, from Philip- 
polis, generally known by the appellation of Uthman, bearing an 
imperial letter addressed to the pontiff of Armenia, in these terms : — 

" It afforded us great joy to learn your willingness to effect a happy union 
between the sister Churches, and acquiescing in your laudable views, we have 
deputed learned and pious men to confer with you on our behalf, and use 
every means in their power to remove the wall of partition between us." 

On the arrival of the deputation at Hiromcla, Thborianet and 
Johannes were kindly received by the Armenian bishops that were 
assembled by Nierses the Graceful in the pontifical house, for the pur- 
pose of adopting the best mode of carrying the proposed union into 
execution. Nierses, on the letter of the emperor being presented to 
him by Thborianet, shewed the latter every mark of honor and kind- 
ness, which his rank and the immediate object of his mission required. 
Thborianet had brought with him a copy of the letter of Nierses, 
addressed to the emperor, with a view of obtaining an explanation on 
some points that appeared doubtful to them, and of satisfying their 
minds as to the reality of some assertions that were made by those 
who were inimically disposed towards the Armenian Church. To these 
ends an assembly of the Armenian and Greek bishops was held in 
Hiromcla, who commenced discussing the important points with deco- 
rum, mildness, and moderation. Thborianet, in the course of perusing 
the letter of Nierses to the assembly, proposed, in proper order, several 
questions for solution, to which Nierses made replies, full of convin- 
cing proofs. The course of discussions comprised queries on the duality 
of nature and will in the person of Christ, (about which point great 
stress was laid on this saying of Ctrillus : " The incarnate Word is 
of one nature," which admits of various constructions,) the exact day 
of the commemoration of the nativity of our Saviour, the propriety of 
the prayer " Holy God," which was offered in the Armenian Church, 
the preparation of the holy unction, the necessity of performing pray- 
ers within the Church, and the decrees of the council of Chalcedon. 
At the conclusion of the meeting, Nierses, in his endeavours to remove 
an erroneous impression from the mind of Thborianet, that the Arme- 
nians were monophy sites, cited from a work of Johannes the philoso- 
pher, a renowned pontiff of Armenia, several proofs corroborative of 
the duality of nature in Christ. " The work in question," said he, 
" which was before imperfectly known but to a few of our nation, was 
afterwards unanimously adhered to by my predecessors in the ponti- 

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1836.] Memoir of St. Nierses Clajensis. 15 1 

ficate of Armenia." The work was, at the desire of Theorianby, pro- 
duced at the meeting, and a few passages of the same being read to 
him, he highly admired its wholesome doctrine. A transcript of it 
was accordingly made out at the request of Thkorian by, who wished 
to take it to Constantinople for the inspection of the emperor and 
patriarch. The proceedings of this council were committed to writing 
by Theorianby, as it appears from the panegyric written by Niersks 
Lambronensis on Nierses the Graceful. Theorianby' s account of 
this meeting was, in the year 1578, published in Greek and Latin, in 
conjunction with the records of the fathers of the Church. 

Before the mission had quitted Constantinople for Hiromcla, the 
emperor Manuel communicated to Michael, the patriarch of Syria, 
his intention of acceding to an union of the Greek and Armenian 
Churches. Thsorianby, on his arrival at Hiromcla, wrote to Michael, 
soliciting his presence at the Council of union which was shortly to 
be held in the pontifical house of Armenia. The latter deputed a proxy 
in the person of Johannes, bishop of Cheson, who, reaching Hiromcla 
after the meeting had terminated, felt great displeasure at the acquies- 
cence of Nibrses the Graceful in the doctrines of the Greek Church, 
and began to censure him, as the representative of his patriarch, for 
such a line of conduct. Nibrses, by sensible observations, convinced 
him of the propriety and necessity of the union, and desired him that 
on his return to Syria he should use every means in his power to secure 
the consent of Michael to the removal of the religious differences 
which had for ages disturbed the peace of the sister Churches. 

On the departure of Theorianby for Constantinople in October in 
the year 1 1 70, Nibrses addressed a letter to the emperor, of which 
the following is an outline. 

" Id delivering your Imperial letter to us, Theorianby assured us of the 
love and good-will, which you are graciously pleased to exercise in increasing 
the spiritual and temporal welfare of our nation. The proposal of effecting 
this happy union between the two Churches could proceed from no other source, 
than from a mind gifted with the choicest blessings of heaven, and entirely 
devoted to the service of its Creator. 'Enriched with every thing that is great 
and good, you burn with the desire of becoming a partaker of our spiritual 
poverty. On a conference held between us and the learned divines, whom your 
Majesty was pleased to depute, the veil of the unjust aspersions with which the 
two nations were covered, was rent asunder. By the collision of contrary opi- 
nions, the truth, which was surrounded with a mist of falsehood, burst to light, 
and shone with redoubled splendour. The result of the council of union is 
conducive to carrying conviction to the mind of every reasonable being, that 
the Greeks are free from the heresy of the Nestorian* division, and that the 

* For the Nestorian heresies, see Eusebius's Ecclesiastical history, torn. hi. 
pp. 256 and 257. 

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152 Memoir of St. Nierses Clajewns. [March, 

Armenians are also free from that of the Eutychian* confusion. Concurring 
in the fundamental principles of religion, the Armenians and Greeks are united 
together by the grace of God in the similarity of the creed of the Catholic and 
Apostolic Church. Fixed in the determination of our happy union, I shall 
address all our bishops residing in different quarters of Armenia, and ask their 
consent to some important points proposed by you for our acceptance, lest by 
their being excluded from taking a part in the furtherance of this desirable 
object, the result of our endeavours may prove contrary to our sanguine expec- 
tations. I have also, conformably with the desire of Theo&ianey, furnished him 
with another letter descriptive of the confession of our Church." 

In this letter, after treating of the incarnation of our Saviour, in ac- 
cordance with the tenor of his former one, he adds, that it is consist- 
ent with the orthodox faith to admit duality of nature in Christ, by 
reason of his perfect divinity and perfect humanity ; that the Arme- 
nians, by attributing one nature to the incarnate word, on the authority 
of Cyrillus, confess an unconfounded and indivisible combination of 
the divine with the human nature ; and that the Church of Armenia 
anathematizes those who, in the sense of the heretical doctrine of 
Eutychbs, may confessedly ascribe one nature to Christ. 

On the return ofTHBORiANKY and Johannes Uthman to Constanti- 
nople, they felt great satisfaction in presenting to the emperor the 
letter of Nikrses, together with an account of the proceedings of the 
council. The perusal of these interesting documents afforded the 
greatest delight to the emperor, the patriarch, and the other dignitaries 
of the Greek Church. Their joy at the favourable prospect of their 
undertaking could only be increased by a sense of veneration, with 
which they were impressed on their being informed by Thkorianey of 
the piety, mildness, and pleasant address of Nierses the Graceful. The 
fame of the amiable qualities of the pontiff of Armenia ri vetted the 
hearts of the Greeks to the cause of the sacred union, and made them 
exclaim with admiration, " Behold the wise course pursued by the 
pontiff of Armenia, and consider the orthodox creed followed by him- 
self and the whole of his congregation ! Thanks to Heaven, that in these 

* The heresies of Eutyches are turfs alluded to by Eusebius in his Ecclesi- 
astical History : 

*fls 8* olv KXriBfU E'utvx^* obn ihlikvO*' Ttt &h koi rapaytv6fx*vot ii\u>. *ip4iK*i 
yty, 6fiokoy& €K Ibo Qfottov y*y*v%i<rQ*i rbr Kvptov jiyw* *p6 rrjs 4v*<T€»r fierh. & 
tV ivwffiv, fiiav $<xriv 6fia\oyu, Ss oM rb <r«/*o rov KvpUv dfifiofoioy ryuy f\*y€v 
thai' icaBaiptrrai /x€K. 

Eutyches igitur, cum ad synodum vocatus non venisset, ac deinde coram 
convictus esset h«c dixisse : Fateor Dominum nostrum Jesum Christum, ante 
unitionem quidem duas habuisse naturae : Post unitionem vero unam duntaxat 
naturam confiteor. Sed et corpus Domini negabat ejusdem esse substantias 
cujus sunt nostra : depositus est.— Euttbii Bccletkut. Hut or. torn. iii. p. 261. 

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1S3&] Memoir of St. Nieraes Clqjensis. 153 

days of degeneracy we see a pastor of the Church adorned with so many 
Christian and moral virtues !" The hatred which the Greeks manifest- 
ed towards the Armenians gradually began to abate, and a sort of 
generous sympathy was felt by the former, for the lamentable degrada- 
tion to which the latter were reduced in a political point of view. They 
could not, however, reconcile themselves to the idea, that the Armenians, 
after conforming to the fundamental principles of orthodox faith, and 
admitting duality of nature in our Saviour, should still persist in as- 
serting one nature in the union of his divinity and humanity. Though 
the arguments, with which the Armenians endeavoured to clear their 
minds on this subject, were perfectly sound and correct, yet the 
Greeks could not overcome their reluctance to make such concessions 
to them, and were consequently anxious that this obstacle to their 
union, together with a few others of minor importance, originating 
from certain observances of the Armenian Church, might prudently 
and speedily be removed. 

Hereupon the emperor came to the determination of sending another 
embassy to Hiromcla, consisting of the abovementioned Thboriankt 
and Johannes Uthman, who were furnished with letters from the 
emperor and patriarch Michael, bearing date December, 1 1 72, and 
instructed to urge Niersks to apply himself with increased interest and 
assiduity to the fulfilment of the object in view, lest the death of either 
of them might put a stop to the successful termination of their under- 
taking. Nine points connected with the creed of the Church of Greece 
were distinctly stated in the imperial letter, for the consideration and 
subsequent acceptance of the Armenians. It was also proposed by 
the emperor, that those points, but particularly that of the duality of 
nature in Christ, should be discussed, and admitted by the Armenians 
in a general council to be held for that purpose. Should they, how- 
ever, be reluctant in conceding to some of the points alluded to, they 
might communicate their objections in a letter addressed by their 
pontiff to the emperor. The proposed points are the following : 

I. Anathematize those who admitted one nature in Christ, that is 
to say, EuTrcHKS, Dboscorus, Sbvbrius, Timotheus, and the follow- 
ers of their heresies. 

II. Confess in our Lord Jesus Christ, one Son, one person, one 
hypostasis formed of two perfect natures, which are inseparable, indi- 
visible, unchangeable, unalterable, unconfounded ; so as not to consi- 
der Christ in a separate sense the Son of God and the Son of the holy 
Deiparous, but to acknowledge in him unconfusedly the Son of God 
and the Son of Man, and to confess him to be both God and Man in 
the duality of his nature. Confess in him the duality of actions and 

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1$4 Memoir of St. Nierses Clajensts. [March, 

natural will, both divine and human, not resisting each other, but the 
human will following and obeying the divine. III. The prayer " Holy 
God" should be offered in your Church by the omission of " who wast 
crucified for us" and the conjunction "and." IV. You should conform 
to the Church of Greece in commemorating the feasts, that is to say, 
the Annunciation day, on the 25th of March ; the Nativity, on the 25th 
of December ; the Circumcision, on the eighth day after the birth of 
Christ, to wit, on the 1st of January ; the Baptism on the 6th of Janu- 
ary ; the Presentation of our Saviour to the temple on the fortieth day 
after his birth on the 2nd of February, and in like manner, agreeing 
with us in observing all the dominical feasts, as well as those of the 
holy Virgin Mary, of St. John, of the Apostles and of others. V. 
The preparation of the unction should be made of the oil of the fruit 
of trees. VI. The Communion Service should be performed with lea- 
vened bread, and wine mixed with water. VII. Let Armenian Chris- 
tians, both clergy and laity, remain within the Church, during the 
hours of prayer and the performance of communion service, with the 
exception of public penitents, who are prohibited by ecclesiastical 
canons from staying in the midst of the Church during the time. 
VIII. You should accept the fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh general 
assemblies. IX. The choice of the nomination of your pontiff should 
be vested only in the emperor of the Greeks. 

On the arrival of the embassy at Hiromcla, Thborianet and Jo- 
hannes Uthman met with a very kind reception from Nibrszs the 
Graceful, who having respectfully received the letters of the emperor 
and patriarch of Constantinople, communicated the contents of them 
to the principal bishops and friars of the Armenian Church, who had 
repaired to Hiromcla from the mountains of Taurus and the frontiers 
of Mesopotamia. Though they were easily persuaded to concede 
to the chief points proposed by the Greeks, yet great difficulty 
existed in obtaining the consent thereto of other Armenian bishops, 
whose number amounted to upwards of three hundred, and who 
were living in different distant quarters, especially in the frontiers 
of Armenia major, save the body of monks who resided in monas- 
teries, and who were almost of an equal number. Consequently, 
Nibrsxs thought it necessary to summon these worthies to the general 
meeting which was shortly to be convened for taking into considera- 
tion the points proposed by the authorities of Greece, and communi- 
cating the result of the assembly in a suitable letter to the emperor. 
He conceived the unanimous voice of all the principal dignitaries of 
the Church of Armenia indispensably necessary in the adoption of the 
points, which were the connecting links of the sister Churches, lest, he 

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1 836.] Memoir of St. Nieraea Clajetms. 1 55 

feared, an unfortunate division might be created amongst the Armeni- 
an ecclesiastics, and the result of their undertaking be attended with 
lamentable detriment. 

The ambassadors of the court of Constantinople applauded the 
wise precautions which marked every act of the pontiff of Armenia, 
but seeing that the council could not possibly be held before the setting 
in of the summer, they determined to depart from Hiromcla. Nibrsbs, 
in conjunction with Theorianet, addressed letters to Michael, the 
patriarch of the Syrian Church, communicating to him the points 
which were proposed by the Greeks for their acceptance, and soliciting 
the favour of his presence in the council that was shortly to be held at 
Hiromcla for that purpose. Michael being prevented by his various 
avocations from going to Hiromcla, sent in his room the friar Thko- 
dorus, who was eminently distinguished for his profound learning and 
conversancy with the Syrian, Greek, Armenian, and Turkish languages. 
On the arrival of the latter at Hiromcla,he was received by Nibrses with 
every kind of respect due to his rank. A discussion arose between them on 
the import of the words " substance" and " nature," which, according 
to the doctrine of Aristotle, admitted of various constructions. Thbo- 
dorcs, widely differing from the sentiments expressed by Nibrses on 
this subject, immediately took his departure from Hiromcla. In the 
mean while, Theorianet and Johannes Uthm an returned to Con- 
stantinople, furnished with letters addressed by Nibrses to the emperor 
Manuel and the patriarch Michael. Nibrses promised them to 
convene a general council for the decision of the- question of the in- 
tended union, and to endeavour to make the concessions they required. 
" I shall assiduously try," says he, " to overcome the long received 
customs of my countrymen, which prevail on them with the power of 
a second nature, and to force them to an acquiescence in such of the 
points proposed in your letters, as may possibly be reconciled to their 
minds. In so doing, we shall only be actuated by a desire of promot- 
ing divine love and peace amongst us, but not by an idea of turning 
from errors into truth. The acceptance of the rest of the points either 
must be overlooked by you, or left to time, and the happy union which 
shall shortly be effected amongst us." 

Immediately after this.NiERsxs addressed letters to all the Armenian 
bishops, abbots, and friars residing in different quarters of Armenia, 
Syria, Aluans, Georgia and Persia, communicating to them all that 
had passed respecting the union of the sister Churches. He also 
desired them to pray to the Almighty for the consummation of the 
laudable object in view, and to take an early opportunity of going to 
Hiromcla for the purpose of being present in the council that was 
x 2 

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156 Memoir of St. Nierses Clajensis. [March, 

shortly to be convened. Moreover he deputed one friar Stephen with 
a letter, inviting the Armenian clergy of Ani and Haghbat to the pro- 
posed assembly. 

But alas ! how often human endeavours and expectations are frus- 
trated before they have attained to maturity ! On the lapse of a few 
months, while Nierses was engaged in preparations for holding the 
council of union, his earthly career was by the inscrutable dispensa- 
tion of God terminated, Anno Domini 1 1 73, in the seventy-third year 
of his age. He enjoyed the supreme dignity of a pontiff for seven 
years, and in that period ordained only seven bishops. His remains 
lay in state for several days, during which time numbers of Armenians 
thronged to the pontifical house with a desire of kissing the hand of 
the deceased. Among those who had assembled there to pay their 
last tribute of veneration to the virtues of the deceased pontiff of Ar- 
menia, were Nierses Lam bronensis and several bishops and friars of 

This melancholy event plunged the nation into the greatest distress, 
for they had lost in Nierses the Graceful a vigilant pastor, a kind 
father, a faithful friend, a gifted divine, and a most zealous advocate of 
the truth of Christianity. Gregory Basil, the nephew of the deceas- 
ed pontiff, who was living at a great distance from Hiromcla, on hear- 
ing of the dangerous illness of the latter, immediately repaired thither 
to see his uncle ere he breathed his last. On his arrival at that place, 
he found Nierses dead. He evinced the greatest sorrow at the lamen- 
table catastrophe which had fallen on his family and the nation in 
general. The funeral of the deceased pontiff was performed with the 
greatest pomp and honors, that his rank and exalted station deserved, 
being attended by almost all the dignitaries of the Armenian Church, 
the nobility and other distinguished members of the nation, whose 
heartfelt sorrow, at the irreparable loss which the Church and the state 
had sustained, could distinctly be read in the melancholy expressions 
of their downcast countenances. His remains were deposited in a 
sepulchre which was dug near that of his brother Gregory, and a 
very splendid mausoleum was afterwards raised over him, bearing 
upon it a suitable inscription commemorative of his moral and Chris- 
tian virtues. 

News of this melancholy event reaching Constantinople, filled the 
heart of the emperor with the most poignant grief, and spread general 
regret throughout the Greek empire, every Greek sympathising with 
the Armenians for the loss which they had sustained in the person of 
their gifted pontiff. When his grief had comparatively subsided, the 
emperor wrote a letter of condolence to Gregory Basil, who had by 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Discovery of Buddhist Images, %c. 157 

the unanimous voice of the nation succeeded his uncle in the govern- 
ment of the Church of Armenia. The progress of the religious union 
of the two nations, which was unfortunately impeded by the Church 
of Armenia's being deprived of its head, was renewed by the commu- 
nications of the emperor with the pontiff Gregory, who, emulating 
the laudable example of his immediate predecessor, manifested equal 
zeal and inclination in the restoration of peace to the bosom of the 
Church of Christ. Before, however, the question of the long wished- 
for union was happily decided, Greece was deprived of her most illus- 
trious, pious, and virtuous ruler, in the year of our Lord 1 1 80, which 
melancholy catastrophe proved a death-blow to the nearly-finished 
structure of peace, and blasted in the bosoms of every Armenian and 
Greek the hopes of their future union ! 

II. — Discovery of Buddhist Images with Deva-ndgari Inscriptions at 

Tagottng, the Ancient Capital of tlie Burmese Empire. Ly Colonel 

H. Burnet, Resident at Ava. 

[Read before the Society, 6th April, 1836.] 

I have the pleaure to forward to you a couple of images of Gaud am a 
in Terracotta, which Captain Hannay has just sent down to me from 
Tagoung. On both there is an inscription, apparently in the same old 
Deva-nagari character, as in the inscription No. 2, of the Allahabad 
column, and probably consisting of the same words as those on the 
image of Buddha found in Tirhut, and in the other ancient inscriptions 
described in No. 39 of the Journal of the Asiatic Society*. 

Tagoung, written Takoung, (or according to Sir W. Jones's system, 
Takaung, but pronounced by the Burmese Tagoung,) you will find 
placed in our maps a little above the 23rd degree of north latitude, 
and on the eastern or left bank of the Erawadi river. Captain Han- 
nay', however, has ascertained its latitude by an observation of the 
sun to be 23° 30' N., and several Burmese itineraries in my posses- 
sion make its distance from Ava 52 taings, or about 100 miles. The 
Burmese consider Tagoung to have been the original seat of their 
empire, and the site of an ancient city, which was founded before the 
time of Gaudama, by a colony that emigrated from Central India. 
Some faint remains of an old city are still to be seen on this spot, 
where among the ruins of some pagodas, Captain Hannay found the 
images I now send you. No one here can decypher the character of 
the inscriptions, but on showing to some of the learned, the account 

• This is precisely the case : — even to the form of the letters — the dialect how- 
ever seems to be Magadhi or P6U, dhammA and pabhavd for dharmd and pra- 
bhavd y &c. See the accompanying plate. — Ed. 

Digitized by VjOOQLC 

158 Discovery of Buddhist Images [March* 

of the Bauddha inscriptions given in the 39th No. of the Journal of 
the Asiatic Society, the words " Ye dhamma, &c." were immediately 
recognised, and supposed to be those placed under these images of 
Gaudama also. The two figures seen standing on each side of Gau- 
dama in one of these are not, as I had supposed, his two favorite 
disciples, Mouggalan and Tharbpouttara, but figures of a preceding 
Buddha named Di'penkara, who first delivered the prophetical annun- 
ciation to Gaudama, whilst the latter was existing in the state of 
Thoomrda hermit, declaring that after myriads of years, which he 
would take in perfecting himself in every virtue, he would attain the 
state of a Buddha. The learned Burmese confirm Dr. Mills's opinion, 
and Mr. Hodgson's information, that there is no connexion between 
the last two lines and the first two produced by M. Csoma dr Koros, 
in the 39th No. of the Journal of the Asiatic Society. The last two, 
they say, are intended to show the points of instruction delivered, not 
by Gaudama only, but by every preceding Buddha, and they translate 
the Pdl( thus : 

" The not doing of every kind of evil, fulfilling of good, and purify- 
ing and cleansing the heart : these above mentioned are the precepts 
of Buddhas" 

With the first two lines beginning " Ye dhamma,*' the Burmese 
books connect the following anecdote : 

On the third year after Gaudama had attained the state of a Buddha, 
whilst he was residing at Welawoon monastery in the city of Yazagyo, 
(Rajgiri,) one of his disciples, named Ashen Athazi Matt'hbr, went 
into that city to receive charitable donations, and was met by Oopa- 
dbittha, the son of the female Brahman Tha'rb, and a disciple of 
Thbin-zbn Parabaik, some kind of heretics so called. Oopadbittha 
asked Ashen Athazi Matt'hbr, who was his teacher, what were his 
opinions ; the latter replied, " My teacher is the most excellent Lord 
Gaudama, his doctrines are as boundless as the sky. I am but lately 
become a Yahan, and know a little of them only." Oopadbittha 
begged that he would repeat a little of them only, when Athazi 
Matt'hbb recited the two lines beginning with the words Ye dhamma; 
but the moment he finished the first line, Oopadbittha was converted. 
He then followed the other to Gaudama, who received him as a 
disciple, and changed his name into Tharbpouttara, or the son of 
Tharr the female Brahman, by which name he was ever after distin- 
guished as one of the favorite disciples of Gaudama, and is always 
figured as seated on his right hand, whilst Mouggalan, the other 
favorite disciple, is seen on the left hand. Hence, these words have 
ever since been considered, as Mr. Hodgson states, as a confessio fidei 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] with Deva-ndgari Inscriptions at Tagoung. 159 

among Buddhists. Before giving the Burmese explanation of these 
two lines, I most premise, that according to their system of belief, 
there are four Theettsa, fundamental truths, or moral laws in the uni- 
verse, a knowledge of which Gaud am a attained intuitively at day- 
break of the morning on which he was perfected into a Buddha under 
the pipal-tree at Goya, and therefore, one of his titles is Thamma 
tham-bouddhattha, said to mean, he who intuitively acquired a know- 
ledge of the four Theettsa. These four Theettsa are called Doukkha 
Theettsa, Thamoudaya Theettsa, Niraudha Theettsa, and Megga Theettsa. 

1 . Doukkha Theettsa means the law of suffering and being, to which 
all sentient beings are certainly subject whilst revolving, according to 
the destiny of their good or evil conduct, in the three different states 
of existence, whether as a Nat or inferior celestial being, a man, or a 

2. Thamoudaya Theettsa is the law of evil desires and passions, by 
which all sentient beings are certainly affected. 

3. Niraudha Theettsa is the termination of or emancipation from 
the operation of the two preceding laws. Not being subject to age, 
sickness, death, or misery, and being in a state of ease, quiescence and 
duration uninterrupted. This is Neibban. 

4. Megga Theettsa is the cause or the way of reaching the last, and 
is explained by some to be the Meg gen Sheet ba, or the eight good 
ways, which, as translated by Mr. Judson, are right opinion, right 
intention, right words, right actions, right way of supporting life, 
rightly directed intelligence, caution, and serenity. Others explain it 
to be the Meg le dan, four grand ways, or four grand orders of Ariya, 
each subdivided into two classes, and an Ariya is a man who has 
extinguished evil desires and passions, and attained proficiency in 
certain virtues and miraculous powers. 

Now the Burmese say, that Gaudama's doctrine shows, that the 
first of the above Theettsas is the effect, and the second the cause, 
and that the third only can emancipate us from the eternal thraldom 
and suffering of the two first, and that this third is to be obtained 
only by means of the fourth. The lines are thus literally translated : 

" The law (of suffering and being) proceeds from a cause, which 
cause (the law of evil desires and passions) the Tathagata preaches, 
and Niraudha, the means of overcoming or terminating those (two 
laws). These are the opinions of Maha Thamana, or the great Yahan. 

Dhamma, according to the Burmese, is not " human actions," or 
" all sentient existences" only, but the law which governs or affects 
them, the fundamental law of the moral world. 

All that the Burmese know of the emigration from Central India, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 60 Discovery of Buddhist Images [March, 

and of the founding and history of the old city of Tagoung, is given in 
the 3rd volume of the Chronicles of the Kings of Ava. Here is an 
abstract of the tale. 

Long before the appearance of Gaud am a, a King of Kauthala* and 
Pmjalarit, desiring to be connected by marriage with the King of 
Kauliya, sent to demand a daughter, but receiving a refusal on the 
ground of his being of an inferior race, he declared war and destroyed 
the three cities of Kauliya, Dewadaha, and Kappilawot, which were 
governed by the Thdki race of kings f. These cities were afterwards 
restored, and the Thdki line re-established ; but on the occasion of the 
above disaster, one of the Thdki race of kings, Abhi'raja, the king of 
Kappilawot, retired with his troops and followers from Central India, 
and came and built Tagoung, which was then also styled Thengat tha 
ratha and Thengat tha nago. Here had stood a city in the times of the 
three preceding Buddhas. In the time of Kbkkutran it was called 
Thanthaya para ; in that of Gounaooun, Ratha para, and in that of 
Katthaba, Thendwe. On the death of king Abhi'raja', his two sons, 
Kan Yaza gybe and Kan Yaza noat, disputed the throne, but agreed 
by the advice of their respective officers to let the question be decided 
in this way, that each should construct a large building on the same 
night, and he, whose building should be found completed by the 
morning, should take the throne. The younger brother used planks 
and bamboos only, and covered the whole with cloth, to which by a 
coat of white- wash he gave the appearance of a finished building. 
At dawn of day, Kan Ya'za' gybe, the elder brother, seeing the other's 
being completed, collected his troops and followers, and came down 
the Erawadi. He then ascended the Khyendvoen, and established him- 
self for six months at Kule\ Toungnyo, calling it Ydzdgyo, and sent 
his son Moodootsmtta to be king over the Thoonaparan Pyoos, 
Kanyan, and Thet, who then occupied the territory between Pegu, 
Arracan, and Pagan, and had applied to him for a prince. Kan Ya'z'a- 
gtbb then built the city Kyouk padoung to the east of the Guttshapa 
nadee, and resided there for 24 years. From thence he went and 
took possession of the city of Diniawadee, or Arracan, which had origi- 
nally been founded by a king Mayayoo, and having constructed forti- 
fications, a palace, &c. took up his residence there. 

* Kauthala, (Kosala) Dr. Wilson considers to be the same as the present 
territory of Oude. Some of the Burmese consider Pinjalarit to ha? e been a 
kingdom in the Punjab. 

t See No. 20 of the Journal of the Asiatic Society for an account of the 
origin of the Shdkya race, which the Burmese call Thdki and Thakya Thaki. 

t Kuie is a territory to the southward of Manipnr. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] with Deva-ndgari Inscriptions at Tagoung. 161 

The younger brother, Kan Yaza ngat, took possession of his 
father's throne at Tagoung, where the undermentioned 33 kings 
reigned in succession. 

1. Abheeraja. 18. Hii ton Thendwe Yasa. 

2. Hia ton Kan Yaza ngay. 19. Hii ion Tbihala Yaza. 

3. His son Zaboodeepa Yaza. 20. Hii younger brother Han-tha Yazk. 

4. His son Thengatha Yaza. 21. His son Wars Yaza. 

5. His son Weippana Yasa. 22. His son Aloung Ysza. 

6. His son Dewata Yaza. 23. His son Kaulaka Ykxi. 

7. His son Munika Yaz<. 24. His son Thnriya Yaza. 

8. Hia paternal uncle Naga Yazi. 25. His son Tben-gyl Yaza. 

9. His younger brother Einda Yaza*. 26. His son Taing-ffyit Yaza. 

10. His son Thamoodi Yaza. 27. His son Madu Yattf. 

11. His son Dewa Yaza. 28. His son Menlha-gjl Yaza. 

12. His son Maheinda YkzA. 29. His son Than thu thiha Yasa. 

13. His son Wimala Yaza. 30. His son Danenga Yaza. 

14. His son Thihano Yaz*. 31. His son Heinda Yaza. 

15. Hia son Dengana Yazk. 32. His son Mauriya Yazi. 

16. Hia son Kantha Yasa. 33. His son Bheinnaka Yaza 9 . 

17. His son Kaleinga Yaza. 

In the reign of the last- mentioned king, Bhsinnaka Yaza*, the 
Chinese and Tartars from the country of Tsein, in the empire of Gan- 
dalareet, attacked and destroyed Tagoung. That king, collecting as many 
of his people as he could, retired up the Mali river, where upon his 
death his followers were divided into three portions. One portion 
proceeded to the eastward and established the 19 Shan states, whence 
they are called king Bheinnaka's race. Another portion came down 
the Erawadi, and joined the Thunaparanta kingdom, which was inha- 
bited by the Kanyan and Thet people, and was the seat of Mu'dut- 
seitta and other kings of the Thdki race. A third portion remained 
near the Mali river, with the last king's principal wife named 
Naga Zein. About this period, Gaud am a appeared in Central 
India, and a dispute occurred between king Pathanadi' Kauthala 
of Thawotthii and a king of Kappflawot, named Maha Nama. The 
former had applied for a daughter in marriage, and the latter, unwilling 
to deteriorate his race, sent, instead of one of the princesses of royal 
blood, a daughter named Wathaba Khettiya, whom he had by a 
slave girl. She was however received as a queen, and bore a son, 
who was* named prince Wit'hat'hoopa. When this prince grew up, 
he paid a visit to Kappflawot, and on his departure, the spot which 
he had occupied was termed the place of a slave-girl's son, and 
washed with milk. Hearing this, the prince vowed revenge, and 

• The title of these kings is Raja, but the Burmese pronounce it Yaz*. 
f Sravatti in Oude, according to Dr. Wilson. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

f62 Discovery of Buddhist Images [MaKcS, 

declared that as soon as he became king, he would wash the necks of 
the Kappilawot people with blood. Accordingly, on his accession to 
the throne, he set out three times with an army to attack the Thaki 
race of kings, but was stopped by Gaudama. On the fourth time, 
Gaud am a, foreseeing the future destiny of those kings, would not 
interfere, and king Wit'hat hoopa destroyed Kapp{lawot, Dewadaha, 
and Kauliya, three cities in the empire or country of Thekka, the seats 
of the Thaki race of kings. 

On this occasion one of the Thaki race, named Daza Yaz£, retir- 
ing from Central India, came first and established himself at Mauroya, 
which now goes by the name of Mweyen. Thence he proceeded and 
founded the city of Thendwe ; and changing his residence once again, 
he came to Mali, and met with the before mentioned queenWAOA 
Zbin, the widow of king Bhbinnaka. Finding her to be of the 
same Thak race as himself, he married her, and founded the city of 
Upper Pagan. He next rebuilt the ancient city of Tagoung, calling it 
Pfajalartt, and Pinja Tagoung, or the fifth Tagoung, and finally esta- 
blished himself there, assuming the title of Thado Zaboodipa Daza 
Yaza, dividing his followers into classes, organizing an army, and 
granting titles and honors. The undermentioned line of kings reigned 
in succession over this new Tagoung. 

1. Thado Zabudipa Daza Yaza. 10. Thado ya Haula. 

2. Thado Taing ya Ydsa. 11. Thado Poung shi. 

3. Thado Yafha ya. 12. Thado Kyouk ahf . 

4. Thado Tagwon ya. 13. Thado Tshen louk. 

5. Thado Lhan cyan ya. 14. Thado Tshen dein. 

6. Thado Shwe . 15. Thado taiog gylt. 

7. Thado Galoun ya. 16. Thado Men gyi. 

8. Thado Naga ya. 17. Thado Maha Yaz*. 

9. Thado Naga Naing. 

None of these kings reigned long, the country having been much 
molested by evil spirits, monsters and serpents. The last mentioned 
king having no son by his principal queen Keinnari-Dkwi, made her 
brother Khbbaduta the heir apparent or Crown Prince. At this 
time the people of Diniawadi came to the spot inhabited by the Pyus, 
and attacked and carried off king Tambula, who was of the Thaki 
race, and lineally descended from king Mudutskitta, the son of Kan 
Yazaotbb. His queen, Nan Khan, retired with as many followers 
as she could to the lake of Thakya. 

In the 40th year, after Gaudama's death, whilst Thado Maha 
Yaza' the 17th king of Tagoung was reigning, an immense wild boar 
appeared, and committed great destruction in his country. The Crown 
Prince went forth against the animal, and pursued it for several days, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] with Deva-ndgari Inscriptions at Tagoung. 163 

until he overtook and lolled it near Prome ; and then finding himself 
so far from home, he determined on remaining where he was as a 
hermit. Here he was joined by two of his nephews, named Maha 
Thambawa and Tsula Thambawa, twins borne by his sister the 
queen of Tagoung, but being blind, the father had insisted upon their 
being put to death. The mother, after secreting them for some time, 
placed them at last on a raft, and set them afloat on the Erawadi. 
The Royal Chronicles give an interesting account of the voyage of 
the two Princes, who are cured of their blindness by a monster at 
Tsagain*, and who at length reach the country near Prome, and are 
recognized and received by their uncle. The Kanyan and Pyus had 
quarrelled after the people of Arracan had carried off their king, but 
the former, being victorious, settled themselves near Prome under their 
queen Nan Khan, whilst the Kanyans retired, and established them- 
selves at Sandoway and on the borders of Arracan. Through the 
recommendation of the hermit Prince of Tagoung, the queen Nan 
Khan married one of his nephews Maha Thambawa, who became 
long of the Pyds, and established the Prome or Thare Khettara empire, 
60 years after Gaudama's death, 484 B. C. 

After the destruction of the Prome Empire, a king Thamauddarit, 
nephew of the last king of Prome, founded Pagan ; but the country 
being much molested by certain wild animals, a young man named 
Tsaudi' destroyed them, and the king gave him his daughter in 
marriage, and appointed him his successor. He declined the throne 
however in the first instance, and placed his old teacher Yat'thb- 
otauno upon it ; and on the death of the latter, the young man 
ascended the throne of Pagdn in the Pagan era 89, A. D. 167, with 
the title of Ptu' tsaudi'. But this Pru' tsaudi', or third king of Pagdn 
also is said to have been of the Tagoung royal race, and a ThdM Prince. 
His father, Thado Adaittsa Ya'za, was lineally descended from the 
17th king of Tagoung, Thado Maha Ya'za', but during his reign 
Tagoung having again been destroyed by evil spirits and monsters, as 
well as by the Chinese and Tartars, he had quitted the country, and 
settled with his family in a private capacity at Mali, supporting him- 
self as a gardener. After receiving a suitable education, the son Pyu' 
Tsaudi came down to Pagdn, in order to seek his fortune, and then 
distinguished himself by killing the wild animals as before-mentioned. 

No further mention of Tagoung can I find in the Royal Chronicles, 
until we come to the 6th vol., in which, after being told that a daugh- 
ter of Athbnkhata, the founder of Tsagain, was married to Thado 
cshbn-dbin, of the Tagoung royal race, and had a son named Yahu'la, 

• City directly opposite Ava. 
T 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

164 Discovery of Buddhist Images, SfC. [March, 

who was seven years of age, when king Thbehapadb alias Mbn- 
btouk ascended the Tsagain throne, and to whom at the age of 1 6 
that king had granted the city of Tagoung as zjaghir, together with 
the title of Thado men-bta. We are informed, that in the Burmese 
vear 725, A. D. 1363, when the Shan chief Tho Khteen bwa came 
down from Mogoung and Monhyeen to attack Tsagain, his army was 
first stopped at Tagoung by Thado men-bta, but that the Shans soon 
took that city, and completely destroyed it, its governor flying to 
Tsagain with a single elephant. This governor, Thado men-bya, 
afterwards took possession of the Tsagain and Penya kingdoms, and 
in the Burmese year 726, A. D. 1364, founded the city oiAva, and the 
line of the kings of Ava. 

Tagoung, after the Shans destroyed it, does not appear to have 
been restored, and it is now but a village with a few ruins. The dis- 
trict of Tagoung is the jaghir of the late Wungyee of Rangoon's 
daughter, who is one of the inferior queens, styled Tagoung Men-tha- 
mi, princess of Tagoung. Thado was a title peculiar to the 
Tagoung royal race. It is remarkable, that some of the names in the 
two lists of the kings of Tagoung correspond. The Burmese chroni- 
cles give no details of the reign of any of these kings, excepting of 
the first in each list, and of the last in the second list. One old 
work, Zabudipa kwon-gya, takes notice only of the second list of 
sovereigns ; and states that Daza Yaza retired from Central India, and 
came to Tagoung, about 300 years before the appearance ofGAUDAMA. 
As the last mentioned, or 1 7th king, Maha Yaza , is also stated to 
have ascended the throne 20 years after Gaudama's death : this would 
allow a duration of about 1 8 or 20 years to the reign of each of the king's 
preceding, corresponding with the average of king's reigns as fixed 
by Sir Isaac Newton. The great point with the Burmese histo- 
rians is to show that their sovereigns are lineally descended from the 
ThaMmcz of kings, and are " Children of the Sun* ;" and for this pur- 
pose, the genealogy of even Alompra, the founder of the present 
dynasty, is ingeniously traced up to the kings of Pagdn, Prome, and 
Tagoung. The countenances of the figures in the accompanying 
images are very different from those you see in all modern Burmese 

* One of the king of Ava 1 * titles is Ne dwet bhuyen, Sun-descended Monarch. 

t They are very nearly of the same character as those found at Sarnath, and 
may have been made there or at Gay a for exportation, as is the custom to the 
present time.— Ed. 

Digitized by VjOOQlC 

1 836.] On the preparation of Opium for the China market. 165 

III. — On the preparation of Opium for the China market : written in 
March 1 835, and then communicated to the Benares and Behdr Agencies. 
By D. Butter, M. D. Surgeon 6Zrd B. N. I. late opium examiner 
of the Benares Agency. 

1 . In committing to paper, for the use of my successor in office, 
the following observations, I would beg, once for all, to disclaim the 
idea of their being infallibly correct : for, although they are the re- 
sult of ten years' attention to their various subjects, I am aware of the 
disadvantages under which an individual labours, upon whom falls the 
task of first writing upon any subject involving the discussion of ob- 
scure questions, and who is thus deprived of the benefit of the judgment 
of other persons ; and am prepared to find my remarks hereafter 
greatly modified by the progress of discovery. 

2. The great object of the Bengal Opium Agencies is to furnish an 
article suitable to the peculiar tastes of the population of China, who 
value any sample of opium in direct proportion to the quantity of hot- 
drawn watery extract obtainable from it, and to the purity and strength 
of the flavour of that extract when dried and smoked through a pipe. 
The aim, therefore, of the agencies should be to prepare their opium 
so that it may retain as much as possible its native sensible qualities, 
and its solubility in hot- water. Upon these points depend the virtually 
higher price that Benares opium brings in the China market, and the 
lower prices of Behar, Malwa, and Turkey opium. Of the last of these, 
equal (Chinese) values contain larger quantities of the narcotic princi- 
ples of opium ; but are, from their greater spissitude, and the less care- 
ful preparation of the Behar and Malwa, incapable of yielding extract 
in equal quantity and perfection of flavour with the Benares. 

3. It therefore becomes a question, how the whole process of the 
production of opium, from the sowing of the seed to the packing of the 
chests for sale, should be conducted so as to preserve with the least 
injury its native flavour and its solubility. 

4. There can be no doubt that the quantity and richness of the 
milk obtained from each poppy-head depend greatly upon the geologi- 
cal and other physical conditions of the locality which produces it ; 
especially the soil, sub-soil, manuring, and irrigation ; and also upon 
the seed which is employed. But as these matters are, in the present 
circumstances of the Bengal agencies, little open to choice or control, 
the first practical enquiries which claim our attention relate to the 
extraction of the juice and its treatment while in the hands of the 

5. Of the various processes for the preparation of sugar and medi- 
cinal extracts from vegetable juices, it is well known that distillation in 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

166 On the preparation of Opium for the China market. [March, 

vacuo is incomparably the most efficient in preserving unaltered the 
original taste of the sugar, and the taste, solubility, and therapeutic 
powers of the extracts. It is also known that this process owes its 
superiority to the exclusion of the chemical as well as the physical 
agency of the atmosphere, to its rapidity of exsiccation, and to the 
comparative lowness of temperature at which it is performed. When 
sugar-cane juice, after even half an hour's exposure to the air, is boiled 
in a narrow deep vessel, and under the pressure of the atmosphere, 
vaporisation goes on so slowly that the sugar has time to undergo the 
vinous and acetous fermentations, whereby a certain portion of it is 
converted into vinegar, before the heat can be raised high enough to 
check this change ; and the high temperature, to which it is so long 
exposed during this slow vaporisation, chars another portion, and 
converts it into molasses. Other vegetable juices, under similar cir- 
cumstances, undergo analogous transformations : much of their sub- 
stance is converted into vinegar ; and the high temperature causes a 
partial decomposition of the rest : oxygen also is largely absorbed 
from the atmosphere, and greatly impairs the solubility of the dried 

6. On the principles which flow from these facts, it would be, chemi- 
cally speaking, advisable to prepare opium by distilling in vacuo, large 
quantities of the milk just as it has oozed from the capsules ; and I 
have no doubt that opium thus prepared would possess in an unprece- 
dented degree the desired qualities of solubility and strength, and 
purity of flavour, as well as narcotic power ; and can imagine, that 
under a system of open trade in opium, this process would be commer- 
cially profitable. It would, however, be inapplicable under a mono* 
poly constituted as the present system is ; and I have mentioned it 
only with the view of pointing it out as the acme of that perfection in 
the preparation of vegetable juices to which we can, with our present 
means, only approximate. 

7. That the approximation may proceed as far as possible, it will 
be necessary, first, that the poppy juice shall at the time of collection, 
contain a minimum of water ; so that its reduction to the proposed 
degree of spissitude may be effected in the shortest time, and be there- 
fore attended with the least exposure to the air at a high temperature, 
and with the smallest consequent loss of solubility and of specific qua- 
lities that may be practicable. 

8. The goodness of the soil, and the management of the irrigation, 
are circumstances which powerfully affect the strength of the juice at 
the time of its collection : but a third agent, still less amenable than 
these to control, now comes into play, the precipitation of dew on the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] On the preparation of Opium for the China market. 167 

surface of the capsule. When a current of wind, or a cloudy sky, 
prevents the formation of dew, it is found that the scarifications made 
in the capsule about the middle of the preceding day are sealed up by 
the slight oozing of juice, which had immediately followed the inci- 
sions; and the quantity of opium obtained is small. When, again, 
the dew is abundant, it washes open the wounds in the capsule, and 
thus facilitates the flow of the milk, which in heavy dews is apt to drop 
off the capsule entirely, and be wasted. But when the dew is in mode- 
rate quantity, it allows the milk to thicken by evaporation, and to col- 
lect in irregular tiers, (averaging one grain of solid opium from each 
quadruple incision,) which on examination will be found to have a 
greater consistency, and a " rose-red" (Werner) colour towards the 
external surface, while the interior is semi-fluid, and of a " reddish- 
white" colour. This inequality of consistence constitutes the grain of 
raw opium, of which I shall have to speak hereafter. 

9. In the collection of these drops of half-dried juice, it is very apt 
to get mixed with the dew, which, in the earlier hours of collection, 
continue to besprinkle the capsules, and which here does a double 
mischief — first, by retarding the inspissation of the general mass of 
the juice ; and, secondly, by separating its two most remarkable con- 
stituent parts— that which is soluble, and that which is insoluble in 
water. So little aware, or so reckless, even under the most favourable 
construction of their conduct, are the koerfo of the injury thus caused 
by the dew, that many of them are in the habit of occasionally wash- 
ing their scrapers with water, and of adding the washings to the 
collection of the morning : in Malwa, oil is used for this purpose, 
to the irremediable injury of the flavour of the opium. On examin- 
ing the juice thus mixed with water, it will be found that it has 
separated, as above-mentioned, into two portions, a fluid and a more 
consistent ; the latter containing the most of the resin, gluten, caout- 
chouc and other less soluble constituents of opium, with part of the 
super-meconiate of morphia ; and the former containing the gum, some 
resin, and much of the super-meconiate of morphia, and much of the 
colouring principle, which, though pale at first, is rapidly affected by 
light, and acquires a very deep " reddish or blackish brown" colour. 
Many koMs are in the habit of draining off this fluid portion into a 
separate vessel, and of bringing it under the name of pasewd, for sale, 
at half the price of opium, to the Benares agency, where it is used 
as lewa, (paste for the petal envelopes of the cakes.) Others, after 
allowing the soluble principles to become thus changed into an 
acescent, blackened, sluggish fluid, mix it up with the more consistent 
part of their opium, and bring the whole for sale in this mixed state ; 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 68 On the preparation of Opium for the China market. [Marcs, 

the consequence of which is that they are subjected to a penalty, called 
battd upon pasewd, and regulated by the estimate of the opium ex- 
aminer, of the quantity of pasewd contained. This penalty is the only 
efficient check upon this most pernicious practice of the koiris : for 
on the generality of the gomashtas, it is difficult to impress the neces- 
sity of their looking after the koeris during the collecting season. 
Were gom&shtas in general fit for their offices, the name of pesewd 
might be banished from the Bengal agencies ; all that is required for 
that purpose being that they should instruct all their mahtds and 
kotrts, to exclude dew as much as possible from the opium at collec- 
tion — never to add water to their opium, then or at any other period ; 
but at the end of their day's collection, to rub it together in a mortar 
or similar vessel, breaking down the grain of it above-mentioned, so as 
reduce the whole to a homogeneous semi-fluid mass, which should be 
dried as quickly as possible in the shade, in a current of air free from 
dust, by spreading it on any clean flat surface, and turning it over ten 
or twenty times. With this management, one afternoon in the dry 
collecting season would suffice for bringing to the spissitude of 70 per 
cent, the collection of each day, which could then be secured, along 
with the rest of the koerfs' opium, in a vessel of any form, safe from 
deterioration by internal change. It is a common belief, that all new 
opium must ferment* : but that is a fallacy occasioned by the low de- 
gree of spissitude at which opium is generally received at the Bengal 
agencies, and by the consequent fermentation and swelling up which 
almost constantly occur, when such opium is allowed to stand for some 
hours in large vessels. 

10. So very large was formerly the admixture of pasewd in the 
opium brought to the Benares agency, that it was thought necessary, 
for the sake of its appearance, to draw off as much as possible of the 
black fluid, by storing it, for weeks, in earthen vessels, perforated with 
a hole. Of late years, there has been a great amendment in this re- 
spect, and the draining system has therefore become unnecessary ; an 
event which ought to be followed by the abolition of the inconvenient 
receptacles in which it was carried on, and by the general substitution 
of movable wooden cases and drawers in their stead. 

1 1 . Pasted, in a pure and concentrated state, is a viscid, dark 
reddish-brown fluid, transparent in thin plates. Its homogeneous phy- 
sical constitution prevents its assuming to the eye that appearance of 
consistency which is presented by ordinary opium. In the former, all 

* Dr. Abel bettered that fermentation was necessary for the derelopment of 
the narcotie principles, and considered the fermentation as of a panary species, 
n which the gluten played a principal part. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

T836.] Om the preparation of Opium for the China market. 169 

4he ingredients are in a state of trne chemical combination, with the 
water contained; while, in the latter, many of the ingredients are 
only in a state ef mechanical mixture, a condition which almost neces- 
sarily gives an appearance of solidity beyond all proportion to the 
actual quantity of solid matter contained. Hence, pasted, and opium 
containing pasted, are less consistent, and would, to the inexperienced 
eye, appear to contain much more water than pure opium of the same 
actual spissitude ; a source of much perplexity to any one who tries for 
the first time to estimate, by the consistence, the real spissitude or dry 
contents of different samples of opium containing more or less of 
pasted. A tentative process is the only one by which a person can 
qualify himself to estimate the spissitude with tolerable accuracy. He 
should, before allowing the parkhiyas to state their estimates of the 
spissitude, form one in his own mind, and make a memorandum of it, 
noting his reasons for assigning the degree of spissitude on which he 
'has fixed. The result of the steam-drying test, to which small sam- 
ples of all opium are subjected in the Benares agency, will then enable 
him to judge on which side, whether under or over-estimate, he has 
inclined to err, and to avoid the error in his subsequent operations. 

12. The constituents of pasted are in a state of chemical combi- 
nation ; and the slow addition of water will not subvert that condi- 
tion. But the sudden affusion of a large quantity of water on con- 
-centrated/xu^Btf instantly resolves it into two portions, a dark coloured 
fluid containing the gum, colouring matter, and super- meconiate and 
acetate of morphia, and a lighter coloured powder, consisting of the 
resin and some gluten, and a minute portion of caoutchouc. In mak- 
ing Ited, therefore, from pasted, or from inferior opium, the necessary 
-quantity of water should be slowly added, and thoroughly mixed pre- 
viously to the addition of more water. Pure opium is liable to the 
same resolution of its component parts, from the sudden affusion of 
water : if the latter be slowly added and thoroughly mixed, the gela- 
tinous opium will absorb it, forming a species of hydrate, and will 
retain its tremulous consistence ; but if the water be suddenly added in 
considerable quantity* an immediate separation of the more and less 
soluble constituents occurs, and the opium loses its gelatinous and 
adhesive character. When opium is dried up to a certain point, below 
the spissitude of 80 per cent., it loses the power of absorbing water 
without decomposition, and cannot be brought to the gelatinous state. 
It might be expected, that by adding 30 parts of water to 70 of dry 
opium powder, we should produce a combination possessing the con- 
sistence and other physical characters of fresh standard 41 opium ; but 

• So called, because this is the degree of spissitude Required at the Bengal 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

170 On the preparation of Opium for the China market. [Marci*, 

the compound has little consistence, and will be found to contain inso- 
luble portions, which have lost their power of forming hydrates with 
water : yet its spissitude remains exactly that of standard opium, the 
precise quantity of dry opium employed in making it being recovera- 
ble from it, but in a darkened and deteriorated condition. The above 
observations have a practical bearing upon the manufacture of I food, 
as has already been noticed, and upon the degree of spissitude which 
opium, either in the hands of the kotris or in the agency godowns, 
should be permitted to acquire : it should be limited to 66 or 67 per 
cent, for the former, and 70 or 72 for the latter ; because, with every 
additional degree of spissitude above this, the solubility is impaired in 
an increasing ratio. 

13. Among some thoughts on the subject committed to writing 
six years ago, I find the following remark and query : " The whole 
of the original milky juice will pass through a finer filter than that 
used by the Chinese in making the extract for smoking : is it possi- 
ble to dry the opium, retaining its property of such minute division 
and diffusibility ; or is it necessary for the complete separation of the 
water from the resin, gluten, caoutchouc, &c. that some absorption of 
oxygen should take place, and some consequent diminution of their 
solubility, or rather miscibility with water ?'* My reason for noticing 
this query is the subsequent solution of the proposed problem by M. 
Prbvitb of Calcutta, in the highly similar case of animal milk, which 
he appears to have succeeded in drying to a powder with no perceptible 
injury to the diffusibility of its curdy and oleaginous principles. This 
is the very result that should be aimed at in the preparation of opium 
for the China market. 

14. When the juice of the poppy has been properly dried, that is* 
rapidly, in a cool shade, and protected from dust, it possesses, at the 
spissitude of 70 per cent., (that is, containing 30 per cent, of water r ) 
the following properties. It has, in the mass, a " reddish brown" 
colour (Werner), resembling that of copper (the metallic lustre ob- 
structed) ; and, when spread thin on a white plate, shews considera- 
ble translucency, with a " gallstone yellow" colour, and a slightly gra- 
nular texture. When cut into flakes with a knife, it exhibits sharp 
edges, without drawing out into threads ; and is tremulous, like jelly, 
or rather strawberry jam, to which it has been aptly compared. It 
has considerable adhesiveness, a handful of it not dropping from the 
hand inverted for some seconds. Its smell is the pure peculiar smell 

agencies for the full price allowed by Government. On parcels of opium, frtfe* 
rior to this in spissitude, a penalty is levied, called battd upon coruisttnc*. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836] On the preparation of Opium/or the China market. 1 71 

of opium, heavy and not unpleasant. In this condition it is said to be 
" standard" or " awwal" opium. f 

15. When the juice, again, instead of being thus exposed to the 
air, has after collection been kept in deep vessels, which prevent eva- 
poration, it presents the following appearances. A specimen of it 
which has the spissitude of only 60 per cent, has the apparent consis- 
tence or substantiality of standard opium of 70 per cent. But on 
minuter examination, it will be found, that this apparent firmness of 
texture is a deception, resulting from the mechanical constitution 
of the mass ; k being made up with but little alteration of the origi- 
nal irregular drops collected from the capsule, soft within, and more 
inspissated without ; this outer portion, as long as it remains entire, 
giving the general character of consistency to the mass, just as 
the shells of a quantity of eggs would do. For when the opium is 
rubbed smartly in a mortar, this fictitious consistence disappears, 
exactly as that of the eggs, if pounded, would do ; and in point of 
apparent consistence, as well as of real spissitude, it is reduced to the 
proportion which it properly bears to standard opium. When opium 
thus retains the original configuration of the irregular drops, it is said 
to be " kackd" or " raw :" when these are broken down into the mi- 
mtte grain mentioned in the description of standard opium, it is said 
to be 4, pakka n or "matured," whatever may be the actual spissitude 
of the opium, whether 50 or 70 per cent. An opinion has been en- 
tertained, but on what grounds I know not, that the breaking down 
of this large grain is an injury to the opium : to myself it seems plain 
that as the large grain always disappears before the opium attains the 
spissitude of 70 per cent, and as this vesicular constitution of the raw 
opium retards the evaporation of its superfluous moisture, the more 
inspissated shell of each irregular drop checking the evaporation from 
its more fluid interior, the object should be to reduce the whole with 
the least possible delay to a nearly homogeneous mass, in which state 
the inspissation of opium advances with much greater rapidity. 

16. Connected with this subject is a question which has been 
raised, whether the inspissation of opium stored in large quantities in 
the agency godowns is effected more quickly, by removing, from time 
to time, into another receptacle, the pellicle of thick opium which 
forms on the surface of the mass ; or by turning over the mass fre- 
quently, and thus constantly mingling with it the pellicles successively 
formed. As agreeably to the general law of chemical affinity, whereby 
the last portions of any substance held in combination, and in course 
of gradual expulsion, are retained with increasing obstinacy, the in- 
spissation of thin, is, ceteris paribus, always more rapid in its pro 

z 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 72 On the preparation of Ophm/or the China market. [March, 

gress than that of thick opium ; it is clear that the removal of the 
pellicle, by which opium of minimum spissitude is constantly exposed 
to the air, must accelerate the inspissation more than the turning over 
of the whole mass would do : because the latter process exposes to 
the air opium which is gradually acquiring a greater degree of con- 
centration, and from which the evaporation will gradually be slower 
and slower. As evaporation takes place from the external surface only, 
it may be proper here to advert to the propriety of making all reser- 
voirs for opium below the standard spissitude as numerous and shal- 
low as may be permitted by the means of stowage ; every practicable 
method being at the same time adopted to facilitate ventilation across, 
and to exclude dust from, the extensive surfaces exposed ; and as 
little light being admitted as may be suitable to the convenience of the 
people at work. 

17. It might be expected, from the ingenuity of the natives of this 
country, and from their imperfect notions of fair trade, that they would 
resort to a great variety of means for increasing, by adulteration, the 
weight of such an article as opium, in which fraud might be made so 
difficult of detection. But in fact, it is seldom that they attempt any 
thing of the kind, beyond keeping their opium at a low spissitude ; an 
act by which, under the present searching system of examination, they 
cannot profit •, and which, from its occasioning a deterioration of their 
opium through fermentation, entails the levying of a batta upon its 
quality, and therefore, in those cases, an inevitable loss. It is impos- 
sible that opium left to itself in the open air, during the parching sea- 
son of the hot winds, could remain at the low spissitudes of 50 and 60 
per cent, at which it is frequently brought to Ghazipur towards the 
end of that season : and we must therefore conclude, that artificial 
means are resorted to, in order to maintain it in that condition ; either 
the frequent addition of water, or the burying it in a damp piece of 
ground, which is said to be sometimes done for the sake of security. 
When these malpractices have been carried too far, the gluten under- 
goes, in a greater or less degree, the process of putrefaction ; the mass 
of opium first becoming covered with mould, and acquiring an opaque 
" yellowish grey" colour and a pasty consistence, in which every ves- 
tige of the translucency and grain of the opium is lost ; and the smell 
becoming venous, sour, and at last abominably foetid ; in which condi- 
tion the deteriorated opium is fit for none of the purposes of the 
manufacture, and is always destroyed, and its original value forfeited, 
by the koeris. It is to be hoped that their experience of the unvary- 
ing consequences of such folly, and the introduction of a superior class 
of gomashtas, will in time convince them of the advantage, as well as 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] On tke prtparatiom of Opium for tk China market. 17a 

Hie facility, of bringing in all their opium at very nearly the standard 

In some cases it would appear, from the fluid state in which they 
bring it for sale, as if they expected every drop of water which they 
add to it, to be assimilated and converted into opium. Occasionally* 
it would seem that they had admitted some suspicions of its having 
been watered too much ; and their only remedy is to drive off the 
superfluous water by boiling : an operation which speedily reduces the 
mixture to a blackened and charred condition, easily recognized. 

18. A more ingenious fraud, but which is seldom practised, is, that 
of washing out the soluble and most valuable part of the opium, and 
bringing for sale the residual mass. In this process, the opium loses 
its translucency, and the redness of its colour : it loses its adhesiveness 
also, not adhering to the hand like opium which has not been robbed 
of its soluble principles ; and by these marks, without going further, 
the fraud is detected. Sand is now and then added, to increase the 
weight ; and is at once detected by its grittiness when rubbed between 
a plate and a spatula. 

Soft clayey mud is also, but very rarely, used for the same purpose : 
it always impairs the colour and translucency ; and can, as well as 
sand, be detected, and its quantity accurately ascertained, by washing 
the opium with a large quantity of water, and collecting the sediment, 
which is the clayey mud. 

Sugar and gur, or coarse molasses, are sometimes employed to ad- 
ulterate opium : they invariably ferment, and give it a sickly, sweetish, 
venous, or acescent odour, easily known. 

Cow-dung, the pulp of the dhatCrd, or thorn-apple, and the gummy 
resinous juice of the bil, or Bengal quince, are seldom met with as 
fraudulent ingredients : the first may be detected by drying it to a 
powder, or by washing it with water, either of which processes brings 
under the eye the undigested shreds of vegetable matter constituting 
the animal's food ; but the two last are extremely difficult of detec- 
tion, if not added in quantity sufficient to affect the colour and 
smell of the opium, which generally happens in the few instances 
of their occurrence. The seeds of the dhaturd are apt to get mixed 
with the opium, and afford a ready means of detection. A strange, 
but not uncommon, mode of adulteration is the addition of pounded 
poppy seeds : if reduced to a fine powder, the oleaginous seeds might 
enter into an imperfect chemical union with the kindred resinoid prin- 
ciple of the opium : but the fraud is never so skilfully effected as to 
produce this result ; and the hard particles of the seeds are perceptible 
to the touch and sight. Malwa opium, though less now than it was 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

174 On the preparation of Opium for the China market, [March, 

eight years ago, is in general largely contaminated with oil, which is 
easily separated by dissolving the opium in water ; and I have seen, in 
a few instances, the same fraud attempted within the Benares agency. 
As the oil is always in a rancid condition, its presence is betrayed by 
its odour, as well as by the glistening appearance which it communi- 
catee to the opium. 

19. By long exposure to the heat of the sun, the texture of opi- 
um, whatever be its spissitude, undergoes a remarkable change, 
through the conversion of part of its gluten into a species of bird-lime. 
Its shortness or property of exhibiting sharp edges, when cut into 
flakes with a knife, disappears ; and it draws out into long threads. 

These two varieties of texture may almost always be recognized in 
cakes of Behar and Benares opium respectively ; the former being ex- 
posed to the sun, in the process of drying the cakes, and the latter 
not. This diversity of treatment occasions a difference between the 
hygrometric properties of the cakes of the two agencies ; the Behar 
cakes acquiring a more speedy but less permanent hardness than the 
Benares : whereby, though firmer in the shell towards the end of the 
hot winds, they are more liable than the Benares to soften and lose 
their shape during the rains. The immediate cause of this difference 
appears on making a clean section of the shells with a sharp knife. 
It will thus be found, that in the Benares shells, the lewd remains 
visibly interstratified with the petals, dark-coloured, and tenacious ; 
while in the Behar, it is in a great measure absorbed by the petals, 
which are apparently in intimate contact with each other, and is not 
to be distinguished from them ; the combination being more easily ef« 
fected by hygrometrie changes of the atmosphere than the independent 
strata of leaf and lewd in the Benares cakes. 

20. While, as at present, a considerable amount of inferior opium 
is produced, not safely applicable to any other purpose than the manu- 
facture of lewd, its sacrifice is no great loss. But if all the opium 
brought to the agencies were of good quality, the substitution of some 
less expensive vegetable paste would be an important desideratum. 
Any strong cheap mucilage or farinaceous paste, or perhaps some 
indigenous imitation of bird-lime, would answer for the inner portion of 
the shell ; and an exterior coating of a resinous, waxy, or oily nature, 
impervious to water, would defend this from the moisture of the air. 

21. In cutting open a cake for examination, the above points 
should be attended to. It should also be observed whether the exterr 
nal and internal surfaces of the shell are smooth : the former not 
knotty or fissured, and none of the interior leaves of the latter detach- 
ed among the opium : there ought, also, to be no vacuities between 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 836.] On the preparation of Opium for the China market. 1 lb 

the strata of the leaves, such as are sometimes found, lined with 
mould, in faulty cakes, and the shell altogether ought to be thin, com* 
pact, and of equal thickness throughout. The shape ought to be as 
nearly spherical as possible : that being the geometrical form which 
under the smallest surface contains the greatest quantity of matter, 
and which consequently affords the least scope for the extrication of 
air and ultimate injury to the shape of the cake when that air escapes. 
Greater attention to having the earthen cups, in which the cakes are 
dried, perfectly hemispherical, instead of parabolical as they now are, 
would contribute to the desired sphericity. 

22. In opening a cake, the next thing to be attended to is the 
manner in which the two hemispheres of the opium separate : the 
Behar will be found to retain its shortness, while the Benares draws 
out into threads. The smell should then be attentively observed and 
noted down, being strongest immediately after the opening, and giving 
at that instant the fairest indications of the state of the opium with 
respect to preservation ; the pure narcotic, venous, or acescent odour 
being then most strongly perceptible : in this respect the Benares will 
generally prove superior to the Behar. It is an important character ; 
for the Chinese are great epicures in the flavour of opium, and object 
to it when it smells at all sour. 

23. The surface of the opium should then be narrowly inspected, 
and the tint and shade of colour, both by reflected and transmitted 
light, noted down, in terms of Werner's nomenclature ; also the ap- 
parent quantity of pasewd if any be present, which is almost constantly 
the case with Behar opium, where it appears like dark glistening fluid, 
lining the little cells in the surface of the opium. As the depth of the 
colour of opium in the caked state depends on the quantity of pasewd 
in it, or the degree in which it has been deteriorated by exposure to 
the sun, the lighter the shade, the better is the opium. 

24. The chemical analysis of opium, after all the trouble that has 
been bestowed on it, is still in an unsatisfactory state. A perfect ana- 
lysis, such as we possess of Peruvian bark, and of some other medicinal 
plants yielding vegetable alkalies, ought to eliminate the whole of the 
active principles, leaving nothing at its close but an inert mass pos- 
sessed of no therapeutic power : and the essential principles thus ob- 
tained should equal (or, as in the case of quina freed from its bulky 
fibrous accompaniment, surpass) in activity, a quantity of the original 
substance equal to that from which it was extracted. But how greatly 
inferior are the powers, over the animal economy, of a grain of mor- 
phia, in whatever state of purity or saline combination, to the quantity 
of opium that is required to furnish that single grain ! Yet, for all that 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

176 On the preparation of Opium for the China market. [March, 

we can, chemically, see, we obtain by our analysis the whole of the 
morphia that is contained in opium. I suspect that the narcotic power 
is partly lodged in some unknown substance (not narcotine) insoluble 
in water : for I have, after careful and repeated washing, until it ceas- 
ed to colour the water, found the insoluble residuum to act as an opi- 
'ate with considerable energy. Although morphia, in a state of 
purity, can, like sulphur, be fused without change ; yet, when in com- 
bination with the other constituents of opium, it is partly destroyed by 
a much lower degree of heat, greatly under that of boiling water ; for 
the pharmaceutical and Chinese extracts are found to contain very 
little morphia : still, the former, as is well known, exert great medici- 
nal power, out of all proportion to the quantity of morphia which 
analysis evolves from them. From all these considerations it would 
result, that the proportion of morphia obtained, by the analysis at 
present known, cannot be regarded as a true exponent of the total 
narcotic power of the opium which yields it. An additional source of 
fallacy in comparing the produce of different countries exists in the 
varying proportions which they contain of colouring matter or extrac- 
tion ; a principle for which morphia and narcotine have a strong affi- 
nity, forming insoluble compounds* with it ; and which* as well as 
narcotine, is much more abundant in Indian than in Turkey opium. 
Hence a considerable loss in the purification of morphia from the 
former, and an apparent, and probably real, inferiority in its quantity ; 
•although we know that good India opium is equal to Turkey in narco- 
tic power. 

25. Robiquet's process is the one employed by the opium exam- 
iner in Calcutta. The chief precautions necessary to ensure success 
«nd uniformity in its results are, not to use too much water at first 4 
to see that the magnesia is brought to a red heat ; not to expose any 
*>f the subjects of analysis to the sun, or to artificial heat, except in the 
washing and final solution in alcohol of the morphia ; not to use too 
strong a spirit in washing the morphia and excess magnesia; and 
to employ the strongest alcohol for its final solution before crystalliza- 
tion. Sbrtctbrnbr's process is useful where it is not necessary to 
obtain the morphia in a separate state : and in practised hands affords 
speedy and tolerably accurate information. It is probable that Robi- 
^ubt's process will in time be superseded by that of the late Ih\ 
William Gregory of Edinburgh, which does not acquire the expen- 
sive use of alcohol, and yields more morphia, by 30 or 40 per cent. 4 
affording, in fact, the cheapest medicinal preparation known of Turkey 

♦ This may partly account for the medicinal activity of the mass of opium 
above noticed. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] On the preparation of Opium for the China market. 177 

opium. It consists in the exhaustion of the opium with water under 
the temperature of 90° ; concentration of the solution at a low temper- 
ature ; precipitation by slight excess of ammonia ; elutriation of the 
precipitate with cold water ; exsiccation of it at a temperature below 
212°, and reduction to powder; solution in cold water by muriatic 
acid, slowly added in slight excess ; nitration and concentration to the 
consistence of syrup ; after which, the preparation on cooling, becomes 
a mass of crystals of muriate of morphia, moistened with a dark-colour- 
ed solution of uncrystallizable muriate of narcotine and resinoid 
colouring matter. This solution is abstracted from the crystals by 
strong pressure between folds of bibulous paper ; and the solution, 
crystallization, and expression repeated once or twice ; after which, the 
salt is obtained in radiated bunches of snow-white silky crystals, con- 
taining 37 parts of muriatic acid and 322 of morphia. But for the 
unfortunate super-abundance of narcotine, and comparative paucity of 
obtainable morphia, in Indian opium, the manufacture of the muriate 
en a large scale might advantageously be established, at one of the 
Bengal agencies, for the supply of the Indian medical department with 
this admirable preparation, the marc (?) of which would be available for 
the manufacture of lewd. 

26. Connected with the subject of analysis is another which claims 
some attention from the opium examiner, the accuracy and sensibility 
of the weights and balances used in his department. Neither of them 
should ever be allowed to be soiled with opium ; and the former should 
occasionally be compared, to see that all weights of similar denomina- 
tions mutually correspond within one- tenth of a grain, and that the larger 
and smaller weights are equally accurate multiples and sub-multiples of 
each other. The knife-edges of the balances should occasionally be shar- 
pened, so that they may turn with as little friction as possible ; and the 
three points of suspension, whenever deranged, should be brought into 
a perfectly straight line, by bending the beam with the hand : if the 
centre edges be too low, the balance will, when loaded with its proper 
weights, be in a state of unstable equilibrium, and will cause great 
mistakes ; and if they be too low, the balance will lose its sensibility, 
and cannot be depended upon within perhaps two grains. Care should 
also be taken that the distance from centre-edges to arm-edges are 
exactly equal ; from accidental violence, this element of accuracy is 
▼ery apt to be deranged, and causes great confusion when overlooked. 

27. Were all the opium brought for sale unexceptionable in quality, 
free from pasiwd, and liable to batta on account of deficient spissitude 
only, there would be, supposing the batta levied with tolerable accu- 
racy, little difference at the end of the manufacturing season, between 

2 A 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

178 On the preparation of Opium for the China market. [March, 

the registered receipts and expenditure of opium : and, supposing it 
levied with strict accuracy, there would be a small loss, occasioned by 
accidental spilling of semi-fluid opium, adhesion to the persons and 
clothes of the work-people, and other unavoidable sources of wastage. 
But as, in the present state of things, batta to a considerable amount 
is levied on quality, the effect of its deduction, if not kept separate 
from the batta on spissitude, would be to shew, at the end of the year, 
a deceptive deficiency of receipt compared with expenditure. Batta 
upon quality, or pas tied, therefore, should not be admitted into the 
godown accounts ; and should be confined to the account between the* 
receiving- officer and the koM. 

28. There are no satisfactory experimental means, except perhaps* 
by the specific gravity, of ascertaining the precise quantity of pasted in 
opium. It will hardly drain at all from opium of higher spissitude 
than sixty per cent, and not readily from opium of even that spissi- 
tude, unless assisted by a slight fermentation, which greatly facilitates 
its flow : the pasted trickling down the sides of the air- vesicles thus 
formed. The only convenient rule for the adjustment of batta upon 
pasted, or upon quality generally, is, that absolute pasted, if not too 
thin, and the worst opium purchased for the Company, being paid for 
at half the price of standard opium ; for different grades of inferiority 
in quality between those two conditions, as fair a gradation of penal-* 
ties shall be fixed, as can be formed from an estimate of the sensible- 

29. It has been thought, that specific gravity might prove an ac-» 
curate index of the spissitude of opium ; which is, however, not the 
case ; its soluble principles, and that portion of its insoluble constitu-* 
ents which, slightly modified, unite with the soluble in forming pasted 
acquiring in their transition to this altered state, a considerable in-\ 
crease of density. Opium, therefore* containing pasted, is much 
heavier than an equal bulk, at the same spissitude, of pure opium. I 
have found this condensation to bear same proportion to the quantity 
of pasted apparently contained : and it might, probably be found to 
indicate with considerable accuracy the proper amount of batti to be 
levied for pasted, were such nicety desirable or conveniently attain^ 

30. The Regulation of Government* which requires Civil Surgeons 
to report upon the relative values of parcels of confiscated opium, ac- 
cording to the quantity of foreign matter which they may contain, 
is obscure on two important points : 1st, whether, and beyond what 
degree of thinness, water is to be considered as foreign matter ; 
and, secondly, whether and beyond what degree of deterioration* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 836.] Catalogue of a Second Collection of Fossil Bones. 1 79 

fermented and pasted, converted opium, when contained in the con- 
traband article, are to be considered as " foreign matter." I have 
been in the habit of regarding them as foreign, when the water ex- 
ceeded 30 per cent., and when inferiority in quality was palpable ; 
because a different practice would defeat the end, for which the regu- 
lation was framed, of securing a fair reward to the informer. Under 
a less strict interpretation of the rule, he would be tempted to double 
the weight of the seized opium, and consequently his own reward, by 
adding to it, a sufficient quantity of water, or of bad opium, such as 
may at all times be clandestinely purchased for a trifle in the poppy 

IV. — Catalogue of a Second Collection of Fossil Bones presented to the 
Asiatic Society* s Museum by Colonel Colvin. 
[Exhibited at the Meeting of the 6th April.] 

Colonel Colvii* 's first dispatch consisted of six large chests of fossil 
bones, in their rough state, attached to the matrix rock, as they were 
originally brought in from the hills by the native collectors employed 
by him to dig. They still remain unclassified in the museum, but the 
detailed examination that has been given to the second dispatch by 
Lieutenants Durand and Baker, whom experience has already made 
expert in recognizing fragments, even much mutilated, will materially 
assist in arranging the former specimens, while it leaves little to be 
done with the present beyond publishing their catalogue at once for 
the satisfaction of geologists, and preparing the specimens for the 
inspection of visitors. There are among them many noble fragments 
of known animals, which challenge comparison with those of any col* 
lection in Europe : these it will be a first object to make known by ac- 
curate drawings or by plaster casts. There are also numerous skulls, 
jaws, teeth, and bones decidedly new to fossil osteology, but the admira* 
ble fidelity and scientific knowledge with which the major part of these 
is now under illustration by Dr. Hugh Falconer and Captain Cautlbt, 
in the Asiatic Researches) from their own, even more extensive, cabinet* 
supplants the necessity of attempting a full investigation here. All 
points in which differences from their generic or specific descriptions 
are recognized, it will be the duty of our curator to bring to notice. 

The synopsis published in the Journal for December last, page 706, 
comprised the varieties of organic remains, up to that period extracted 
from the upper deposits of the tertiary strata of the Sivdlik or Sub* 
Himdlaya range of hills. Most of the same are to be found in Colonel 
Colvin's collection. Some recent additions of a highly interesting 
2 a 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

180 Catalogue of a Second Collection of Fossil Bones [March, 

nature have however been made above, of which I have been apprised 
in my private correspondence with Sehiranpur. 

Lieutenant Duranh has just dug out a nearly perfect head of a 
PaUeotherium, from the vicinity of the spot whence Captain Cautlkt 
had previously extracted the Anoplotherium of Cuvier. The Dadupur 
museum possesses a fragment " of the lower jaw of a huge new animal : 
the teeth not sufficiently perfect to determine its nature : it is probably 
of some grand new pachydermatous animal, equalling the elephant in 
size." Both the rhinoceros and the camel have characters of indubit- 
able variation from known species. Of both these, notices are now in 
preparation. The acquisition of fossil birds was noticed at the meeting 
of March : Dr. Falconer supposes them to be bones of large Gralla. 
This is, as he says, a fair test of the justice he and his fellow labourers 
are doing to the enquiry : it is not every museum in Europe that has 
fossil birds to shew ! A note this moment received announces the ac- 
quisition of " a superb specimen of gigantic size of an unknown 
Species of crocodile : it forms an intermediate section in the genus be- 
tween the true crocodile or magar, and the leptorynchus or gharidl. 
The muzzle is cylindrical, as in the latter, but greatly shorter ; and the 
teeth are thick and shorter, as in the magar : they protrude in relief 
above the jaw three inches, and are 1 inch and 2 lines in diameter \" 
There is also in Col. Colvin's collection a Saurian head, apparently new. 

I have ventured to alter the numbering of the catalogue, to save 
repetition, by bringing bones of the same animals together, the original 
having been written out by Lieutenant Baker just in the order 
they came to hand. It will be observed, that great pains have been 
taken to unite together with cement specimens which were broken in 
extraction, and in clearing them from matrix* The necessity of the 
latter operation will be acknowledged on perusal of the following ex- 
tract from Colonel Colvin's note to me of the 4th October last. 
" The quantity I found collected here on my return, and what had to be 
brought in proved to be so great, that in the matrix they would have 
loaded a boat ; during the rains, therefore, I employed a number of 
people to clear them, and though a vast number have thus been rejected 
as superfluous, or too mutilated to be useful, still a great deal has been 
packed that might perhaps have well been left behind, had I not feared 
to attempt a selection." The same letter adds : — 

" I have been unfortunate in not meeting with specimens of teeth of 

the Sivatherium, or complete heads of the hog. I had one lower end 

of the radius of what appeared to be the camel, but as a few specimens 

also deemed " camel" had come into the Dadupur museum*, I made 

* Since certified by the discovery of an entire Lead. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] presented to the Asiatic Society's Museum. 131 

over this bone to it with the view of identification, and should the 
farther search prove successful, you will receive specimens of the anima* 
from Lieutenant Bakkr. 

" The clearing away of the matrix, besides rendering the specimens 
less cumbrous for transmission, enabled, I should hardly say us, for it 
was my young friend, here to give names to most of what are now 
sent. The locality of each I found it impossible to particularize, as 
the parties, whom I sent out to collect, ranged about in the lower hills, 
picking up whatever they found, and heaping all together, until they had 
amassed several cart loads ; but the eastern limits of their search were 
the branches of the Sombe t which are about due south of the Cht'tr 
mountain ; and to the west, their search extended to about half way 
between Ndhan and Pinjdr. The only distinction worth noticing is, 
that the hard or brown fossils (those mineralized with hydrated oxide 
of iron) did not come out of the same stratum as the blue and friable 
(calcareous) ones ; the latter being from the west of Ndhan. You 
will perceive the difference of the matrix on several of the speci- 
mens only partially cleared. I have never had leisure to visit the 
sites myself, and would therefore add nothing on this subject until £ 
shall have enjoyed the opportunity of a personal inspection." 

The Society will doubtless be eager to do every honor to the munifi- 
cent donor of these splendid fossils, if it has any real wish to acquire the 
reputation of possessing a valuable museum. The foundation of our 
fossil collection was but laid four years ago, and already through the 
contributions of Colonel Burns y, Dr. Spilsburt, Captain Smith, 
Mr. Dean, &c. now enriched by Col. Colvin's vast store of speci- 
mens, it has become necessary to devote an entire apartment to this 
instructive department of natural history. Our smallest return of 
gratitude to those who have been at such considerable expence in pro- 
moting the Society's interests, will be to do honor to what has been so 
generously bestowed, by making up fit cabinets to exhibit them to the 
best advantage, and by spreading the knowledge of them as expedi- 
tiously and widely as possible. 

J. P. Sec. 
Catalogue of Colonel Colvins Fossil Bones. 
Mastodon Elephantoides. 

1 Upper jaw, very perfect. 

2 — — -, fragment. 

5-6 Lower jaw, part of the right half. 

7 h , ditto left half. 

8 Symphysis of ditto, (or of elephant.) 
11 to 26 Fragments of molars, of both jaws. 

31 Axis of a large mastodon ( ?) very perfect. 

32 Cubitus, upper extremity, with olecranon. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 82 Catalogue of a Second Collection of Fossil Bones [March, 

Mastodon Latidins, identified with Elephantoides^FAL* 
36 Lower jaw, right half. 

41 Upper jaw, right half. 
42 to 47 Lower jaws, left half, and fragments. 

48—49 , right half. 

50 », left half of a younger animal. 

51 — 56 Molars, fragments of. 

57 59 , of smaller animals. 

60 Upper jaw of a small animal, much mutilated* 
61 to 80 Tusks, fragments of various sizes. 
81 Femur, upper and (? mastodon). 

82 — 87 , lower end. 

88 — 91 Humerus, upper end. 
92— 95 , lower end. 

96 Cubitus, upper extremity. 

97 Tibia, perfect specimen. 
98 — 101 , upper extremities. 

102 — 104 Calcaneum. 

105 Axis, of very large size. 


111 Cranium. 

112 Upper half of the head, very perfect in bone* 
114 — 117 Upper jaw, perfect, and fragments. 

119 — 123 Lower jaw, in various preservation. 

124 Fragment of ditto, with two central incisors. 
125—126 Condyles of ditto. 
127 — 129 Fragments of molar teeth. 

130 135 Canine teeth, fragments of upper. 

136 , of lower jaw. 

140 Pelvis, fragment of the. 

141 — 143 Femur, lower extremity. 

144 Cubitus, upper extremity, with olecranum. 

150 Upper jaw, fragment. 
151 — 153 Lower jaw, fragments much mutilated. 

154 Teeth, three fragments of molars. 

155 Axis, doubtful. 

156—8 Scapula, three fragments, doubtful. 
159 — 163 Humerus, upper extremity. 

1 64 , lower extremity. 

165 Cubitus, upper end. 
166—169 Femur. 

170 Radius. 

171 Tibia, with tarsal and metatarsal bones attached* 
172—175 , fragments. 

176 — 180 Metatarsal entire. 
177 — 179 Metacarpus. 

180 Calcaneum, perfect. 

181 Astragalus, perfect. 


182 Right jaw of some animal of this genus. 

Bones of Pachydermatous animals not classified4 

185 Lower jaw of a smull animal. 

186 Molar teeth, mueh mutilated. 

187 — 210 Vertebras, cervical; 191, process of dorsal, 192* 

212 A very large specimen of do. 
213—219 Humerus, fragments of lower extremity. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] presented to the Asiatic Society's Museum. 183 

220 Femur, upper extremity ot 
221—223 Condyle of do. 
224—229 Tibia. 

230 — 232 Radius, lower extremity. 
233 — 235 Carpus and tarsus . 

236 Metacarpus, small. 
237—238 Metatarsus. 
239—246 Phalanges. 
247—248 Astragalus. 
249—250 Omoplate ; socket of do. 251—253. 

251 Pelvis; socket of do. 252. 

260 Upper jaw, attached to the humerus of a rhinoceros, flee. 
261—264 Molar teeth. 

265 Atlas ? 

266 Femur, lower extremity. 

267 Radius, ditto. 

268 Cannon bone. 

269 Astragalus. 
270—271 Phalanges. 

280 Head of some species of ox. 
282 Left up pei jaw, fragment of. 
283—289 Lower jaw, fragments. 
290—293 Molar teeth. 
294—295 Femur, upper extremity. 
296—297 Horn, fragments. 

300 Head and horns, portion of the. 

301 Occiput. 
302—303 Upper j«w. 

304 Lower jaw, or of a small deer ? 
305—306 Posterior part of head, (or of a deer?) 


310 Upper jaw, molars enveloped in matrix. 

311 Ditto of Fmaller animal. 

312 Lower jaw, with metatarsal attached— alone 313, 314. 
3 \ 6 Left lower jaw of young animal with milch teeth. 

317 Posterior mohr of large deer : smaller 318. 

318 Germ tooth (?) 

319 — 321 Antlers, fragments of. 

Hones of various Ruminants, unidentified. 

325—326 Cranium with occiput. 

327 Lower jaw, back part, large animal. 
328—344 Molars of a large animal, 345. 
345 — 35S Cervical vertebrae, small : three connected, 359. 

v b , of a gigantic rumiuant. (? Sivatherium.} 

361—364 Dorsal vertebras. 

365 Lumbar vertebrae. 
366—367 Sacral vertebrae. 
368 — 372 Very large vertebrae. 

373 Axis. 
374—375 Atlas, large, one broken. 
37 C — 37'» Scapula, glenoid cavity of, 380. 
3ri0— 383 Humerus, upper extremity. 

384—406 , lower extremity. 

407—4^9 Femur, fragments. 
410 — 129 Tibia. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

184 Notice of a Visit to the Valley of Kashmir. [March. 

430—439 Radios, upper extremity. 
440 — 449 , lower extremity. 

450 , with carpal and part of metacarpal. 

451 1 perfect, with part of ulna, fragment!, 452. 

4o3 Calitus. 

454 — 466 Carpal and tarsal bones. 
467—527 Metacarpal and metatarsal bones. 
528—537 Astragalus. 
538 — 551 Calcaneum, rery large. 
552—562 Phalanges. 

563 Ribs, fragment of. 


600 Upper jaw, in good preservation. 

601 Canine and 1st molar of do. 

602 Lower jaw, entire, and fragment, 603, 

604 Cranium. 

605 Three molars of some canine animal. 

606 Metatarsal bones of some carnivorous animal. 


700— 717 Vertebra? of Saurian reptiles. 

718 Crauium of Gharial. 
719 — 724 Hates of crocodilidss. 

Besides about 1 20 fragments not identified, received with the second 
dispatch; the whole of the first donation unregistered, and some 
gigantic testudinous plates, presented by Col. Colvin personally while 
in Calcutta. 

Gigantic Elk, (presented by Mr. Conductor W. Dawb,) found in 
the Ganawer Khdl, near the Haripdl branch of the Sombe river. 
D 3 4 Portions of tlie antler. 
D 5 Axis of second cervical vertebra. 

D 6 Cervical vertebra of do. 

Buffalo ? presented by the same. 
D 1 Head of bos or buffalo with one born. 
D 2 Piece of born, supposed to belong to the same. 

V.— Notice of a Visit to the Valley of Kashmir in 1836. By the Baton 

[Read on the 6th April.} 
On my way to Bombay to embark for Europe, I take the liberty of 
addressing you a few lines, requesting your doing with them what you 
think best : they relate to my journey to Kashmir. I was in hopes 
of being able to send you a more elaborate memoir, but my time is 
very much limited, that I am afraid of postponement, and hasten rather 
to offer you a few notes as they were collected. I understand that 
Mr. Jacquemont's travels are now published. I think therefore that 
it may be of some interest to the Indian reading public, to have before 
it some observations, not influenced by the above mentioned work, 
made by a traveller a few years later, to compare them together. As 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 836.] Notice of a Visit to the Valley of Kashmir. 1 85 

before a regular publication of my residence in 1 835 can be made in 
Europe and reach India, that of Mr. Jacquemont will have lost much 
of its interest as a new topic, I do not hesitate to come forward with 
my notes in their original form, how unfavourable to them it may be. 

Kashmir in a political and financial point of view, has been much over- 
rated : not in a picturesque one. The valley in its length, from N. W. 
by W. to S. E. by E. is little more than 80 miles long ; the breadth 
crossing the former line, varying from 30 miles to 6. I speak of the 
actual plains : from the eternal snow of the Pir Panj£hl to the Tibet 
Panjihl are 50 to 60 miles : both ranges run nearly parallel in the 
first direction, with a great number of peaks. The height of the passes 
from Bimbar to Kashmir, and that from Kashmir to Iscardo is the 
same, 13,000 feet; the highest point of the Pir Panjahl, 15,000 feet 
by the boiling point. The city of Kashmir 6,300 feet* ; Kashmir 
town, Dalawer Khan Bagh on the 19th November, gave meridional 
altitude 72° 4', artificial horizon, which shews its northern latitude to be 
34° 35'. 

Population, — Four years ago about 800,000 ; now not exceeding 
200,000. The valley is divided in 36 perganahs, containing ten towns 
and 2,200 villages. Kashmir town contains still 40,000 inhabitants ; 
Chupinian, 3000 ; Islamabad and Pampur, 2000. It was not the bad 
administration of the Sikhs, but a famine brought on by frost at the 
time the rice was in flower, and cholera in consequence of it, that re- 
duced the population to one fourth of the former number by death and 
emigration : many villages are entirely deserted. Chirar town con- 
tains now 2000 houses and only 150 inhabitants ! 

Revenue. — Last year very nearly nothing, Ranji't Singh wishing 
that the country should recover : this year (1836) he asks 23 lakhs from 
the Governor "Mohan Singh, which the country cannot give. The 
emigration has brought to the Panj&b and Hindustan many shawl 
manufacturers, and Kashmir will most likely never yield again what it 
did a few years ago. Nurpur, Lodiana, and many other places can 
bring to the market shawls cheaper than Kashmir, where every article 
of food is dearer than in the Panjab and Hindustan. 

Twelve passes, Pansahl in the Kashmir language (from which Pir 
Panjhil of the Musalmans) now exist ; three to Tibet (Iscardo and 
Ladak) ; eight to the Panj£b ; one to the west. In former times 
there were only seven : the defence of which was entrusted to Malliks 
with hereditary appointments : four passes are open the whole year : 
one to Lad&k, the western pass, (Baramulla,) and two to the south. 

• Three thermometers brought it very near to the tame height. 
2 b 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 

1 86 Notice of a Visit to the Valley of Kashmir* [Marc* , 

Wilier lake is 30 miles from E. to W. 

Brahmans, the only Hindus in Kashmir, 25,000 in 2000 families ; 
they are Vishnuvaites and Sivaitea, divided into three divisions, who all 
intermarry : they are darker than the other inhabitants, owing to a 
colony sent for from the Dekhan about 800 years ago, after the abo- 
riginal Brahman race was nearly extinguished by the persecution of 
the Muhammedans. 

There is not in the valley the slightest appearance of its having 
been drained : the pass through which the Jhelum found its way is 
one of the most beautiful of the world : its bed 1000 — 1500 feet deep : 
I do not believe more in the traditions of the Kashmirian Brahmans 
than in the fables of Manethon. 

All the remaining temples are Bauddha, of a different shape from any 
I have ever seen ; only one small one reminds me of the caves of EUora : 
I have observed no Dagoba. Koran Pandan, near Islamabad, Anatnagh of 
old, is not only the largest ruin of Kashmir, but one of the splendid ruins 
of the world : — noble proportions ; — material black marble. I was nearly 
led into first thinking its form Grecian. The building had nothing 
on a closer examination which could justify such a hypothesis. Very 
few temples remain in Kashmir in tolerable preservation, having mostly 
been destroyed by a fanatic Musalman*, whose zeal did not succeed in 
Overturning them all. 

The only trace of fossil remains in the valley is in a limestone, which 
contains small shells. 

Nature has done much for Kashmir, art more ; the whole valley is 
like a nobleman's park : the villages, being surrounded with fruit trees, 
and having in their centre immense plane and poplar trees, form large 
masses, having between them one sheet of cultivation, through which 
the noble river winds itself in elegant sweeps. 

The botany of Kashmir is not rich, and is very nearly allied to that 
of the Himalaya, between Massuri and Simlah : in the valley itself not 
a plant is to be seen of indigenous origin : the northern declivity of the 
mountains is rich in vegetation, the southern steep and barren. The 
Chunar is the Platanus Orientalis, which so far from being a native of 
Kashmir does there produce no germinating seeds, and is multiplied by 
cuttings, which, since the Moghul Emperor, have not been kept up. It 
is a very extraordinary phenomena to witness the Nilumbium speciosum 
growing where the orange tree is destroyed by frost. Misri yaleh is not 
a native of Kashmir. 

I made a remark on the Pir Panjhil, which I afterwards had occa- 
sion to observe several times, and which is new to me : that the free** 
• Sikandar, Bhtttobikan, A. D. 1396. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 836.] Notice qf a Visit to theValley of Kashmfr. 1 87 

ing point on the thermometer advances at great elevations in a similar 
proportion as the boiling point retrocedes : thus the water boiling for 
instance with 191, the sun with 44 degrees Fahr., did not make any 
impression upon a piece of ice lying on a black toil, the latter not 
being moistened*. This must be the case, although I do not recollect to 
have seen it mentioned : on a certain height above the surface of the 
globe, the freezing point and the boiling point must meetf, heat and 
cold being phenomena belonging exclusively^) our globe. My ob- 
servations led me to believe, that this may be at 84,100 feet above the 
surface of the sea, or in other words that there finishes our atmosphere. 
The burning gases at Jwalamuki are of a very extraordinary nature, 
nothing of sulphur or naphtha in them. They have a most delicious smell, 
something like a French perfume with ambergris. The flames, about 10 
in number, come out of a dark grey sandstone on perpendicular places : 
temples are built over them : I attributed the effect to priestcraft, until in 
one of the temples called Ghurka Debi, I was allowed to try experiments, 
and remained alone : I blew out the flame, which did not re-ignite from 
itself : there is nothing particular on the places where the flame came 
out : no change in the colour or substance of the stone, or in its hard- 
ness. Water in small quantity is formed in little reservoirs under the 
flames, being the produce of them : this water takes fire too from time 
to time, when enough inflammable matter is collected on the surface. I 
took a bottle of it for you, which Captain Wade will be so kind as to 
forward to you for examination J ; it has however now undergone a ter- 
rible alteration by putrefaction, and T am afraid that you will not be able 
to analyse it. The taste of it when fresh can distinguish nothing of 
its composition : it is not unpleasant to drink, and of a milky-greenish 
colour. No traces of volcanic matter near it. 

I have picked up many coins, which appear to me new ; of some I am 
certain : those of the Kashmirian kings, of the Bauddha time, found near 
the town Bij Bahara (no doubt a corruption of Vidya vihara, temple of 
Wisdom, if my Sanscrit does not forsake me) : I intended sending them 
to you, but they found their way in one of my tin boxes : I cannot guess 
in which, and for this reason do not open them : whenever I come to 
them I shall send you them, or their exact likeness. 

* The explanation of this circumstance should rather be sought in the dryness 
of the air at such an elevation ; and the consequent rapid evaporation which carried 
off the ice as it melted — ice -itself will, it is well known, wholly evaporate in a 
vacuum. — Ed. 

t By Dalton's tables, the squeous tension of freezing water is 0.20 inch ; there- 
fore water will boil and freete together at a height of 130560 feet, or about 25 
miles. — En. 

% This had not yet reached us : nor the coins, which we desire much to see. — En. 
2 b 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

188 Note on an Inscription at Bamyan. [March, 

VI. — Note on an Inscription at Bamydn. By Mr. C. Masson. 
[Read at the Meeting of the 6th April.] 

Of the antiquities of Central Asia, the Idols at Bamyan have long 
been known and celebrated in Europe. To ascertain their character 
is still a desideratum. An inscription found in so fortunate a situ- 
ation, as at the summit of the niche in which stands the larger, and by 
inference, the more ancient of the idols directly over its head, will, if 
capable of being internjeted, dispel much of the mystery attaching to 
it and its associates. It contains but six characters as here exhibited*, 
appears to be entire, and although the copy of it was taken four years 
since, I think its fidelity may be depended upon. 

When in possession of Mr. Prinsbp's plates of the Pehlevi Alpha- 
bets, this inscription was compared with them, and its characters 
appeared to me to approach nearest to those of the Pehlevi of Sassa- 
nian coins from Marsden. Observing the apparent recurrence of the 
two first letters, and concluding that the alternated characters must 
be consonants and vowels, of the latter of which A was the more 
likely to be used as the more common, I sought its equivalent in the 
Pehlevi alphabet noted, and found it might be expressed by u. Marking 
also the number of the characters of the inscription, in union with the 
duplication seemingly of A or U , the word NANAIA occurred to my 
imagination, and attempting to write it in the Pehlevi of the alphabet, 
I produced 

The first five letters were so similar to those of the inscription, 
that I judged I might without imputation of temerity bring the 
circumstance to notice ; and as for the final letter, if we are pretty sure 
of all the preceding ones, we may reasonably be satisfied with that also. 
The a of the alphabet, or p has indeed a ?, or doubt, attached to it, 
while the final letter of the inscription resembles the A or a of other 

The idols of Bamyan, perhaps less ancient than many of the caves 
or temples there, have not an antiquity beyond the reach of verification, 
and while we pause whether or not to ascribe them to the princes we 
call Indo-Scythic, we dare affirm that they were constructed during the 
period of the Sassanian sway in Persia, or 220 A. D., and the era of 
Muhammedanism . 

Kdbul 1836. C. Masson. 

• Sec Plate VI. fig. 1; we confess the similitude of the marks, which Mr. 
Masson tikes for letters, to the Pehlevi alphabet is but just sufficient to hazard 
a conjecture upon. Nanaia, a female, would not be applicable to a male figure : 
— Nanao or Yanano (lunus) would be more consonant with the Plhlevi, an4 
even with the form of the supposed letters. — Ed. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Asiatic Society. 189 

VII. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 
Wednesday Evening, the 6th April, 1836. 

G J. Gordon, Esq. Senior Member present, in the chair. 

Lieut.-Col. Caulfield, was proposed as a Member of the Society by 
Mr. James Prinsep, seconded by Mr. Piddington. 

Mr. J. S. Stoppord requested that his name might be withdrawn from 
the Society. Mr. Stopford had deposited 80 Rupees with the Secretary, to 
cover the cost of four volumes unfortunately lost by the wreck of his pin- 
nace, until they shall be replaced from England. 

Read letters from Lieut. A. Cunningham, Engrs., and Raja Vuaya- 
Govinda Singha, acknowledging their election as Members. 

Also, from Professor T. Rosen, acknowledging his election as an Honor, 
ary Member. 

A private letter from M. Eug. Burnouf, Secretary to the Asiatic Soci. 
ety of Paris, noted the arrival of the 100 vols, of the Tibetan Kahgyur, 
and of the other dispatches sent by General Allard. 

Read letters from the Secretaries to the British Museum, and the 
Royal Asiatic Society, returning thanks for the Tibetan Dictionary and 
other works. 

Extract of a letter from Professor Wilson, intimated the distribution 
of the Tibetan works sent home for the various continental learned socie- 
ties. It also reported that a portion of the Moororort papers had been 
finally placed with Murray and Co., for commencement of publication. 

Professor Wilson estimates that the whole will occupy, when re-written, and 
shorn of repetitions and redundancies, two octavo volumes. The terms agreed 
upon are, that 50 copies are to be at the Society's disposition. Any final loss on 
the publication to be made good by the Society : and the relations of the author 
to participate in any success. 

Read a letter from M. Csoma db Koros, saying that although the fao 
simile from Iskardo, taken by Mr. Vigne, was evidently Tibetan, it was 
in too imperfect a condition to be decyphered. 


The following books were presented to the Society : 

A copy of the Appendix of the third volume of the Transactions of the Royal 
Asiatic Society — by the Society. 

The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, No. 4 — by the Society. 

A children's map of the world in Bengali— by Raja Kdlikriehna. 

A daily register of the tide in the harbour of Singapur, from 1st Sept. 1834, 
to 31st Aug. 1835—Ay the Government. 

Meteorological Register for the months of January and February, 1836 — by 
the Surveyor General. 

The Indian Journal of Medical Science — by the Editor. 

The following received from the book-sellers : — 

The Political and Statistical History of Guzer&t, translated from the Persian 
by Jambs Bird, Esq., and published by the Oriental Translation Fund. 

Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopedia — Literary Men, vol. 2nd. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

190 Asiatic Society. [March, 

The following letter from the Minister of Public Instruction in France, 
addressed to the President, was read : 

" Pari*, le 24 Juillet, 1835. 

" Monsieur lc President, La Soctete* Asiatique dc Calcutta, en mettant a la 
disposition de feu M. Victor Jacquemont, tous lei matlriaux scientifiques 
qu'elle possldait, lui a donne* lea moyens de raaaembler dea documena d*un haut 
interet aur lea Indes Orientalts. 

En t^moignage dea services rendua a notre compatriote, je vous prie, Mon- 
aieur le President, de vouloir bien faire agrler a la Socilte* de Calcutta un ex. 
emplaire de I'ouvrage qui ae publie en son nom, par lea aoins de sa famille et 
aous les auspices du Gouvernement Fran9ais. 

Je tiens a votre disposition, Monsieur le President, les livraisons qui ont 
deja paru : Vous pourrez les faire retirer du Depot des Livres de Souscription au 
Ministere de l'Instruction publiquepar tel moyen que vous jugerei convenable. 

Agerdz, Monsieur le President, l'assurance de ma haute consideration. 

Le Miniatre de l'Instruction publique, 


Resolved, that the President be requested to return thanks for this 
mark of consideration in the French Government, and that the Secretary 
take immediate steps to obtain possession of the work in question. 

The Secretary announced the transfer and deposit in the Society's 
room* of the Sanscrit, Persian, Arabic, and Hindui Manuscripts from the 
College of Fort William. 

The number of the Sanscrit work sis 1 130 volumes : of the Arabic and Persian 2676 
volumes. A catalogue raitonnte of the whole had long since been prepared by 
the College officers, of which the meeting resolved it should be recommended 
to the Committee of Papers to undertake the immediate publication, adding to 
it such other original work.-* a* the Society might possess on its own shelves. 

The Secretary apprized the Meeting of the completion of the 2nd volume 

of the Mahabharatu, copies of which were ready for distribution to the 


Museum of Antiquities. 

Read a Note on an Inscription at Bamyan, by M. C. Masson. 
[Printed in the present number.] 

The two Buddhist Images, with Deva-nagari incriptions, mentioned in a 
Jetter from Colonel H. Burnby, Resident at Ava, read at the last Meet- 
ing, were received, and a paper was read on Tagoung, the place of their 
discovery, an aucient capital of the Burmese empire. 
[Printed in the present number.] 

A drawing of the full size of the sculptured impression of Gautama's 
foot in Ava, was presented by Ensign Pbaybb, with a description of the 
contents of the several compartments. 

The image brought to the notice of the Society by Lieutenant Kittob, 
in January 1835, sought ont by Mr. Dean and transmitted for the Mu- 
seum, had arrived with Col. Colyin's dispatch. 

This image does not seem to possess any characteristic difference from the 
ordinary sculpture of the Hindus, as had been imagined. The dress and attitude 
are of common occurrence ; the feet rest on the lotus plant. The head has been 
struck off, doubtless in the period of the earlier Muhammedan incursions. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Asiatic Society. 191 

Specimens of spears and other warlike instruments from New Zealand 
were presented by C. K. Robison, Esq. 

The Secretary announced the arrival of the second dispatch of Colonel 
Colvin'8 donation of Sub-Himalayan fossils, which were placed in the 
Museum, and lighted up for inspection of the Members present. 

Hie catalogue of this splendid collection, drawn up by Lieut*. Durand and 
Baku, is printed in tbe present number. The meeting resolved that the spe- 
cial thanks of the Society should be presented to Colonel Colvin, and that 
suitable cabinets should be constructed for containing and preserving his donation. 
With the foregoing were received the remains of the fossil Elk and 
fossil Buffalo, presented by Couductor Da we, and alluded to in his letter 
read at the Meeting of the 6th May 1835. 

The cervical vertebra and portion of antler were depicted in the 44th plate of 
vol. iv. The Bovine head, a very fine specimen, and materially different from Dr. 
Spilsbury's from Narsinhpur, will be published shortly. 
The following acquisitions to the museum of natural history were made : 
A live specimen of Histri* Cristata, common Porcupine, presented by 
Mr. James Pbinsbp, to whom it was given by Mr. Stephknson, who 
found it in the Bakra mound in Tirhut. 

A specimen of Cercocobu* Sabaus, presented by C. C. Eobrton, Esq. 
Specimen* of the skulls and horns of Cervus Muntjak, AnWope Cervi- 
capra, Antilope Chikara, Antilope Vluir, and Capra JemtaMca, horns of 
the Antilope Hodgeonii, and Cervu* Arutotetie, the skull of a species of 
Sciuropterus, and the head and bills of Buoeroe Malabaricut and Platalea 
Leucorodia, presented by Lieutenant Vioary. 

A specimen of Cerinaceus Auritus, and one of the Nilgherri Wood, 
cock, presented by W. H. Smoult, Esq. 

Specimens of Pitta Brachyurus, Picue Tiga (?) and Pterodes Qua- 
dricinctus, presented by Lieutenant Vicar y. 

[The Picui Tiga, figured in Hardwickk and Gray, and described by Horsk- 
field, Linn. Trans, vol. ziii. snd Latham, Gen. Hist. vol. iii., has only 
three toes ; but both the figure and descriptions agree so exactly in all other 
respects, with the present specimen, which hss four, that I have little hesitation 
in referring them to the same bird. J. T. P. Cur.] 

A specimen of Stria Flammea; presented by P. Homfray, Esq. 
Specimens of the nest of Hirundo Eeculenta, the Esculent 8wallow, in 
several stages of preparation, by Ensign A. P. Phayrr. 

Seeds of the Cane tree, from the Straights, presented by Dr. Vos. 
Mr. Hodgson transmitted an account of a new genus of Carnivora, to 
which he proposes to assign the name of Urtxtaxus. The skull of the animal 
was intrusted by him to the Secretary for the inspection of Members. 
[This paper will appear in tbe Physical Researches.] 
On the motion of the Secretary, it was resolved, that the Right 
Honorable Lord Auckland be solicited to accept the office of Patron of 
the Society ; and that the President be requested to communicate with 
His Lordship on the subject. 

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No. 52.— April, 1836. 

I. — Account of the Mountain Tribes on the Extreme N. E. Frontier of 
Bengal. By J. McCosh, Civil Assistant Surgeon, Godlpdra. 
[Read at the meeting of the 4th Nov. 1835] 

Hie following pages have been compiled from original manuscripts 
lately put into my bands by Captain Jenkins, Agent to tbe Governor 
General on the N. £. Frontier, with kind permission to make what use 
of them I thought proper. Some of these letters were written from his 
own personal observation; others by Major White, Political Agent for 
Assam ; as also by Mr. Brucb, commanding the Gun Boats at Sud- 
dia, so that the information contained in this digest may be relied 
upon. From the lively interest lately taken in the regions hereafter 
described, on account of tea growing there indigenously, and the 
probability of their speedily assuming an important aspect in the 
statistics' of India, any facts concerning such districts will, I hope, 
prove not uninteresting to the public. 

Few nations bordering upon the British dominions in India are 
less generally known than those inhabiting the extreme N. E. Fron- 
tier of Bengal ; and yet, in a commercial, a statistical, or a political point 
of view, no country is more important. There our territory of Assam 
is situated in almost immediate contact with the empires of China and 
Ava, being separated from each by a narrow belt of mountainous country, 
possessed by barbarous tribes of independent savages, and capable of 
being crossed over in the present state of communication in 10 or 12 
days. From this mountain range, navigable branches of the great rivers 
of Nankin, of Cambodia, of Martaban, of Ava, and of Assam derive their 
2 c 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

194 Account of the Mountain Tribes [April, 

origin, and appear designed by nature as the great highways of commerce 
between the nations of Ultra Gangetic Asia. In that quarter, our for- 
midable neighbours, the Burmese, have been accustomed to make their 
inroad into Assam ; there, in the event of hostilities, they are certain 
to attempt it again ; and there, in case of its ever becoming necessary 
to take vengeance on the Chinese, an armed force embarking on the 
Brahmaputra could be speedily marched across the intervening country 
to the banks of the greatest river of China, which would conduct them 
through the very centre of the celestial empire to the ocean. 

This beautiful tract of country, though thinly populated by strag- 
gling hordes of slowly procreating barbarians, and allowed to lie 
profitless in primeval jungle, or run to waste with luxuriance of vege- 
tation, enjoys all the qualities requisite for rendering it one of the 
finest in the world. Its climate is cold, healthy, and congenial to 
European constitutions ; its numerous crystal streams abound in gold 
dust, and masses of the solid metal : its mountains are pregnant with 
precious stones and silver ; its atmosphere is perfumed with tea 
growing wild and luxuriantly ; and its soil is so well adapted to aU 
kinds of agricultural purposes, that it might be converted into one 
continued garden of silk, and cotton, and coffee, and sugar, and tea, 
over an extent of many thousand miles. 

This valuable tract of country is inhabited by various races, several 
of which have acknowledged our authority, some that of the Burmese, 
and others that of China ; but a considerable number have sworn 
allegiance to no power ; and maintain their independence. Of these 
tribes the most considerable are the Miris, Abors, Mishmls, Kang- 
tis, Bor-Kangtis, Singphos, Muamarias, and Nagas. 

The Miris occupy that stripe of alluvial land along the northern 
bank of the Brahmaputra, from the large island Majuli (the extreme 
boundary of the present Rajah of Assam), to the river Dihong the 
northern branch of the Brahmaputra ; and are bounded on the north 
by the hill country of the Abors. Till of late years, this district was 
deserted on account of the ravages of the Abors ; but on our afford- 
ing them protection, the original inhabitants have returned. The land 
is still very thinly populated, and the only cultivation is along the 
banks of the great river. Their head village is Motgaon. The 
manners and habits of the Miris are wild and barbarous, their per- 
sons filthy and squalid ; they use a language different from the Assa- 
mese, and make use of bows and poisoned arrows as a defence against 
their enemies. They are expert marksmen ; and the poison used is so 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 836.] on the extreme N. E. Frontier of Bengal. 195 

fatal, that even a scratch of their arrow is followed with certain death. 
They eat all sorts of wild animals, not excepting those killed by their 
own poisonous arrows. 

The Miris are an industrious race, and partial to living in the 
skirts of the forests, clearing new ground, which they cultivate for a 
year or two, and then move off to another place, when the soil is 
exhausted. A great deal of opium is grown by the Miris, which 
they barter for grain with the Assamese. 

Abors and Mishmis. 

These tribes inhabit an extensive range of mountainous country along 
the southern exposure of the great Himalaya chain, from the 94th to 
the 97th degrees of £. longitude, and border with Thibet and China. 
It is difficult to form a conception of the extent of these tribes, but 
they are not to be despised ; for during the insurrection of the Muaml- 
rias, no less than 17,000 Abors joined to drive that tribe out of 
Assam. It is probable that at no ancient period these two tribes were 
unconnected, but the Mishmis are now considered by the Abors as 
dependent upon them, and treated as slaves. Besides the Mishmis 
here mentioned as subservient to the Abors, * there are several other 
tribes of them; such as Muzu-Mishmis and Taen-Mishmfs, inha- 
biting the extreme branches of the Lohit or eastern channel of the 
Brahmaputra, who are probably independent. These tribes possess 
one of the lowest grades of civilization ; they occupy numerous vil- 
lages along the precipitous shores of the two great northern branches 
of the Brahmaputra, the Dihong or Sampo, and the Dibong. Their 
houses are so constructed, that the perpendicular side of the rock 
forms one wall : the floor is made of bambus, with one side support- 
ed on the rock, and the other on beams driven into the ground. The 
space underneath is inhabited by the cattle, and the interstices in the 
floor afford the double advantage of showering down all the offal to 
the herd below, and preventing the accumulation of filth and nastiness. 

Hospitality. — Though the snows of their mountain home have 
narrowed their means of subsistence, and limited their intercourse to their 
immediate neighbours, yet they are a hospitable and even a social race ; 
and a constant round of festivity is kept up from one end of the year 
to the other. Each chieftain kills the fatted bullock in turn ; all his 
associates are invited to partake of the good cheer : the host is in his 
turn a guest at the next feast ; and thus a reciprocity of entertain- 
ment is insured. Nor are these hospitable rites allowed to be forgot- 
ten ; the scull of every animal that has graced the board, is hung up 
as a record in the hall of the entertainer ; he who ha3 the best stocked 
2 c 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

196 Account of the Mountain Tribes [April, 

Golgotha, is looked upon as the man of the greatest wealth and libe- 
rality ; and when he dies, the whole smoke-dried collection of many 
years is piled upon his grave as a monument of his riches, and a 
memorial of his worth. 

Migration. — These people, accustomed to a temperature at and about 
the freezing point, seem to dread an exposure to the heat of the low 
countries during the summer, and make their descent to their markets 
at Suddia only in the cold weather, and take their departure to their 
snows as soon as the Simula tree puts forth its blossoms. 

Trade. — They bring along with them a few bags of musk, and 
musk-deer skins ; some ivory ; a few copper pots, which they obtain 
from the same country ; and a considerable quantity of a vegetable 
poison called Bis-Bisd, used in poisoning arrows. These they exchange 
for glass beads, of which they are very fond, and cattle, for the purpose 
of eating. The musk is for the most part adulterated ; a portion of 
the genuine musk being abstracted to make into artificial bags, and its 
place filled up with dried blood. 

Poison. — The poison is of a very superior quality, and is in great 
request by all the neighbouring nations for destroying wild animals. 
It is contained in a small fibrous root, which they tie up into little 
bundles. It is prepared by pounding the root to powder, and mixing 
it up with the juice of the Otenga tree, to give it tenacity, and make it 
adhere to the arrow head. They keep the plant a great secret, and 
take the effectual precaution of boiling it before leaving their homes, 
so as to destroy all possibility of its being propagated. 

Road to Thibet. — The route to Thibet, adopted by pilgrims, leads 
through the Abor country, along the course of the Dihong or Sampu, 
and is accomplished in sixteen days from Suddia. The route, as 
mentioned by Mr. Bruce, is as follows : 

From Saddia to Kaj-jin, five days' journey ; thence to Lak-qui, one 
day ; Gha-lum, one day ; Ma-ma-nu, one day ; Build, one day ; Omono, 
one day ; Hulli, one day; Sum-lay, one day; Han-nay, one day ; Kum- 
day, one day; R(-shdh, one day; Bhd-lu, one day. Bhdlu is the frontier 
town of Thibet. About four days' journey beyond it stands the city of 
Ro-shx-mdh, containing fine buildings, and a large civilized population, 
and a government purely Chinese. 

The Grand Lama himself, and all head officers throughout Thibet, 
are appointed by the Emperor of China, and receive allowances from 
the Chinese government. The chief of Suddia seems to have consi- 
derable influence with the Thibetans, and the intermediate hill tribes. 
Almost all pilgrims apply to him for a passport, and he is in the habit 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 836.] on the extreme N. E. Frontier of Bengal. 197 

of sending an escort with them as far as Ma-ma-nu, whence they are 
passed along from one tribe to another till they arrive in the country 
of the Grand Lama. There is another route into Thibet via Brahma- 
kund, through the country of the Mishmis ; but it is at all seasons of the 
year covered with snow. There is but little trade now carried on 
with Thibet, and that little is chiefly effected by pilgrims. The few 
things imported are smoking pipes of Chinese manufacture, woollens, 
and rock salt. In exchange for these they give musk, ivory, and 
Eisd poison. Assamese captives at one time formed a considerable 
trade; but since these latter came under the protection of the British, 
that lucrative branch has been exterminated. 

During the flourishing period of the Assam dynasty, we are informed*, 
that the kings of Assam were in the habit of sending presents to 
the Grand Lama, and that a caravan consisting of about 20 people 
annually resorted from Lassa to the Assam frontier, and transacted 
merchandise to a very considerable amount with the Assamese. The 
Thibetans took up their quarters at a place called Chouna, two months 
journey from Lassa : and the Assamese, at Geganshur, a few miles 
distant from it. The trade of the former consisted of silver in bullion 
to nearly a lakh of rupees, and a large quantity of rock salt. This they 
exchanged with the Assamese for rice, silk, lac, and other produce 
of Bengal ; but this trade has for many years been discontinued. 


The Kangtis, the most civilized of all these mountain tribes, inhabit 
that triangular tract of country bounded by the Lohit on the one side, 
by the Dibong on the other, and by the mountainous country belong- 
ing to the Mishmis on the third. They are descended from the Bor- 
Kangtis, a powerful race situated on the sources of the Irawadi. 
About 50 or 60 years ago, they emigrated from their native country, 
and availing themselves of the civil war then raging throughout Assam, 
they took forcible possession of the country they now enjoy, ejected 
the reigning chieftain, the Suddia Cowa Gohaing ; and the Kangti 
chief, usurping his name and jurisdiction, reduced his subjects to 
dependence or slavery. The Kangtis, by a vigorous mode of govern- 
ment, and holding out an asylum to refugees from other states, soon 
rose to eminence. They are now a superior race to all their neigh- 
bours ; they are tall, fair, and handsome, considerably advanced in 
civilization, and are endowed with no small share of military courage. 
Their religion is Buddhism ; but Hinduism is gaining progress. They 
are amongst the few tribes who have a written character, and can 
read and write the Burmese language, and understand it when spoken. 
• Ha mxlton* s Gazetteer. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

198 Account of the Mountain Tribes [April, 

Their own language, though written in a character a good deal re* 
Bembling the Burmese, is quite different, and closely resembles the 
original Ahom. Every boy is taught to read and write it, by the 
priests. Suddia is the capital of the Kangti country, and the chief- 
tain is known by the name of the Suddia Cowa Gohaing, and claims 
descent from the royal family of Assam. 

Suddia is situated on the right bank of the Kunil or Kundil 
nallab, and about six miles above its junction with the Lohit. It is a 
place of some importance, and has a population of about 4000 men, 
exclusive of women and children. Its trade is rapidly increasing ; all 
the necessaries of life are procurable : its exports are gold and silver ; 
amber, musk, and ivory ; Kampti daus, Chinese and Burmese trinkets ; 
fiisa poison, and dye-stufls, caHed Mishmi-tita and manjft. The 
Mishmi-tfta, manjft, and lime, triturated with water, and allowed to 
digest in an earthen pot for a month, makes a beautiful permanent red 
dye. The daus are of a high order, and are so much prized as to bring 
12 Rs. a piece. They are manufactured by a rude wild race, called 
Kunungs, (slaves to the Kangtis,) who are situated on the extreme 
branches of the Irawadi, who can neither read nor write, and are 
little removed above the brutes. 

Suddia station. — The country around Suddia is composed of the 
richest alluvial soil, well adapted for cultivation ; but is generally flat 
and liable to inundation. A large portion of it is waste, and over- 
grown with jungle : it is closely surrounded by the snowy mountains, 
which are only about thirty miles distant ; and the water of the river 
is so cold, that of itself it serves to cool wine for table. 

Force* — Suddia is the most advanced post we possess on the N. E. 
Frontier. Three companies of the Assam Light Infantry are sta- 
tioned there, under the command of a European officer, invested with 
political authority. Two gun-boats are also stationed there, also under 
the command of a European: each boat has one 12-pr. mounted on 
slides, and is well manned and equipped for service : one of the boats 
is manned by Kangtis, who give much satisfaction. There is also a 
small stockade erected, with a few guns mounted. Suddia has hitherto 
preserved a healthy character. It is likely soon to become the head- 
quarters of the Assam Infantry. The Suddia Cowa Gohaing, though 
he pays Government no tribute, acknowledges the Company's supre- 
macy, and is bound to furnish a contingent of 200 men. That con- 
tingent is supplied by arms and ammunition at the expense of Govern- 
ment ; they are drilled by the Subadar of the Assam Light Infantry, 
four months in the year, and the arms, when in want of repair, are 
forwarded to head-quarters at Bishnath. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1336.] on the extreme N. E. Frontier of Bengal. 1 99 

The Suddia Cowa Gohaing is believed to be a firm friend of Chan- 
dra Kant's, the ex-rajah of Assam ; when formerly driven from the 
kingdom, the Suddia Cowa had influence enough at the court of Ava 
to obtain the assistance of the Burmese to restore him to his throne ; 
and now that Chandra Kant is again deposed, he is thought to be 
constantly intriguing to have him again placed on the throne. 

The Bor-Kangtis are a numerous and powerful race, situated amongst 
the mountains whence the Irawadi takes it origin. They are under 
the government of Ava, and supply a contingency to the Burmese 
army. Experienced Burmese officers are constantly traversing their 
country, for the purpose of drilling them, and inspecting their arms and 
ammunition. The capital of the Bor-Kangtis is Manchf, on a remote 
branch of the Irawadi. This place was visited by Lieuts. Wilcox 
and Bu&lton in 1827, by an overland route, cut across the mountains 
from Suddia. The journey occupied about 12 days : they were kindly 
received by the Bor-Kangti chief, who gave them every information 
about the sources of the Irawadi, and convinced them that from the 
smallness of the streams, it was impossible for any of them to afford a 
channel for the waters of the Sampu. The main stream of the Ira- 
wadi is there fordable, and not more than 80 yards broad. 

There is a silver mine in the Bor-Kangti country ; but it has never 
produced more than 8000 rupees a year. It might be turned to much 
more advantage ; but the possessors are afraid of increasing its revenue, 
lest by doing so, they should excite the avarice of their neighbours. 
There are also mines of lead and iron in this country. 
Munglung Kangtis. 
We have lately come into intimate contact with another tribe of 
Kangtis called Munglung: these from dissension amongst themselves, 
and from the oppression of the Burmese, have lately dispatched about 
200 of their tribe to stipulate for settlements in the British dominions, 
and report on the prospect of the country around Suddia. Should 
their report prove favourable, about 5000 more have expressed their 
desire to emigrate. 

By far the most powerful and the most formidable of these hill 
tribes are the Singphos ; they are also the most numerous, and are 
scattered over the greatest extent of country. They are bounded on 
the north by the Lohit river ; on the east by the Langtan mountains, 
which separate them from the Bor-Kangtis ; on the south by the 
Patkoi range, which divides them from the Burmese Singphos, from 
whom they are descended ; and on the west, by a line drawn south 
from Suddia, till it meets the last mentioned mountains. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

200 Account of the Mountain Tribes [Ap*t t, 

The SIngphos are divided into 12 tribes, each having its own chief 
or Gaum ; but every chieftain maintains his own separate independence, 
and seldom unites with any other, unless it be to punish some aspiring 
chief obnoxious to them all, or in making plundering excursions upon 
neighbouring states. The Singphos have for several generations been 
the terror of the wretched and degenerate Assamese, and were in the 
constant habit of making irruptions into their country, sometimes as 
far as their very capital itself ; of plundering their temples, laying 
waste their country, and carrying off the inhabitants into slavery. 
Since the British troops have had possession of Assam, these inroads 
have been prevented ; but as might be expected, they are somewhat 
impatient of that restraint, and have once or twice endeavoured to 
resort to their old habits. 

To give an idea of the extent to which the devastations were carried 
on, the late Captain Nkufvillb, received from the Singphos alone 
upwards of 7000 Assamese captive slaves, and perhaps there are 100,000 
Assamese and Manipuris still in slavery throughout the dominions 
of Ava. 

About five years ago, a body of them amounting to about 3000 men, 
armed with spears, daus, and a few musquets and jinjals, under a 
chief called Wakctm Koonjib, made an advance against the station 
of Suddia, with the confident intention of carying away in chains every 
seapoy present, and of driving the British out of the country. This 
was a plot of three years' concocting ; large stores of grain were accu- 
mulated in convenient dep6ts, and shackles for 10,000 prisoners were 
all in readiness ; but the whole force was shamefully repulsed by the 
then political Agent, Capt. Nbufville, at the head of a handful of men 
of the Assam Infantry, and a few armed Kangti and Muam£ria militia, 
and driven in consternation into their lines. 

The Lubona only of all the 12 chiefs took part in this irruption, and 
he has taken an active hand in the late disturbances, headed by the 
Duffa Gaum. 

All the chiefs have claimed our protection, though no tribute is 
exacted from them ; with one or two exceptions, they have acted up 
to their engagements. 

The Busa Gaum or chief is a man of superior understanding, and 
was entrusted by the late Agent to the Governor General, the lamented 
Mr. Scott, with a good deal of confidence, and had an allowance from 
Government of 50 rs. a month, as an organ of communication with the 
other chiefs, and a spy upon their actions. The late Capt. Nkufvillb 
was also confident in his integrity, and made proposals to him to desert 
his own country, and live on lands to be granted him at Burhath and 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 836.] on the extreme N. E. Frontier of Bengal. 201 

Jaipur, and allow his native hills to become a wilderness, and form a 
natural barrier against the incursions of the other tribes. 

The population of the Busa Gaum is about 9 or 10,000 men, exclu- 
sive of women and children. He furnishes a contingent of about 100 
men, and is supplied with arms and ammunition. 

The most influential of the unfriendly chiefs is the Duffa Gaum. 
Only a few months ago he made a hostile incursion against our ally 
the Busa Gaum, and massacred every man, woman, and child he could 
get near; the Busa Gaum narrowly escaped with mYiife, and some of 
his own family were cat to pieces. After two or three skirmishes, the 
marauders were dislodged, and driven to their hills, by the force at 
Saddia ; but the Duffa, instead of repenting of his atrocious act, and 
retiring to his home to await the consequences, commenced playing 
the despot in another quaVter, threatening every one with his vengeance 
who acknowledged British protection, and even beheaded some who 
refused to conform to his will. By the latest accounts, the state of affairs 
in that district were very troublesome, and the whole of the Assam 
Infantry disposable are already on the move for its protection. 

A feud has for a long time existed between the Busa and the Duffa 
Gaums, and the inroad lately made by the latter admits of some palli- 
ation, as it avenged a similar one formerly made by the Busa Gaum. 

Rude as is the state of society amongst the Singphos, they are not 
without the distinction of caste ; but are divided into Thengafs, My- 
yungs, Lubrungs, and Mirups. 

They have no religion properly their own, but have patched up a 
creed from amongst the superstitions of all their neighbours, and deco- 
rated their rude temples with ruder idols of all religions. 

The Singphos are not a branch of the Shan tribes : tradition traces 
their origin to the confines of China or Thibet: the language is 
entirely different from that of the Shins, and is unwritten. 

Polygamy is patronised, and every man keeps as many wives as he 
chooses, free women or slaves ; and treats the offspring of both with- 
out partiality. Infanticide in all its shapes they abhor. 

It is the custom of the country to bury the dead. Those of the 
poorer classes are interred soon after death ; but the chiefs and prin- 
cipal individuals are sometimes not buried for years. The reason 
alleged for this consummation of the funeral rites, is to allow the 
widely scattered relations of the deceased to have time to attend, who 
would not fail to take deadly offence at their not being allowed an 
opportunity of paying reverence to the ashes of the head of their family. 
Not knowing the art of embalming, the body after death is removed 
to a distance from any habitation, till decomposition is completed. 
2 n 

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202 Account of the Mountain Tribes [April, 

After that it is deposited in a coffin, and conveyed to the house of the 
deceased chief, where it lies in state, surrounded with all the insignia 
the illustrious individual enjoyed when alive. When all the relatives 
have assembled, or communicated their not being able to attend, the 
coffin is committed to the earth, and a mound of clay, surrounded with 
a curious trellis- work of bambus, is raised to his memory. If the 
person has died a violent death, a buffalo is sacrificed as a propitia- 
tion to their deities, and the head is fixed to a cross, and placed near 
the grave ; but if he has died in the course of nature, no sacrifice is 
considered necessary. 

According to the law of inheritance, the patrimony is divided between 
the eldest and the youngest son ; while any children that may inter- 
vene are left to push their own fortunes as they best can. The eldest 
son succeeds to the title and the estate, wnile the younger, carrying 
away all the personal and movable property, goes in quest of a set- 
tlement for himself. 

Tea. — The tea tree grows wild all over the Singpho country, as 
also upon all the hills in that part of the country, and is in gene- 
ral use by the natives as a wholesome beverage. The tea tree, 
according to Mr. Bruce, was known to be indigenous to these climates 
about ten years ago ; and during the Burmese war, large quantities of 
it were sent into Saddia by the Busa Gaum. How long the subject 
might have lain dormant is doubtful, had not the affair been again 
brought to the serious notice of Government, at a time the most favour- 
able for doing so, by the scientific investigations of Capt. Jenkins 
and Lieut. Charlbton of the Assam Infantry, to whom we must 
acknowledge ourselves indebted for a revival of its existence, and for 
the boon it must necessarily confer upon our country*. 

Mr. Bruce has lately been on a tour to the Singphos, and mixed 
in social intercourse with them. He saw many thousands of the trees 
growing in their native soils, and brought away some plants and 
specimens of the leaves and seeds. The trees were of a very consi- 
derable size, so as to merit a higher rate of classification than a plant 
or a shrub : he measured one of the largest, and found it 29 cubits 
long, and about four spans in circumference at the base. 

Mr. Bruce mentions the following as the native process of making 
tea, though he does not seem to have witnessed it. First, the leaves 
are collected from the tree, and put into large boilers containing 
water. As soon as the water boils, the decoction is drawn off, and 

• Thii paper was written before the appointment of the scientific deputation 
to the tea districts, whose report may be now shortly expected.— Ed. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] on the extreme N. E. Frontier of Bengal. 203 

thrown away, and the leaves, being taken out of the boiler, are put 
into a pit dug into the ground, and lined with some sort of leaves, to 
prevent the tea coming in contact with the earth. When the pit is 
filled with tea leaves, it is then spread well over with a thick layer of 
the other leaves, and after all, covered over with eartb, so as to exclude 
all air. In this state it is allowed to remain for two or three months, 
when the pit is opened, and the tea sold on the spot to traders, who 
pack it closely up in the joints of bambus, earthen pots, &c. and 
transport it to other parts of the couutry on mules for sale. He also 
mentions, that many thousand maunds of tea are manufactured at a 
place called Polong, and exported to China. Where Polong is situated, 
I have not been able to determine. 

In addition to the tea tree, the Singpho country has lately been 
discovered to abound in ^aany valuable gums, well adapted for var- 

Burmese Singphos. — The Singphos of Assam are separated from the 
Singphos subservient to the Burmese, by the Patkoi chain of moun- 
tains ; and though these two races are entirely unconnected with one 
another, and independent, yet a constant friendly intercourse is main- 
tained between them. The Burmese Singphos occupy a very exten- 
sive tract of country on both sides of the Irawadi, and from the 
Patkof mountains eastward to the borders of China. 

Trade with China. — As the Chinese carry on a very considerable 
trade with these Singphos, and through the medium of their country 
with Assam, I shall endeavour to mark out particularly the line 
of communication between the two countries. The Chinese pro- 
vince of Yunan being separated from a navigable channel of the 
Irawadi, only by a mountain chain, inhabited by Shans, tributary to 
Burmah, the Chinese merchants, by a short land journey across 
these mountains, convey their merchandise on mules, to a place called 
Catmow, on the banks of that river. There the Irawadi is a large 
stream. The channel is unincumbered with rocks, trees, or sandbanks ; 
the shores are composed of a stiff hard clay, not liable to tumble down, 
and present every facility for navigation. The exact position of 
Catmow seems undefined. The merchants, having loaded their goods 
on boats, easily procurable, commit themselves to the gentle current, 
dropping down with the tide due south, day and night, and on 
the third or fourth day arrive at the mouth of the river called Nam-yang. 
After ascending this river four or five days in a north-west direction, 
they come to a town called Mung-kung, or Mugaum, the chief 
depot of Chinese trade situated at the junction of two smaller rivers, 
the one called Nam-kung, or the Mugaum river, the other, Nam-yang, 
2 d 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

204 Account of the Mountain Tribes [April, 

retaining the name of the united stream. The Mugaum river is navi- 
gable for 40 or 50 miles above the town, and for small canoes, a good 
deal farther, and extends in a northern direction. The Chinese wares 
are transported up this river as far as practicable, and afterwards con- 
veyed overland through Hukung and Busa to Assam. The journey 
from Mung-kung to Assam occupies from 15 to 20 days. 

Route into China, — There are two other routes to China besides the 
one mentioned, the one by a place called Senwa, and the other by 
May-nay, both of which run direct into Burmah, but little more is 
known about them than their name. The intercourse between China 
and Assam by any of these roads is extremely tedious, and can only 
be followed by a trading people, who traffic as they move along, with- 
out regard to time or distance. A knowledge of the extreme naviga- 
ble eastern branches of the Brahmaputra has pointed out a much 
shorter and more convenient pass, and this was travelled by Lieuts. 
Wilcox and Burlton on their visit to the Bor-Kangtis. Following 
up the river Noa Dihing, which flows into the left bank of the Lohit, a 
few miles above Suddia, they were able to proceed by water convey- 
ance to within nine days' journey of Mung-lang, on the banks of the 
Irawadi, and without experiencing any serious difficulty or incon- 
venience farther than the jungly state of the country. 

Importance of a Road. — A road passable even for mules or oxen 
between the navigable branches of the No£ Dihing and the Irawadi 
could not fail to be of great national benefit, and would open a channel 
for the direct importation of all the valuable productions of Central 
Asia. It would also tend to the complete civilization of the savage 
mountaineers, who inhabit these regions, and enable a force to pene- 
trate into the centre of the country, whither they can at present 
retreat with comparative impunity. It is doubtful how far those tribes 
would contribute to the formation of roads, or the furtherance of any 
attempt on our part, to extend our intercourse into the interior ; they 
have hitherto been jealous of any encroachment, and not many 
years ago, gave proofs of the spirit by murdering the individuals who 
conducted Lieut. Bennbtt to the Patkoi boundary. 

But the time, it is to be hoped, has already arrived when these fertile 
tracts will be taken under our especial protection ; when the untutored 
barbarian must submit to civilization and improvement, and his wilds 
and his wastes to the ploughshare and the hoe of British agriculture. 

The most important articles of trade exported by the Chinese from the 
Singpho country are gold dust, precious stones of various colours, and 

Cold Dust. — The gold dust is procurable from most of the streams 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Id36.] on the extreme N. E. Frontier of Bengal 203 

of the Brahmaputra ; but the gathering it is but a poor trade, and is 
now but little followed. The place most celebrated for its precious 
stones is Mung-kung or Mogaum. 

Precious Stones. — On a range of hills near it, a great number of deep 
mines are dug, and the working of them affords occupation for many 
thousand inhabitants. When a stone of moderate weight is found, it 
is hoisted to the mofeth of the shaft by a windlass erected for the pur- 
pose. But they frequently meet with large masses, which they have 
not the power of moving : these they contrive to break to pieces. 

Mining. — The workmen begin by kindling a strong fire all over and 
around the precious stones, till it is well heated ; they then mark off 
with some powerful liquid, the piece they wish to break off, a large 
stone is suspended from the top of the shaft perpendicularly over the 
piece to be broken off, and when all is ready, the stone is cut away, 
and falling with great impetus upon the mass below, breaks off 
the fragment exactly according to the line drawn with the liquid. It 
is difficult to account for this mysterious liquid being able to prevent 
the whole mass from being splintered, and how it should preserve such 
a line of separation ; yet such is the native belief, and it is not impro- 
bable that its effect is merely imaginary, or that is practised from some 

These stones are afterwards cut into convenient pieces by means of 
a bambu bow with a string of twisted wire, the string being applied 
to the stone and used as a saw, while its action is assisted by some sort 
of pulverized mineral*. As might be expected, much bloodshed is 
frequently the consequence of finding these hidden treasures. When 
any doubt arises about the party who first discovered one, or about the 
right of possession, bloody battles ensue with short swords in hand be- 
tween whole villages. Large emeralds are allowed to lie around the 
pits unclaimed by any one : no one venturing to carry them away, lest 
every one should fall upon them in vengeance. These precious stones 
are afterwards carried on mules to China, and are sold at very high 
prices, some of them bringing 7 or 800 seers weight of silver. The 
Burmese governor levies a tax of two seers on every 10 that are 
exported. These mules are driven along in gangs of 20 to 30 ; the 
drivers go armed with swords and matchlocks, and guide their beasts 
of burden by word of mouth. The route they pursue to China is via 
Catmow or the Irawadi, and the overland journey from Mung-kung 
to Catmow occupies about nine days. 

Amber. — Besides the mines of precious stones, there are several 
amber mines in the province of Hukttng, which are wrought to con- 

* Doubtless corundum : this is the common mode of cutting hard stones.— Ed. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

206 Account of the Mountain Tribes April, 

siderable advantage. The amber is cut into cylinders about J inch in 
diameter, and two inches long, and is worn as an ornament stuck 
through a hole in the lobe of the ear, both by Assamese and Burmese. 

Ivory. — A large quantity of ivory is exported by the China mer- 
chants. It is almost all obtained by the Singphos, from shooting the 
wild elephants with poisoned arrows fired from a loaded musket. 
When once they get upon the tract of a herd, they$ontinue the pursuit 
for days together, taking up favourable positions upon trees, or lying 
in wait in the long grass, till they can take a fatal aim. Vast numbers 
of these noble animals are destroyed in this manner, both by the Sing- 
phos and Kangtis ; they are as susceptible to the fatal effects of poison 
as the smaller animals, and fall down dead immediately after being 
slightly wounded. Their teeth are struck out by the hunters, and the 
carcasses are left to be devoured by the beasts of prey. 

Chinese returns. — In return for these valuable commodities, the 
Chinese bring into the Singpho country, nankins, silks, lacquered and 
China ware, lead, copper, and particularly silver. 

A great portion of the silver that comes into Assam through the 
Singphos is stamped with Chinese characters. It can scarcely be 
called a coin, but a piece of bullion ; and appears to have been made 
by scooping out a small round hole in a piece of clay, then filling it 
with molten silver, and before it becomes cold, impressing it with the 
Chinese stamp. Not two of these lumps of silver are of the same 
value or size : their intrinsic worth is ascertained by their weight, and 
is found to vary from two to 10 rupees. 

Bullion. — Though the metal is very pure, it is called kacha rupa, and 
one sicca weight of it is fixed as equal to only half a sicca of the pro- 
perly coined metal. No inconvenience arises in purchasing articles 
of small value ; the hill tribes take out their dau, and chop it into pieces 
even to the portion of a pice. This kacha rupa is eagerly purchased by 
the chiefs in Upper Asam, who, after adulterating it largely, cast it 
into their own coin, and thus realize an enormous profit. These chiefs 
have most of them mints of their own, and are in the habit of coining 
rupees for any one who will give them the raw material, retaining only 
10 per cent, for their trouble. 

Muamdrias or Mattuks. 
The country of this tribe is bounded on the N. by the Brahmaputra, 
on the S. by the Burl Dihing ; on the E. by a line drawn S. from the 
mouth of the Kunili nallah to the Burf Dihing, and on the W. by a 
line drawn from the mouth of the river Dibunu to the Buri Dihing. 
About 1 793, these people rose in arms against the reigning Rajah 
Gourinath Sinh, and after many bloody engagements with the royal 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] on the extreme N. E. Frontier of Bengal 207 

troops, at last succeeded in driving him from his throne and kingdom, 
and in appointing a successor of their own choice. During the period 
of their ascendancy, they committed the most dreadful ravages upon 
the country, and the original inhabitants : great portions of it were 
deserted, and even till this day, it has never regained any thing near 
its former prosperity. But these lawless plunderers were not allowed 
long to enjoy the fruits of their conquests ; they were speedily driven 
from thejcapital by 1000 sip£his, under Captain Welsh, and retreated 
to the districts which they now inherit. The head of this still power- 
ful clan is known by the name of the Mattdk Rajah, or more com- 
monly, by that of the Bara senapati (great general). During the Burmese 
war, he maintained his independence ; but on our taking Rangpur, he 
claimed our protection, and has since manifested his sincerity, by a 
zealous endeavour to render every assistance in his power in the 
advancement of our plans. 

The greater part of the country allotted them is a desert waste, and 
only the banks of the river Diburi are inhabited. The population 
amounts to about 60,000 men, inclusive of women and children. The 
capital is Rangagora. The state is allowed about 500 musquets and 
ammunition according to treaty, and supplies a large contingent. They 
profess the Hindu religion ; but act so little in accordance with its 
tenets, that enlightened Brahmins scarcely acknowledge them. 

The Bara senapati, with all his affability and apparent deference 
to our authority, is by some considered not entitled to perfect and 
unlimited confidence. Situated between two powerful states, the 
British and the Burmah, his policy seem to be to maintain good terms 
with both ; and in the event of another Burmese invasion, it is to be 
feared, he would preserve neutrality, till he saw how the scale was likely 
to turn, and then join the stronger party. 


The next border tribes met with in proceeding westward are the 
Nagas. To assign limit to their country seems almost impossible, and 
even to number their numerous tribes, no less so ; they are scattered 
all over the mountainous ridge that divides Assam from Manipur, to 
which state some of them are tributary, some to Assam, and some 
even to the Burmese. There is no one individual tribe of any formi- 
dable consequence amongst them, and there is but little inclination 
to coalesce, they being constantly embroiled in petty feuds. Their 
houses are built on the most inaccessible points of the mountain, and 
planned for every- day defence. They are represented by the inhabi- 
tants of the plains as robbers and murderers, and are so much the 
dread of all, that little of their economy is known. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

208 On the Method employed to remove the Vaulted Roof of [Aprii, 

Brine Spring. — One of the most remarkable circumstances relating 
to their country is the number of brine or salt springs in many parts 
of it. 

At Burhath, on the river Disung, there are about 20 of these brine 
springs, from most of which the Nagas are in the habit of making salt. 
These wells are dug to a considerable depth, and the brine varies in 
intensity, probably according to the access of fresh water from the 
surface ; and being situated in a valley, and having no protection from 
the rain, they are generally filled in the wet season. The consequence 
is, that the manufacture is carried on only in the cold weather. 

Manufacture of Salt. — Some of the best of these wells give 10 sicca 
weight of dry salt to the seer of water, and others, only three or four. 
The process of evaporation is carried on by filling the joints of large 
bambus with brine and suspending them in an earthen trough, filled 
with water, which answer for the purpose of a boiler, and in this rude 
way, the brine in the bambus is evaporated, till salt is formed. These 
mud troughs are every season broken down, and being triturated with 
water, afford a strong brine from which other salt is formed. 

So tedious and unskilful is the manufacture, that the salt made 
from these wells cannot be made at less price than the same quantity 
of salt transported from Bengal. 

II. — On the Method employed to remove the Vaulted Roof of St. Peter's 
Church in Fort William, illustrated by a Section, (Plate V.J 

Works of engineering skill come peculiarly within the limits point- 
ed out by the motto on our title page, as fitted for the Researches of a 
Scientific Society or Journal : " The performances of man," of such 
a class in this country, and under British rule, are, it is true, but rare 
and trifling compared with the noble efforts of art, which grow up 
from day to day under the eye of an observer in Europe. There, 
letting alone tunnels and railways of gigantic enterprize, we hear 
of half an elliptic arch sprung by the celebrated Brcnkl from a buttress 
and carried to a semi- span of seventy feet, without centering, by the 
mere adhesion of the cement ! — of an iron suspension bridge at Fribourg 
in Switzerland thrown over a ravine of 1 70 feet deep, in a single bold 
span of more than 900 feet from rock to rock, far surpassing the Menai 
bridge, or even the designed bridge from St. Vincent's rocks at Clifton, 
which latter we regret to hear has been abandoned, in consequence of 
the riots in Bristol, and the destruction of that wealth which would 
have been so well bestowed upon this noble work. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 83f>.] St. Peter's Church in Fort William. 209 

We have but little indeed to bring forward in rivalry of such mag- 
nificent undertakings; howbeit, there have been schemes of vast 
magnitude projected, and some under a Viceroy such as Lord W. B*n- 
tinck, partial to engineering pursuits, might ere this have been put in 
execution. The draining of the Salt-water lake, (were it conceded to be a 
salutary measure) would be feasible enough. The line of wharfs or jetties 
on the Strand is actually planned and estimated for. The Rajmahl line 
of survey is a splendid specimen of mapping ; and although we have 
no anticipation of seeing it undertaken, the results of the inquiry will, 
we hope, be given to the public in a volume, with all its sections, by 
its projector our Indian Belidor. Of architectural achievements we have 
less to boast. Twenty years since, money was bequeathed by a 
rich native for the erection of a College at Hugli, and yet nothing 
has been done unto this day. Are architects wanting, or are the 
curators anxious to appropriate the money for other purposes ? We 
have seen more than one tasteful design, but how is an artist ever to 
satisfy the views of a numerous committee, not more than one or two 
of whom perchance have any notion of architectural propriety ? In 
feeble imitation of the Parliamentary Church Committee at home, we 
have a private fund created by rupee contributions for the erection of 
places of worship in the interior ; but it is far too poor to aim at orna- 
ment in its humble structures. The Martiniere is the only public in- 
stitution, erected within the last year or two, that has real pretensions 
to correct taste in its exterior elevation. It is strangely disfigured 
by a high wall round the ground, and the arrangements of the interior 
have been marred by an imperfect conception at starting, of what 
would be required in it. 

An observation forces itself upon us when viewing the noble portico 
of this building, of the Scotch Church, or of the mint, with their handsome 
flights of stone steps ; — that the purity of Grecian temple architecture can- 
not or ought not to be preserved under the altered circumstances of the 
present age. Men no longer resort on foot in daily processions to the 
sacred vestibules of their gods. They drive in comfortable carriages, 
and would fain dismount under shelter from the sun and the rain. Is 
it not a fault of grievous magnitude then, that neither of these three 
buildings possesses a carriage access ? and that at the Mint, for instance, 
bullion cannot get within 100 feet of the hall of weighment, except on 
coolies' heads. The Government house is in this respect better provid- 
ed ; but here the basement entrance has been made an eyesore, and a 
mere secondary object, instead of the primary one, being in constant use. 
The portico of the Martiniere was intended for carriages, but this object 
was sacrificed to the gaining of space for a play-ground, and the road 
2 S 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

210 On the Method employed to remove the Vaulted Roof of [Ariui, 

is now brought up at right angles with the foot of the steps, which 
has an unseemly and awkward effect. 

The native architect in the palaces of the east provides not for car- 
riages, but how suitable is the lofty arched gate with its music galleries 
for the train of towered elephants and horsemen issuing from the 
interior court. Under the sloping chhaja or cornice of the native 
dwelling, or baithak-khdneh, the architect inserts iron rings for the strip- 
ed pavilions it is intended to bear. They look natural to it, as they are 
necessary to the climate ; whereas how may not the Ionic facade of the 
Martiniere be disfigured hereafter, perhaps, by Venetians run up between 
the columns of its fine portico, as in the left wing of the Government 
house, or by matted hoods gracing the southern windows of each 


Too much stress cannot be laid on the proper adaptation of style to 
the climate. The architect's duty is but half performed, if he provide 
not for every contingency to which his building may be subject, whether 
in respect to durability or to convenience ; and even when the former is 
attended to, the latter is too frequently neglected. 

A striking instance of the bad effects of inattention to apparently 
trivial objects of this nature is afforded in the subject of the present 
notice. Major Hutchinson designed and executed a gothic vaulted 
church roof in brick, the first attempted in India. He neglected tp 
make provision for the hanging of punkahs, and upon a representation 
of their being wanted, the executive department, with little calculation 
of the disturbance of equilibrium or strength of materials, ordered holes 
to be cut at the head of the clustered columns, to admit beams to 
swing them. Had the architect at first, as he has now done, let in iron 
rods to sustain the punkah ropes, his work would have been uninjured, 
and Government have been saved double, nay triple, expenditure ; and 
his fame have been preserved from unmerited censure. Few people in 
such cases calmly inquire into particulars ; they ask, who raised the 
fabric, and upon his head lay the onus of the failure. 

We are glad, with reference to this last fact, at having obtained per- 
mission to make public the report of the real circumstances given in 
to the Military Board in June, 1832, with its explanatory section. 

It is necessary to recapitulate to such of our readers as are unac- 
quainted with the facts, that about six years ago the vaulted roof of St. 
Peter's was condemned as unsafe, and was ordered to be demolished. 
The keystone or vertex of the central and side vaults had opened from 
end to end, and other dangerous symptoms were observed. Committee* 
were held, and a variety of opinion as to the cause elicited, but the 
necessity of demolition was general, and Major Hutchinson was 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] St. Peter's Church i* Fort William. 211 

intrusted with a task seemingly as difficult as the original construc- 
tion, and fraught with more danger to the workmen employed. 

The true nature of the case will strike every one who looks attentively 
at the accompanying section, namely that the cutting of the holes for 
the punkahs was the origin of the whole mischief. Had the cracks in 
the roof existed at the time, it can hardly he imagined that orders could 
have been issued to cut away the only props of the superstructure. 
The effect of such an improvident order was however fully represented 
at the time by Lieut. Mallock, Major H. being then in England. 

It is probable that the chief engineer relied upon his experience of 
the firm tenacity of the materials : that he had good reason to do so in 
many respects is proved by the fact recorded in the report, that the 
semi vault stood firmly when the keystone was knocked out, and was 
with difficulty broken away piecemeal. 

Hence it appears, that after all, the roof might have stood with per- 
fect safety had the punkah holes been refilled with care, and the side- 
vault been braced together with light iron rods, as in the well known 
Mmsie des Arts et Metiers at Paris. The continuity of the main arch 
from the crown of the upper vault, through the flying buttresses to 
the ground, does not appear to have been broken ; and if so, the 
opening or crack was of little consequence. Yet in face of all the 
above facts, the restoration of the vault was interdicted, and in lieu of 
a solid " vaulted roof embracing the highest branches of constructive 
science, after the manner and principles pursued by freemasons in the 
beautiful gothic edifices of Europe," it was resolved to descend to an 
imitation in wood- work with a flat roof above. 

Though of minor importance and beauty, the wooden roof is well 
spoken of in the Report of the Committee of Survey : •' The groined 
roof of the nave is, we believe, the first work of the kind ever attempted 
in this country, and involving as it does the practical application of 
some of the most difficult principles of constructive carpentry, the suc- 
cessful completion of such a work under all the difficulties attendant 
on the employment of native carpenters, who had to be instructed 
in every stage of the work, is highly creditable to the skill and science 
of the executive officer, Major Hutchinson." 

Before closing these preliminary remarks, we would fain notice the 
painted glass windows of the west and east ends of the nave. They 
are decidedly lions in our town, admirable specimens of rich transpa- 
rent colouring, not frittered in small fragments, but in the new style, of 
colours burnt in on large panes of 24 by 16 inches. 

The design of St. Pbter receiving the keys is from Raphael's Car- 
toon ; Mosbs and Aaron are on either side, and the four Evangelists 
2 k 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

212 On the Method employed to remove the Vaulted Roof of [Aphil, 

fill the compartments below. The Faith, Hope, and Charity of the 
west windows are taken from the designs of Sir Joshua Reynolds m 
New Church, Oxford. 

From the great size of the panes of thin glass the difficulty of 
repairing any of them, if broken, will easily be understood. Yet by 
an accident, two panes were broken in putting up. The head and 
neck of Hope was smashed to atoms by the falling of a bambu ! Al- 
though it is hard to excuse the occurrence of any accident where pre- 
cautions should have rendered it impossible, we cannot but praise the 
ingenuity with which it was repaired, so that the damage is not per- 
ceptible. The fragments were united together with a transparent var- 
nish on another pane of colourless glass. The only question is as to 
the durability of the cement ; we should fear it would grow brown 
by age and exposure. 

Report on the Demolition of the Vaulted Roofs of St. Peter* s Church. 

44 A continuous and perfect equilibrium of the several parts of a build- 
ing, and the concentration of all the forces, whether vertical or lateral, 
on a few principal supports, which for the sake of lightness, elegance 
and economy, are calculated to sustain no more than their allotted 
pressure, being fundamental principles in Gothic architecture ; the 
demolition of such a structure (more especially if the equlibrium has 
been destroyed by the weakening of those supports) must at any time, 
even with the aid of powerful means, be considered an undertaking of 
much difficulty and danger ; but in this country, with the assistance of 
native workmen alone, it becomes a duty demanding the utmost vigi- 
lance and attention ; consequently in the removal of the vaulted roofs 
of St. Peter's Church, it became of primary importance to ascertain, 
with precision, the extent and character of the existing derangement of 
equilibrium, as a correct basis for calculation and design, in the opera- 
tions to be pursued. With this view, a particular and most minute 
inspection of all the several parts of the edifice was made, of which 
the following was the result : 

Foundations. — With regard to the foundations, it was ascertained, 
that the sinking, which had taken place from the nature of the alluvial 
soil, was exceedingly small* ; any tendency there might have been to 
sinking in the main pillars having been counteracted by the heavy 
reversed arches extending under the basement from pillar to pillar. 

* The sinking of the pillars most injured by the punkah beams not exceeding 
fth of an inch, which was as little as could be expected from a general settlement 
in a brick building, and by no means capable of affecting the equilibrium. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] St. Peter's Church in Fort William. 213 

Vaulted roofs of side arches and pillars. — The vaulted roofs of the Bide 
aisles were found in a most dilapidated state, as likewise the main 
pillars at the points d'appui of the springing of the ribs, upon which 
rested the load of the side vaults. Upon the removal of the punkah 
beams (r*) shewn in the accompanying section, (which had never been 
removed by any Committee) it was at once evident that the principles 
upon which the equilibrium and consequent stability of the side vaults 
and pillars depended, (and according to which they had originally been 
constructed,) were entirely destroyed ; viz. 1st, the thickness of hutment 
inwards, originally given to the main pillars, had been reduced in the 
direct line of thrust from 4 to 2 feet, by the perforation of large holes, 
for the insertion of beams upon which to suspend punkahs ; 2nd, the 
adhesive continuity of the cemented materials (upon which the stability 
of pillars composed of brick and mortar so entirely depend) had been 
completely disturbed in the vicinity of the holes, from the blows of the 
iron instruments by which they had been made ; 3rd, the springing of 
the main ribs, upon which the side vaults rested, had been wholly cut 
away on either side as exhibited at (ss), by which the vaults, deprived of 
their supporting points, sunk down both in haunch and vertex from their 
original position, thereby greatly increasing the force with which they 
pressed against the main pillarsf ; 4th, the main pillars being so greatly 
weakened by the perforation of the holes, and the disturbance of the 
cemented material, yielded inwardly J to the extent of 4 J inches from 
the perpendicular, and became cracked entirely across ; the parts 
marked (tt) splitting off from some of them. Thus all equilibrium was 
inevitably destroyed. 

Vault of the nave, flying buttresses, cleristory walls, 8fC. — The above facts 
being established, the examination was carefully extended to the vault 
of the nave, the flying buttresses, the external and cleristory walls 
and towers : but with the exception of some cracks in the flying 

Ton. Cwt. 

• Weighing in each aisle, 1 3 

Ditto Nave, 2 6 

independently of tbe weight of the punkahs. 

t The exact estimation of their increased force is a question of ranch diffi- 
culty, from its being connected with circumstances not within the reach of 
calculation, vis. the amount of injury accruing to the arch and pillar by the 
penetration of the rain into the spandrils and through the arch ; abo the amount 
of pressure from the sinking of the abutment of the cleristory wilts, which rest- 
ed in part on the arch: hot that it most have been very great will be evident to 
every one acquainted with the rules and principles of construction. 

X A slight deflexion of the pillars inwardly had been observed before the 
punkah beams were inserted. This deflexion, Sir Christopher Wrrn states, is to 
be observed in all tbe Gothic Cathedrals in Europe, from which it would appear 
to be a circumstance incidental to this style of Architecture ; but that it is not 
productive of any important derangement of equilibrium, is fully proved by the 
great durability of the Gothic structures in Europe. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

214 On the Method employed to remove the Vaulted Roof of [Apeil, 

buttresses, owing to the sinking of the side vaults, the whole was 
found in such good condition, as to remove any apprehension as to the 
firmness and stability of the main vault, &c. which being well support- 
ed by the flying buttresses, and those of the outer walls, no external 
shores were judged necessary ; and as in its construction it was 
wholly independent of the side vaults, it was concluded, that notwith- 
standing the shocks it might be expected to receive from their demo- 
lition, yet that they might, when properly secured, be proceeded with 
in perfect safety, without any fear of danger arising thereby to the 
main vault. Accordingly, the only point which demanded immediate 
attention was the counteraction of the imminent danger to be appre- 
hended, from the further sinking and spreading of the side vaults, by 
which, the main pillars in their shattered condition were liable to be 
forced inwardly, and thereby to entail the consequent and sudden downfal 
of^the entire building. As this danger could only be prevented by 
the construction of such massive shores on the nave side, which should 
be able to resist every power that could possibly be exerted by the 
spreading of the side vaults, the following plan of shoring, preparatory 
to the removal of the side vaults, was adopted, and pursued with success. 

Mode of shoring. — A solid bed of masonry (a) was laid for the firm 
support of the foundation beam (b), upon the extremities of which were 
fixed in mortises the uprights (cc) ; these were hollowed out to fit closely 
to the main pillars, their base or lower ends being enlarged and 
strengthened by the additional blocks (gg) to which they were firmly 
joggled, and bolted, in the manner 'shewn. 

The straining beam (d) being then fixed at one end in the upright 
(on a line with the shattered part of the pillars and strain of the side 
aisles) by a semicircular tenon working in a similar mortice, the other 
end cut to a tenon with a slight angle, was by means of three jack 
screws (as shewn in the distance, forced up a smooth inclined mortise 
well greased, cut in the opposite upright, and thus brought into a 
horizontal position. The shores or struts (ce), let in obliquely upon 
the foundation beam (b) t were then fixed in the mortises cut in the 
uprights, and straining beam (d), and firmly wedged up into their places 
and secured by the footsil (f) ; thus, the thrust of one aisle was brought 
into play against the thrust of the other, and further spreading of the 
side vaults effectually prevented. 

Centres for supporting the roofs of the side aisles. — The above work 
having with great care and labour been accomplished, four strong cen- 
tres or framings were next constructed, as shewn in Jig. 2 ; which 
when put together, were, by means of wedges underneath, brought 
firmly up to the masonry of the vault ; and thus securely supported, the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] St. Peter's Church in Fort William. 215 

work people were enabled by means of crow-bars and pick- axes tq 
commence the demolition of the side roofs without any apprehension 
of danger. These frames being made movable, the expence of centre- 
ing up the entire side vaults was avoided. The vaulted roofs of the 
aisles were thus safely removed, without the slightest injury arising 
to the centre roof of the nave, thereby confirming the correctness of 
the opinion formerly advanced that no danger would arise to it. Ac- 
cordingly measures were now taken for the removal of the main vault, 
together with the flying buttresses and cleristory walls. The erec- 
tion of any external shores was still considered wholly unnecessary, 
but from the great height of the nave (46 feet), it became indis- 
pensable to secure the work people from all probability of danger, 
during the progress of demolition, by any portion of the vault falling 
inwardly, when the vertex or keying should be cut away ; but as the 
construction of a frame- work of sufficient strength underneath the 
vault could not have been executed without incurring considerable 
expence, the following plan was devised and put into execution. 

Mode of removing the great vault of the nave. — The upper pinnacles 
and battlements of the north and south cleristory walls were removed, 
and a planking laid upon the top of the walls, which admitted of a plat- 
form (Ar), fig. 3, placed across the roof being easily slid along its whole 
length. This platform, in order to give perfect security to the work 
people, in the event of any part underneath giving way, was suspend- 
ed by ropes from the four towers, as shewn in the section ; and upon 
this the work people were enabled to commence the demolition of the 
roof with perfect confidence ; but so firm was the masonry found to be, 
that they soon got off on to the roof itself, although entirely unsup- 
ported from below, and the continuity of the arch was destroyed by 
cutting from the vertex downwards, thus giving the most unequivocal 
proof of its exceeding firmness and stability. In this manner the 
entire roof was destroyed ; after which the flying buttresses being cut 
at their two extremities, were allowed to fall inwardly ; and finally 
the cleristory walls were brought down to a level with the shattered 
parts of the columns. Having thus briefly shewn the state in which 
the foundations, roofs, and pillars were found, after a most careful 
examination, and the plan pursued in the removal of the roofs, abund- 
ant evidence has been furnished of the ultimate cause which destroyed 
the safety of the building, and it can only be a matter of surprise, that 
an edifice, constructed of brick upon the principles of Gothic architec- 
ture, should (after the main supports of the side aisles had been cut 
away, and the pillars reduced to half their original strength), have so 
long resisted the fatal injury committed ; the punkah beams having 
been put up in 1827." G, Hutchinson, Major, Engineers. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


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1836.] Cotton Manufacture of Nepal. 219 

IV. — Notes on the State of the Arts of Cotton Spinning, Weaving /Print- 
ing, and Dyeing in Nepal. By Dr. A. Campbell, attached to the 

[Read at the Meeting of the 2nd December.] 

It may safely be asserted, that the arts generally in Nepdl have not 
hitherto arrived at any degree of advancement, beyond that attained 
in the plains of India. In regard of those which have attained to con- 
siderable perfection below, Nepal ie extremely backward in the pro- 
gress made by her people, nor do I know of any in which the Nipalese 
can be said to excel their Hindu brethren of India, except the useful 
one of agriculture, to which may be added, perhaps, brick and tile 
^ftVing . and, m more recent days, the manufacture of flint-lock fire 

In die art of weaving, it is universally admitted, that neither the 
Egyptians of the olden, nor the nations of Europe in the modern, time 
have equalled, or do excel, the Hindus of Dacca and Benares ; while 
this art in Nipil, is still at the very lowest possible grade of advance- 
ment. It is matter of curiosity, as well as of astonishment, that al- 
though the Newars claim, and not improbably hold, a title to consi- 
derable antiquity as a united people*, and have made great advances 
in husbandry, some progress in literature and architecture, they have 
not got up to this day, beyond the threshold of civilization in that 
art, which, among the rudest nations, has been found in a state of 
much efficiency!. 

Some one of the Roman philosophers, I have read, gave credit to 
Sbmixamis, for the invention of weaving cotton ; and Minkrva herself, 
was, I believe, an enthusiast, and proficient in the labour of the loom. 
Our Nipalese queens of the present day are too proud of their Raj- 
put, or " Moon-born lineaget," to indulge in the practice of the useful 
arts. And the goddesses, although abundant as the grains of sand on 
the sea shore, are now but images of the olden personifications ; con- 
sequently, the weaving art has not descended to the modern repre- 
sentatives of the above-named ladies ; but still cleaving to the sex, as a 
pastime, or profession, we find it confined solely to the women, among 
the Newars. The men toil at other labours, but they weave not, «• nei- 
ther do they spin." Weaving is scarcely a trade in the valley of 

• See Mr. Hodson's Legends of the Origin of this Tribe in the Asiatic Journal. 

f The Mexicans, at the time of the conquest of their country by the Spaniards, 
had manufactures of cotton cloth in considerable perfection— •• of cotton they 
made large webs, and as delicate and fine as those of Holland." 

X Chandra Vansa. 
2 » 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

120 Slate of the Arts of [Apkil, 

Nepal, for all the Newar women, of the poorer classes, (and there are 
scarcely any others now,) weave the cotton cloths required for the 
consumption of themselves and families. 

These fabrics of domestic manufacture are all of cotton, and of the 
coarsest and most inelegant description. The cotton is grown in 
abundance throughout the hottest valleys of the Nipalese hills, and 
in the Tarai skirting their plainward face. It is brought on men's 
shoulders 41 , as picked, with the seeds in it, to the different towns of 
the valley, where it is exchanged to shop-keepers, for money, or other 
produce, as the case may be ; and thus each family, as its means will 
admit of, purchases, from time to time, so many pounds of the raw 
material as suffices for the employment at the cleaning machine and 
spinning wheel of the mother and her daughters. 

The cotton is separated from the seeds by the women, either with 
the fingers, or by the help of a most primitive contrivance, of the fol- 
lowing description, and called Keko. Two rollers of wood, the thick- 
ness of a walking stick, and close together, are placed in an upright 
frame, and made to revolve on one another by means of a handle 
attached (through one side of the- frame) to the lower of them. The 
operator, sitting on the ground, places the frame between her feet, 
steadying it with her toes, and applies small portions of cotton to the 
spaces between the rollers with her left hand, while she plies the 
revolving handle with the right : in this manner the cotton is drawn 
between the rollers ; the seeds, being too large for the interspace, are 
separated and left behind. 

The spinning is equally primitive, but its mode not easily describ- 
ed. The machinef is small, and easily portable, even by a child of 
six years old ; it is not raised from the ground by means of legs, as 
is the domestic one of the Scottish Highlanders, and Northern Irish, 
(the ones I am best acquainted with ;) nor is the wheel set m motion 
by the pressure of the foot on a board connected by a thong of lea- 
ther, with a lever or cramp fixed to its axle, as is common in turning 
grind-stones, or turning lathe- wheels ; but, the spinner, as in the 
cotton-cleaning process, sits on the ground, with one hand turning 

* Man if the only animal of burden employed in the valley of Nepal, as well 
aa the interior of her hills — a circumstance of itself strongly pointing out, how 
short a way the inhabitants have advanced beyond sheer barbarism. The uneven 
surface of their country is scarcely sufficient to save them from this imputation. 
The rulers of the land drive English carriages, while the transport of every arti- 
cle in their dominions is made on men and women's backs — a good specimen of 
eastern pomp, associated with its common accompaniment, hard-worked poverty. 

t Called Yf&A by the Ncwara. 

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1836.] Weaving, Spinning, *c. inNepdL 221 

the wheel by means of a handle, and with the other, drawing out the 
cotton into thread. 

An iron rod is attached by means of a string to the wheel, and 
revolves in company with it, on which the thread, as spun, is collect- 
ed, and in this manner, women and girls of all ages employ them* 
selves, when not assisting at sowing or reaping, either in front of 
their dwellings, in the towns, or at the road-side, as may best suit 
their convenience*. The spinning wheel may be best described by 
saying, that it is but the ancient distaff, improved by the addition of a 
wheel for keeping it in motion ; for the sharp-pointed iron rod, to the 
extremity of which the cotton is applied, and by which it is spun into 
thread, is precisely the spike of the distaff, and like its prototype, 
serves the double purpose of a bobbin on which the thread is accumu- 
lated as spun. The spinner turns the wheel from left to right while 
forming the thread, and to allow the portion spun to be accumulated 
on the iron rod, gives the wheel a small turn in the opposite direction, 
at the same time, lowering her left hand, so as to permit the winding- 
up of the thread. This necessary interruption in the spinning process, 
is a great drawback on the time of the spinner, and renders the distaff 
wheel very inferior, when compared to the common one of Europe. 
When tending cattle, or watching their ripe crops, the females gene- 
rally wile away the time, and assist in replenishing the family ward- 
robe by spinning or weaving in the open air. 

Having thus imperfectly spun the yarn, we proceed naturally to the 
warping and weaving of it, both of which processes are performed ex- 
clusively by women, with the very simplest and rudest machinery, 
equalled by the coarsest and most ungainly produce. The ordinary 
breadth of the Nipal cotton cloths is about half a yard, and rarely 
exceeds two feet. The average length of the webs is from 6 to 12 and 14 
yards, and the texture of the finest is not superior to the dosuti cloth 
of Hindustan, used for house canopies (chhatsj and floor cloths. 

When a Newdr woman has spun a sufficient quantity of thread for 
the warp of a web, she winds it off the iron rod, on which it has been 
spun, into (or, on) large bobbins of about nine inches long, and fit to 
hold three or four pounds of thread. 

With these large bobbins, and a few reeds, about three feet long, she 
repairs to the nearest grassy spot without her viilage, or to the side of 
the causeway, if unpaved, and there, sticking the reeds in the ground, 

• The universality of the spinning wheel may be readily credited, on the 
announcement of a custom which enjoins every Newer parent to present his 
newly married daughter with a Ve&6 and Kelso in addition to her dowry. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

922 State of the Arts of [Ami* 

(a few feet wander,) to the length of her purposed web, she has pre- 
pared the only warping frame known throughout these regions. 

Tying the thread to the reed on her extreme right, she moves ra- 
pidly np and down along the line, passing the thread (as it comes off 
the bobbin, revolving on a shaft passed through its axle, and held in 
her right hand), on alternate sides of each reed, until the " warp is 


The dexterity aajuired by the women, in warping, is considerable, 
and the quickness with which they entwine the thread, with the warp- 
ing reeds, is remarkable ; and apparently, it is executed with little trou- 
ble. I have often seen those women moving up and down, and laying 
the warp regularly on the frame, at a fast walk, and all the while talk- 
ing and laughing with the persons present^ and assisting them in th* 
performance of their task. 

Having " laid the warp," the reeds (or rods of wood, as the case 
may be), are pulled out of the ground* and the warp, frame and all, is 
rolled up and carried home. All the cloths made in the valley are of 
uncoloured thread, which renders the warping a much easier affair 
than when striped webs are to be laid down. 

When leisure offers for weaving the web, the women on a sunshin- 
ing day spread out the warp (the warping sticks still in it) and apply 
with a brush, made of a suitable kind of grass, the paste necessary for 
smoothing the thread preparatory to putting the web in the loom. 

The mode of weaving does not essentially differ from that practised 
in the uncivilized portions of our own country with which I am 
acquainted. The weaver sitting on a bench, with the loom in front of her, 
plies the shuttle alternately with either hand, pulling forward the 
swinging apparatus for laying the woof thread, close to its predecessor, 
and plies the treddles with her feet*. The weaving is carried on under 
a shed, within a smaM verandah, or in the house ; and as the roofs are 
generally low, the treddles are made to play in a hollow dug in the 
earthen floor under the loom. The loom is made of the commonest 
materials, and very clumsily put together, and is altogether of a piece 
with the poor state of the weaving art. Lest it should be thought 
that it is intended to connect the wretched produce of the Nepal 
looms, with the rudeness of the machinery, as inevitable cause and 

* This portion of the loom is extremely rude and primitive ; instead of foot- 
boards moving on a fixed point, to be depressed alternately, so as to make one 
layer of the warp threads cross the other, and thus incorporate the woof with it, 
we find two small buttons suspended from the lower margin of the netting, which 
the weaver seises between her great and first toe, alternately depressing each 
foot as the woof thread is delivered by the shuttle. 

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1836.] Weaving, Spinning, *c. in NepdL 22B 

effect, I may mention that the Nepal loom, and the arrangements of 
the weaver, are superior in some respects to those of the unrivalled 
manufactures of the Dacca muslin. Mill's account of the Hindu loom 
corroborates this ; he says, " It consists of little else than a few sticks 
or pieces of wood, nearly in the state in which nature produced them, 
connected together hy the rudest contrivances. There is not so much 
as an expedient for rolling up the warp." The weaver is therefore 
obliged to work in the open air, as his house could not contain him 
and his web at full length; "and every return of inclement weather 
interrupts him." The Nepal weaver rolls up the warp on its origi- 
nal frame, and ties it to a peg driven in the ground close to her feet, 
while a cross beam in front of her receives the web as it is woven*. 

The Thibet woollen cloths are of infinitely superior workmanship to 
the cotton ones of Nepal, and indeed, are of very fine make and mate- 
rial, although deficient in width. It is therefore evident that in the 
earliest of the arts, one which must have been practised by all human 
societies, so soon as leaves and skins were deemed unfitting clothing, 
the Nipalese have been left far behind, by the Hindus of India on 
one hand, and by the Tartars of Bhote on the other. 

Dyeing and printing come naturally enough to notice, after spin- 
ning and weaving; and the advancement made in these arts has kept 
an even pace with that in the former. As dyesters the Newars are 
miserable artists ; they cannot at this day dye a decent blue, although 
furnished with indigo for the purpose. 

A dirty red (from madder) and a light fading green, are the colours 
most commonly dyed by them ; but they are not fast and durable, nor 
elegant when fresh. The only tolerably good dyeing done in Nepil, 
is by some Cashmfrfs, and people from the plains. 

The coarse cloths of the country are printed, in imitation of the 
chintzes of India and Europe, and are much worn by all classes of 
females, who cannot afford to purchase better stuffs ; but the imita- 
tions are very badly executed, and the colours not durable. The best 
Nip&lese chintz is printed and dyed at Bhatgaon, in the valley; and 
in the hills east of the valley, at a place called Dunkutuah. In the 
small valley of Punouti too, about 24 miles east of Kathmandu, this 
trade is carried to some extent, and with nearly similar success. 

* The different parts of the loom are not connected to at to form one com- 
plete machine. For instance, the swinging beam and netting are generally sus- 
pended from the roof of the house. 

In the commonest European loom, the bench on which the wearer sits, the 
beam on which the cloth is received, as well as that on which the warp is rolled, 
together with the swinging beam and netting, are all joined together. 

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294 List of Cotton Manufactures [April, 

A piece of best Parbattiah chintz 5£ yards long, sufficient to make 
en entire dress for a woman, costs at Kathmandu 1 -8-0 Nipalese rupees*. 

The subjoined list of the cotton piece goods manufactured in the 
valley and neighbouring hills, of which specimens are now presented, 
may not be useless to the public, while it will tend in some degree to 
give practical illustration to the above remarks. As a mode of at* 
tempting to estimate the real value of these products, and to assist in 
throwing light on the condition of the people who make and use them, 
the value of money, in regard to the staff of life, may be conveniently 
recorded!, especially as in Nepal, as well as India, the craftsman does 
not, generally speaking, earn any thing in addition to the common 
wages of agricultural labour, or in other words, little more than suf- 
fices to fill his belly, and that of a wife and children, with plain rice, 
and a few spices, and to buy the raw cotton, for the manufacture of 
his, and their coarse clothing. Models of the spinning wheel, and 
cotton cleaning machine, accompany the specimens of cloth. 

List of the principal cotton piece good* Manufactured in NepAl proper, and 
throughout the Hills ; to which is added a notice of the Bhungara, or Canvas 
made from the inner bark of trees, and the few coarse woollens of the neigh* 
bowing hilltt. 

Names by which _ 

known in the Bazar. Remarks. 

1. Chang a. — Manufactured in almost every NewaVs house throughout the valley, 
and generally in the hills. Is coarse, hard and thin in texture. Is for 
the most part in webs of 10, 12, to 14 yards long, and 18 inches broad, 
and ranges in the Kathmandu baaar, from one rupee to 1-4-0 and 1-8-0 per 

• A Nipalese rupee equivalent to 12* annas of Company's' currency. 

t A full grown labouring man requires for a day's good food, 1§ mannas of rice, 
and his wife, with (say as an average) three children, 1* mannas more, or in ail 
three mannas. 

The present price (November 1835) is 26 mannas, or nearly nine days' food 
per current rupee; to this, add salt, spices, and other condiments, worth one 
rupee more, and it will be seen that the wages of labour such as a man can lire 
on in tolerable comfort, must be about four current rupees per month, and this 
without any allowance for clothing, house or luxuries. 

The lowest class of laborers, and artisans, in some parts of the Talley, and 
throughout a great portion of the hills, cannot come at rice, as their ordinary 
food ; but must be content with the coarser grains, such as murwa, bajra, kodu 
and Indian corn. Two current rupees per month suffice for their subsistence, 
and is about the price of their labour. 

X The specimens here described are deposited in the Society's museum. 

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1 8360 M* °f Chiton Mamf actor*. . 225 

2. K*di.— Thick, coarse and strong; manufactured in considerable quality 

in tbe valley of Noakot, aa well as in the great valley and throughout the 
hills : ii mnch worn by the cultivatort of all tribe*, Parbattinhf , and Newars. 
Comet to market generally in pieces of 6§ yards long, 16 or 18 inchea 
broad, and average! at Kathmandu 12 annas to one rupee per piece. Wears 
long and well j like the above, is sold unbleached. 

3. Pnrubi CkUti. — Is an imitation of Indian Ghints, maanfactnred at Dnnkntnah 

and other places in the eastern hills, generally coloured, black and red, 
in a email striped pattern \ coarse and heavy . Is mnch worn by the poorer 
Parbattiaha, and Newars (women). Comes to Kathmaada in piece* of five 
yards long, and less than two feet broad, and may be generally bought for 
14 annas or one rupee per piece. 

4. M*mi Ckint.— Also manufactured at Dunkutuah and to the eastward ; is 

very like the above ; worn by the Parbattiah and Newer women, made into 
chillis (boddiee) and saris. A piece of sit yards long and 18 inches broad, 
costs in Kathmandu about one rupee. 

5. Bamdran Cklnt. — Manufactured at Bhatgaon in the valley, and named from 

its being an imitation of the Indian Chintxes ; is of different colours and 
patterns, not so coarse and heavy as the other kinds, but thin and flimsy. 
Is used as lining for jackets, and for women's dresses. A piece six yards 
long and half a yard broad, coats in Kathmandu about one rupee or up 
to 1-8-0. 

6. KM CMnt. — Manufactured chiefly in the hills west of Kathmandu; is coarse* 

heavy, very rudely dyed and printed, but the broadest of the NipaJooc fa- 
bric*. A piece eight yards long by 2$ feet wide, costs about one rupee 
eight annas. 

7. Durkeah Ckini.— Manufactured principally at Pokraand Botwal ; very coarse 

and heavy, but has a better width than the Chintzes of the valley : used for 
jacket linings, and women's dresses ; six yards loog and two feet broad ; 
coats in Kathmandu about one rupee eight annas. 

8. MUedar Ckini. — From its spotted pattern it takes its name ; is a favorite one 

of the Bhatgaon Chintsea. A piece of 5$ yards long and half a yard wide, 
costs about one rupee eight annas. 

9. Harm Chint.— Comes almost exclusively from the small valley of Bunapa, 

20 miles east of Kathmandu ; ooarse and hard like the rest. 

10. P&rabi Kadi. — Manufactured in the eastern hills, is broader, and some* 
what finer than the Noakote article (No. 2.) ; a good deal of this article 
k exported from Nepal to Bhote. A. piece of 14 yards long and 2$ feet 
wide, costs at present in Kathmandu three rupees. 

11. Kas$a. — Nipalese imitation of the Indian mulmul or common game, a 
wretched manufacture. Is made in large quantities at Bhatgaon, and gene- 
rally by the Newars throughout the valley. Is used for making turbans ; 
a piece of eight yards loog and aix inchea wide ia sufficient for a pagri, and 
costs generally four annas. Worn by the poorer Parbattiahs, and some 
Newirs, for the Asiatic turban ia not general among this latter race, a 
small oonical skull cap being the most common head-dress among them. 

12. Bhang&ra. — A very coarse and strong sackcloth or canvas, manufactured 
from the inner bark of trees, by the people of the hills, and much used in 

2 O 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

226 List of Cotton Manufacture*. [A*riL, 

the valley of Nepal for making grain-bags and sacks, for the transport of 
merchandise. The poorer people of the hills, who subsist chiefly by wood- 
cutting and carrying, make this cloth in their houses and wear it. I can- 
not at present ascertain the description of trees whose bark is converted into 
this clothing, nor the detailed process employed in making it into thread. 
The hill people say that several different trees furnish the appropriate bark, 
and that it is necessary to beat and pound it, as for paper making 9 , previous 
to spinning it into thread. The cloth is exceedingly strong and durable, 
and is said to stand wet for a long time without being rotted, or injured in 
texture. It is brought to Kathmandu, in webs of about five yards long, and 
12 inches broad, which costs on an average eight annas. 

13. Rhari.— A coarse kind of woollen blanket manufactured by the Bhoteahs 
of the Nepal hills, and worn by them almost exclusively i is brought to 
Kathmandu in pieces of 7 1 yards long, and 14 inches wide, and costs 
about three rupees. Its texture is very thick and heavy, but it is ad- 
mirably suited for the rainy season, to the inclemency of which the burden- 
bearing, and wood-cutting Bhoteahs, are much exposed. The Newars do 
not wear this, nor indeed (as a general practice) any woollen garments. 
This is also for the most part of domestic manufacture, as every Bhoteah 
who possesses a few sheep, has a web or two of it made up annually by 
his family. To add to the warmth and thickness of the Rhari, it is fre- 
quently improved by beating wool into it, which gives it the appearance 
of felt. 

14. Bhote. — Has its name from that of the people making and wearing it. 
The hill countries north of Nyakote and the vslley of Nepal, up to the 
snows, produce this article. It is a thick and soft woollen stuff, half blan- 
ket half felt, much warmer and lighter than the rhari, but inferior to it as 
a protection against rain. A piece seven or eight yards long, by 18 inches 
wide, costs in Kathmandu about two rupees eight annas. 

P. S. On submitting the above to Mr. Hodgson's perusal, he informed me 
of the existence among the Newars, of some coloured cotton manufac- 
tures, overlooked by me in this list. I have procured specimens of them 
and of an unnoticed plain manufacture, both of which are added \ they 
are as follows : 

15. Putatti. — So called by the Newars. It is a strong coarse sort of check, 
generally blue and white, sometimes red and white ; is entirely a domes- 
tic manufacture, and very rarely procurable for purchase in the baser, the 
women not weaving more of it than suffices for their own wear. Is woven 
exclusively by the Newar women : a piece 5§ yards long, and 2$ feet wide, 
costs about 2$ current rupees. There are several varieties of this stuff, as 
to colour and pattern (some of them being striped instead of checked), but 
all are coarse and heavy. 

16. PumkA. — An imitation of the table cloth manufacture of Dinapur, and the 
variety technically called " Bird's eye." Three or four sorts are manufac- 
tured by the Newars, but all save one are coarse and heavy. It is worn 
by the better class of Newars, male and female, sn£ by the Parbattiah sol- 

• See the Nepal paper-making process, as described by Mr. Hodgson in the 
Journal of the Asiatic Society. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQLC 



Nisaetus "Nipalensis 

type, oj tht, ne»* Genus JiTisar/u* 
T. KU«k A**«l« Litk F,t/k 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

1636.] Summary Description of New Falconid*. 227 

diery occasionally. A web of fix yards long by two feet broad, costs three 
current rupees. The manufacture of this article is confined principally to 
the larger towns of the ralley. 
17. Bhim Poga. — (Newari.) An ancient manufacture and article of clothing 
of the Newars, but not worn by them in the present day. Is wore only by 
a class of outcasts, and is with difficulty procurable ; its only use at pre* 
sent is, to roll the corpse of religious persons in previous to being burned. 
The warp, is of coarse cotton thread, the woof of soft spun woollen yarn, 
in addition to whioh some fine wool is amalgamated with the web in wearing 
it. Its texture is rery soft, and is well calculyad for a warm in-door wear ; 
it is too fleecy to be kept out wet. A piece Tf four feet long by two feet 
wide, costs two current rupees. 

V. — Summary Description of some New Species of Falconida. By 
B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Genoa Aquila. Species new. Aquila Perniara. Jetty Eagle, (mini.) 
Habitat, the central and northern regions of Nepal. 

This species is throughout of a black colour, but less pure below 
than above, and the tail is transversely marked with four or five broad 
bands of a paler and brownish hue. The cere and toes are bright 
yellow. The bill blue, with a black tip ; the talons black, and the iris 
brown. It is a bird of somewhat slender form, and very graceful and 
powerful flight, possessing all the influential characters of the genus, 
as now restricted ; but distinguished from its type, or chrysactos, by a 
slenderer bill, rather longer toes, and longer and more acute talons. It 
is two feet five inches from tip of the bill to the end of the tail, and 
^ve feet and a half between the wings ; and is chiefly remarkable for 
the extreme inequality of size and acuteness of the talons. The orbits 
are downy ; the sides of the cere clad in short, soft hairs ; and the 
feathers of the hind head and neck are prolonged into a vague crest 
of narrow composed plumes. The cere is rather large, but not heavy ; 
the bill longer than the head, but slight rather in form. The wings 
are equal to the tail, with the fourth quill longest, and all the great ones 
strongly emarginated, remotely from their tips ; the tips being inclined 
a little inwards : tail even, or subrounded. 

The tarsi moderate and* plumed; toes nude and reticulate, with 
three or four scales next the talons, which, as already noticed, are 
very acute, and the inner fore and hind ones of extreme length and 
curve. The inner fore talon is the largest, then the hind one, next 
the central, and the outer fore, least. 

The nares are obliquely cleft in the cere, and of an irregular oval 
shape, with the upper margin arched and tumid* 
2 o 2 

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228 Summary Description of some [April, 

This is a shy bird, which adheres exclusively to the wild and moun- 
tainous tracts of the hills. Its body is entirely free from offensive 
odour and vermin, and its prey chiefly the pheasants of the region 
it frequents, as well as their eggs. Its weight is about 4? lbs. 
Genus Haliaetus. Species new. H. Albipes, (mihi.) 
This species is two feet nine inches long, and six feet eight between 
the tips of the wings. In colour it nearly resembles Macei, having 
the head, neck, and body, pale ruddy brown, darker on the thighs 
and rump; the scapulars, wings and tail, saturate brown: a large 
bar of pure white through the centre of the tail : and the cheeks, chin, 
and throat, hoary. The bill and head are considerably narrower than 
in the golden eagle, but the bill is fully as long in proportion to the 
head, and even more so. The toes are longer and less thick than in 
that species, and the talons rather more curved. In other respects, 
these members sufficiently resemble those of the type of Aquila. But 
the tarsi are nearly nude : the acropodia, as well as acrotarsia, wholly 
scaled; and the toes are cleft. The bill is longer than the head, 
straight towards the base, and at it nearly twice as broad as 
high. The lateral compression is, in general, moderate, and the 
ridge acutish ; the hook, large ; the cutting edges, even. The cere, 
large, nude, clad only on the sides towards the base with soft hairs, 
diverging from the fore angle of the eye. Nostrils, forward, sub-basal, 
obliquely transverse, irregularly oval, simple, and inclined to a curve 
at the forward extremity. The tarsi are low, thick, and gummy ; 
plumed over the knee, and a little below it. The toes, longish, un- 
equal, stout, cleft to their origins ; but the outer not versatile. To the 
front, both tarsi and toes are scaled, as already noted ; but the junc- 
tion of the toes and tarsi, as well as the sides and backs of the latter, 
are reticulate. The central toe is as long as the tarsi. The talons 
are long, arched, stout, and moderately acute : the hind one being the 
largest. All are flat below. The wing3 are very nearly equal to the 
tail, and have the fourth quill longest. Most of the great quills are 
strongly emarginated, high up, on both webs. The tail is of medial 
length, and square. The hook of the bill and the talons are black ; the 
bill blue ; the cere yellow : iris hazel brown, and feet pure white. 

This species is generally found on the banks of the larger rivers, 
near to where they issue into the plains, and it preys on fish. 
Genus Nisactus, (mihi.) 

The birds of this genus are distinguished by wings and tail formed 
upon the accipitrine model ; but their nares are transverse and specu- 
lated as in the eagles. Their festooned bills have a form which is 
osculant between the hawks and buzzards. They have the long slen- 

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1 836.] New Species of Falconid*. 229 

der plumed tarsi of Ltmrutetus, and the long, acute, and unequal talons 
xA the noblest hawks and falcons, to which moreover they assimilate 
in their manners, adhering exclusively to the wilds, and killing their 
own prey, which consists of pigeons, jungle fowls, and partridges. 

Species Nipalensit, mini. Habitat, the lower hills and Saul forest. 

This species is liable to vary very considerably in colour, and is 
sometimes found possessed of a drooping egret-like crest of two long, 
narrow, composed plumes. I have several specimens, procured with- 
in the past 1 years ; but, as I cannot venture to determine the diver- 
sities of appearance with reference to sex and age and season, I shall 
describe a bird in each of the more striking aspects it presents. 

1*/. This is the uncreated and paler aspect. The head, the neck, 
the whole body below, with the basal and interior parts of the plu- 
mage above, are white ; the wings, back, and tail, brown. 

The crown of the head, and the dorsal face of the neck, have a pale 
fawn-coloured smearing. The cheeks, chin, and throat are immacu- 
late ; the head, neck, and body, below marked lengthwise, with narrow 
lines of saturate brown. The thighs are transversely barred with 
pale fawn ; and the plumes of the tarsi, with the lower tail coverts, are 
unmarked. Several of the lesser wing coverts are broadly margined 
with white. The wings and tail have seven cross bars of saturate 
brown, which are vaguely seen above — clearly on the pale inferior 
surface. The lining of the wings is white, with here and there a 
heart-shaped brown mark. 

2nd. In this, the darker and crested form, the head and neck are 
brown, with broad white margins, — a change caused by the expansion 
of the centra] streaks of No. I . The cheeks and chin have a triple 
longitudinal marking of brown, one line proceeding from the chin 
down the throat, and one from either side of the gape over the cheeks. 
The transverse bars of the thighs are darker, being brown rather than 
rufous, and they are extended over the tarsi and inferior tail coverts. 
Lastly, from the back part of the head proceed two long, narrow, com- 
posed plumes of brown colour, forming a very graceful pendant crest. 

In both birds, the bill is blue at the base, black at the tip ; the cere, 
greenish yellow ; the iris, golden ; the toes yellow, and the nails, black. 
The largest specimen procured by me is 29| inches long and 60 wide : 
the smallest is 25 inches long and 49£ wide. The former weighed 
4 lbs., the latter, 2 lb*. 12 oz. The intestines vary in length from 46 
to 50 inches. There are two small caeca: the gut is much more 
capacious above than below. The stomach, though, of course, of 
the solvent type, has a thickish sub- muscular outer coat, and there 
are toft ridges along its inner surface. 

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330 Summary Description of Falconida. [April, 

The following characters of the bill and other members and or- 
gans apply equally to the foregone, and to that which will be pre- 
sently described. The bill is shorter than the head, moderately 
compressed, scarcely arched from the base, and scarcely straight at it, 
distinctly festooned, and moderately hooked, with the tip of the 
lower mandible very slightly truncated. 

The cere is moderately sized, and covered on the sides with down 
and soft hairs, which latter scarcely reach forward to the nares. The 
nares are almost vertical, ovate, angulated, and smallish. The orbits, 
clad ; the cartilage of the brows, nude and prominent ; the eye, ra- 
ther large ; the tarsi, long, slender, and plumed ; the toes of medial 
unequal length and thickness ; slenderer and longer than in Aquila or 
in Buteo, not so long or so fine as in the noble hawks and falcons, 
although, as in them, possessed of rough soles and large balls ; 
acropodia, reticulate, with three or four scales next the talons. The 
outer toe is connected with the central by a membrane : the talons, 
long, acute, and unequal, as much so as in the noblest of the hawks ; 
the hind talon, largest, and all flat beneath. 

The wings and tail are as strong and firm as in the finest of the 
Falconine race. The tail consists of 12 equal and broad feathers. 
The wings reach only to its centre. The fifth quill is the longest : 
but the fourth and sixth are nearly equal to it ; the first considerably, 
the second and third, moderately and equally, graduated up to the 
longest ; first to sixth inclusively emarginate, high up, on the inner 
web, and second to seventh, on the outer. 

Species Grandis, (mihi.) 

I have been able to procure but one species of this bird, which was 
taken alive, and lived in confinement upwards of three years. It died 
in December, in full plumage. It was a male, and answered to the 
following description. The iris is brown ; the cere and toes, yellow ; 
the bill, blue, its tip and the talons, black. Head, neck, body, and 
wings, saturate brown above, beneath white, stained with rufous ; the 
tail, above, slaty-blue. The cheeks, chin, throat, and breast exhibit 
on each plume a central broad stripe of dark brown, following the 
shaft, and margined on either side with rufous, on a white ground. 
The thighs are, herring-boned with brown ; and the tarsi and vent, 
narrowly streaked lengthwise with the same colour. The under tail 
coverts transversely barred with mixed rufous and brown : and the 
ground colour of the thighs and tarsi, for the most part, rufous. The 
lining of the wings is an irregular mixture of the hues of the upper 
and lower surfaces : or saturate brown and white, stained with 
rufous. There are six narrow, irregular cross bars on the tail, with 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1886.] Nipdlese Mammalia. 281- 

one broad terminal one, ef a blackish hue ; but the tip itself is pale. 
The wings and tail, on their inner surface, are whitish, irregularly 
crossed with freckles of brown, disposed barwise. 

The bird measured 27 inches by 60, and weighed 5 lbs. 

VI. — Synoptical Description of Sundry New Animals, enumerated in the 
Catalogue o/Nipdlese Mammals. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Sciuroptbrus, Cuvier. 

Species, Alboniger. Black and white. 

Flying Squirrel, mihi. 

Habitat, central and Northern regions of Nipal. 

Sc. above black, faintly shaded with hoary or rufous ; below, white, 
with a slight tinge of yellow ; tail, concolorous with the body above, 
distinctly distichous, flattened, and rather shorter than the animal. 
Nude skin of lips, ears, and feet fleshy white. Snout to rump, 1 1 
inches ; tail, 8£, without the terminal hair — 9, with it ; weight, 9 oz. 

Observations. The sexes are alike : the young are pure black above, 
pure white below. The species has but six teats, four ventral and 
two inguinal. The intestines are 85 inches long, or eight times the 
length of the animal. They have a wide caecum of nine inches in 
length, placed at 18 inches only from the anal extremity. 

Species, Magnificus. Splendid. 

Flying Squirrel, mihi. 

Habitat, as above. 

Sc. Above, intense chesnut, (the fruit ;) below and the shoulders, 
golden red; tail, paler than the body above, and tipped black: a 
black zone round the eyes, and another embracing the mustachios ; 
chin, pale, with a black triangular spot. Nude parts of skin, fleshy 
white. Tail, cylindrico-depressed, and considerably longer than the 

Parachute, large, enveloping six inches of the tail. Length of the 
animal, 16 inches, of the tail, 22 ; weight 3£ lbs. 

Observations. Sexes, essentially similar in colour. In old animals the 
chesnut colour tipt hoary, and, in the young, black tipt. In all, the 
tail, beyond the limits of the parachute, is paler than the superior 
surface of the body : and the black point is always present. So are 
the facial marks, though they be less conspicuous in young speci- 
mens. The intestinal canal is fourteen feet two inches long, or 10$ 
times as long as the body ; 8.8 to the caecum; 5.6 below it. The 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

2M Synopsis of g%mdry Species' of [Apeil, 

caecum is 20 inches long, very capacious, and sacculated. This species 
breeds in the rains, and seems to produce bnt one young at a time. 
In September, the offspring are tolerably independent of their mother, 
but their flying membrane is much less developed than in maturity. 

Genus, Sciurub, Auctorum. 

Species, Lokriah, mihi. 

Habitat, as before. 

Above, saturate brown, tipped with intense orange ; below, and the 
thighs, deep orange. Tail, concolorous with the body above, distich- 
ous, flattened, and broad, with a double margin of black and hoary. 
Length from snout to rump, eight inches. Of the tail, 6\ inches, with- 
out the terminal hair, equal to animal with it ; weight 8 oz. 

Species, Lokroides, mihi. 

Very similar to the last, but has the inferior parts rufous hoary ; 
the thighs, concolorous with the body above, and the tail narrower 
and void of marginal bands. 

Observations. The sexes alike in both the above species. Teats, 
six in both*. Intestines, 66 inches, or but eight times the length of 
the body, and of uniform calibre throughout. At 15 inches from the 
anal extremity, a caecum of four to five inches long, and double the 
calibre of the intestinal canal. 

Genus, Fblis, Auctorum. * 

Species, Viverriceps, mihi. Sharp-faced Cfat, mihi. 

Habitat, open lowlands of lower region. 

F. V. Wild cat, with subviverrine face, small ears, and short, 
slender, and tapered tail, reaching one inch below the os calcis. Above, 
and the neck, deep cat gray, or fulvous gray brown. Below, the head, 
tail, belly, and insides of the limbs, hoary. From the eyes to the 
root of the tail, four subcontinaous black lines : two more parallel to, 
and without, them, from the eyes to the shoulders; two perfect 
bands round the jaws, from the eyes : and three round the front of 
the neck and breast. Ears, black outside, with a large gray central 
spot, and rufous hoary on the inside. Body and limbs, wholly cover- 
ed with roundish full black spots, having a sublinear disposition from 
the head towards the tail ; the feet only, from the os calcis and top of 
the carpi, being immaculate. The tail exhibits above and below the 
ground colours of the body. On the upper surface, six or seven trans- 
verse bands, the two or three next the body, composed of dots, arrang- 
ed linearly, and the terminal one being large, forming a blackish tip 
to the tail on that surface. Length, from snout to rump, 30 inches ; 

* In the Regne Animal, eight tea$a are assigned to the squirrels. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 836.] New Mammals in Nipdlese Catalogue. 233 

of the tail, 10} inches, or 1 \\ with the hair : mean height, 15 : weight 
17 lbs. 

Observations. This species is affined to the Viverrae by the form of 
its face, and to the Lynxes, by the shortness of its tail, which extends 
bat little below the os calcis. But it has no further resemblance to 
either : its ears being noticeably short and untufted ; its body, full, and 
its limbs, strong and of medial length. The females are nearly as 
large as the males, to which they bear a close external likeness. In 
the catalogue, this animal is called a variety of the Serval ; but the 
inspection of several specimens has satisfied me of its specific novelty. 
It is distinctly described in the catalogue, though summarily. The 
intestinal canal is more than three times the length of the body, and 
the caecum is an inch long, with the diameter of the large gut, which 
is sensibly more capacious than the small. 

Genus, Felis. Subgenus, Lynch**. 

Species, L. Erythrotus. Red-eared Lynx, mihi. 

Habitat, all the three regions of Nipal, and abundant in all. 

Lynx. Above, pale earthen brown, with a lively tinge of rusty red : 
below, clear, but pale ferruginous ; the body, immaculate ; the cubits on 
both aspects, and the femora externally, crossed with blackish zigzag 
lines ; tail slender, attenuated, and reaching one inch below the os cal- 
cis ; concolorous with the body towards the base, but towards the tip, 
paler and canescent, encircled with four or five blackish rings, and tipt 
with black ; lips, jaw, and a zone round the eye, posteally, pure white. 
Ears, externally intense, rusty red, with black tip and small pencil of 
the same hue ; their lining, rufescent white ; feet, from the os calcis 
and top of the wrist, downwards, pale rusty, immaculate, and black- 
ened posteally. 

Snout to rump, 22 inches ; mean height, 16 inches ; length of tail, 
10, without the hair, 1 1 with it ; weight, 14 lbs. 

Remarks. The female in this species is considerably less than the 
male, but neither sex nor nonage affects the marking of the animal*. 
An imperfect state of the fur does so : for when the red-eared Lynx 
is moulting (so to speak), the sides of the body exhibit some vague, 
wavy, stripes, having a subvertical direction. 

The tufts of the ears are always present, and the molar teeth have 
tubercles on the inner side, notwithstanding the general assertion of 
authors that the Lynxes want them. His lengthened limbs, large 
pencilled ears, and shortish tail proclaim this animal a Lynx. His 
resemblance indeed to the Chaus of Ruppbl is so very striking, that in 
the catalogue I identified him with that species. From the examin- 
ation of numberless specimens, 1 am now satified, however, that our ani- 
2 H 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

234 Synopsis of sundry Species of [April, 

mal is specifically distinct from the Chans, as well as from the Lybian 
Caracal, to which in some points of colouring, he bears a nearer like- 
ness than to Chaus. This species is very ubiquitarian, being equally 
common in all the three regions of Nepal. In the central and north- 
ern regions, he represents the wild cat, which is not a denizen of these 
mountains ; nor (I think) of the plains of India. 

The red-eared Lynx breeds twice a year, producing three or four 
kittens at a birth. 

The intestinal canal of the species barely exceeds twice the length 
of the body, and is of nearly equal calibre throughout. The csecum 
is but half an inch long, with a breadth somewhat less than that of 
the large gut. Preys on pheasants, partridges, hares, and rats : breeds 
in the woods, but wanders freely through the standing crops. One 
of them, a female, took up its abode, and bred, under the residency 
mansion, in the past year. 
Genus Mus, Auctorum. 
Subgenus, Rattus, (Mus.) 
Species, R. Niviventer. White-bellied Rat, mihi. 
Above, saturate black brown : below, pure white ; tail, considerably 
longer than the body, and paled on the inferior surface. Size and 
aspect of Mus Rattus. 

Observations. For some time I took this animal to be a variety 
merely of the common types, but I have now ascertained that it is a 
distinct species*. It is invariably pure white below, and even the tail 
is paled on the abdominal aspect. 

The tail, too, is considerably longer than in Rattus. 
Species, Rattus. Nemorivagus, mihi. Throughout, dusky brown: the 
centre of the belly only being paler and hoary blue ; the bristles of 
the back, unusually long and numerous, but not erect or spiny ; 
tail shorter than the body, size large ; snout to rump, 12 inches. 
Length of the tail, 9£ ; ears, tail, and members strictly assimilating with 
the ordinary type. 

Remarks. The species avoids houses, dwelling in burrows in the 
fields, and more especially in the small woods. In the catalogue, it 
is called Setifer, to which species it bears much resemblance. The 
females have twelve teats. 
Genus, Man is auctorum. 
Species, Auritns, mihi. Eared Mania. 
Habitat, lower and central regions. 

• In the central region of Nep&l, there are four species of Rat, Decumanus, 
Rattus, Niviventer, and Nemorivagus. Each distinguished by an appropiate 
local name, and by some peculiarity of manners. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] New Mammals in Nipdlese Catalogue. 235 

Manis, with rounded, naked ears, vertically developed ; thick tail, 
more than one third thorter than the body ; and scales forming 23 lon- 
gitudinal series on the body and neck only. Snout to vent, 22 inches. 
Vent to tip of tail, 13. Weight, 12 to 14 lbs. 

Remarks. In the English Regne Animal the genus Mania is said 
to be devoid of external ears. Presuming the correctness of this 
statement, I have indicated a remarkable peculiarity of the present 
species by the specific name Auritus. The external ear, though small, 
is perfectly distinct ; the helix having a breadth or free exsertion from 
the head, of more than half an inch, and a longitudinal course of one 
and an eighth inch, in a direction vertically transverse. In the cata- 
logue, this animal is mentioned by the name of the short-tailed or 
common Indian species, (M. Pentadactyla of Linn.) with which I then 
supposed it to be identical. It differs however very materially, not 
only by the presence of ears, but by the much greater number of its 
scales. In our animal, the longitudinal series consists of 23 for the 
neck and body alone ; there being also 10 for the head, and 19 for the 
tail. The Mania Javanica of Dxsmarxst is said to have a series of 17 
for the body only. I presume our's yet exceeds this number. The 
general appearance of our animal is sufficiently assimilated to Cras- 
sicaudata ; the body being rather full, though elongated, and the tail 
shorter than the body, and very thick at the base. 

This latter member is flattened below; broadly con vexed above; 
and its scales are shorter and wider than those of the body. The feet 
are pentadactylous ; the colour of the scales, earthy brown, and of the 
nude skin, fleshly white. As I have been so fortunate as recently to 
witness the gestation and parturition of this species, and have been 
also enabled to note the animal's manners, with its anatomical struc- 
ture, I purpose, ere long to give the results of these observations ; and 
shall only add, on the present occasion, that if the incaution of authors 
only has led to the assertion, that the genus is earless, and the epithet 
Auritus affixed to our species thus cease to be characteristic, I would 
then suggest the trivial name Plurisquamis, or the many-scaled. 

Genus Vivxrra. 

Subgenus, Mangusta, (Herpestes.) 

Species Auropunctata, mini. 

Habitat, the Central Region. 

Mungoose. Of an uniform saturate olive brown, freckled with golden 

yellow, an aspect resulting from the five-fold annulation of each hair, 

with black and aureous ; cheeks, more or less rusty ; fur of the body, 

short, soft, and adpressed ; £ an inch below os calcis furred ; size small ; 

2 h 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

236 Synopsis of sundry Species of [April, 

tail, shorter than the body, snout to rump, 1 1 inches ; tail, 9 or 10} with 
the hair. 

Remarks. In this species, as in the following, the tail is pointed, 
much attenuated from a thick base, and clad in long lax hair. The 
naked skin of the lips and soles is fleshy brown : the iris, brownish 
yellow ; pupil, variable, but usually oblong and subtransverse ; digits, 
membraned crescentwise to the third phalanges. No anal pouch, bat 
the folds of the skin on the caudal margin of the anus are subddated 
and furnished with some scattered glandulous points below the surface, 
probably subservient merely to the lubrication of the parts. The ani- 
mal emitting no peculiar odour. 

The intestinal canal is 36 inches long, or more than three times the 
length of the body, and of equal diameter throughout. The caecum is 
one inch long, and wide as the gut. The stomach has thickish coats, 
and is equally broad almost at either end. The molar teeth are brist- 
led with points almost as in the Insectivora. In the catalogue, this 
animal is identified with the M. Javanica of Horspibld. But in the 
judgment of very competent persons, it is a distinct species. It differs 
materially from the common Mungoose of the plains, not only .by its 
smaller size, softer shorter hair, and darker colour, but by a less ver- 
miform habit of the body and shorter toes, the soles of which, in the 
hinder extremities, are less extended towards the os calcis. 
Species Nyula, mihi. 

The Nyiil of the plains. Habitat, the open Tarai. 
Mungoose. Varied, with mixed rich red brown and hoaryyellow, the 
ears, face, and limbs, redder and less maculate ; the neck and body be- 
low, pure pale yellow ; hair of the body and tail, long and harsh, with 
10 to 12 rings of alternate brown and yellow ; toes, long, and in the 
hind extremities, nude to the os calcis ; tail, concolorous with the body 
above, pointed and equal to the body in length. Snout to rump, 15 
inches ; tail, the same, or 1 8 with the terminal hair. 

Remarks. This is the common Mungoose of the Nipalese lowlands, 
and of North Behar, and which is identified with Cafra vel Grisea in 
the catalogue, perhaps justly so : I leave it to others to judge. Both 
of the above species affect the cultivated fields when the crops are 
standing, and the grass after the crops are down. They live in burrows 
of their own making ; and the structure of their extremities is fosso- 
rial, but not typically so ; the nails being suited also to climbing trees, 
at which the anira ils are sufficiently expert. 

The males are larger than the females ; and the young darker hued 
than their parents. The females breed in spring : have four: ventral 
teats, und usually \ roduce three or four young at a birth. The food 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] New Mammals in Nipdlese Catalogue. 237 

of both species consists of snakes, rats, mice, eggs, small birds, and 

Mr. Gray in some recent valuable remarks on the Viverridae, 
observes, that the Mongooses have *' long, slender, and free toes, and 
anal pouches of greater or less depth." 1 have again and again exam- 
ined fresh specimens of Nyula and of Auropunctata, with a view to 
these assertions, but the result of my observations is that they are 
almost wholly erroneous. Neither in the highland nor lowland ani- 
mal is there any semblance of an anal pouch ; and the toes of both are 
connected by a membrane as far forwards as the hinder edge of the 
third phalanx. In Nyula, indeed the toes are elongated, and the hind 
feet nearly nude to the heel. In Auropunctata, however, the toes have 
but a medial length, and the fur reaches fully half an inch below the 
point of the heel. 

The fact is, that the structure of the Mungoose, though digitigrade 
upon the whole, is by no means typically so : and, in the slow stealthy 
motion to which they are much accustomed whilst questing for their 
prey, they use the plantigrade action. Their nails are fossorial in the 
maia ; and, like most diggers, these animals incline somewhat to the 
plantigrade structure and movement. In fact, they lead off from the 
typical digitigrades towards the plantigrades, through the Paradox uri, 
the Gluttons and the Rattels ; still, however, retaining the shortish 
toes and lengthened compact metatarsi of the digitigrades. 

Tribe, Plantigrades. 

Genus, Gulo. English Regne Animal. 

Species new. Gulo Nipalensis, mihi. 

Habitat, Central region of Nipal. 

G. Above, earthy brown : below, with the edge of the upper lip, the 
insides of the limbs, and terminal half of tail, yellow; a white 
mesial stroke from the nape to the hips, and a white band across the fore- 
head, spreading on the cheeks and confluent with the pale colour of the 
animal's lower surface : head and body vermiformed ; digits and nails of 
the anterior extremities stronger ; half way from the os calcis to the 
fingers, hairy ; fur of two sorts, and abundant, but not lengthened 
or harsh, nor annulated : tail, cylindrico- tapered, pointed, half the 
length of the animal ; snout to rump, 16 inches ; tail, 7 J, or 9 with the 
terminal hair. 

Remarks. In the catalogue, this animal is identified with the Gulo 
Orientalis of Java (apud Horsfibld), which is at all events, the insular 
analogue of out's. The cheek teeth are { { and the animal conse- 
quently belongs to genus Gulo, as defined in the English Regne 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

238 Nipdlese Mammalia. [April, 

The form of this species is decidedly Musteline from the snout 
to the tail ; and not merely the head, with its several external organs 9 
hut the skull also hears a close resemblance to those of Martes and 
Pu torius. The anterior limbs, however, are decidedly fossorial, and 
the hinder suited for walking in a subplantigrade manner : both wholly 
unfitted for raptatory or scansorial purposes. 

Genus Gulo. Species new. 

G. Urva, mihi. Habitat, Central and Northern Regions. 

Urvd of the Nipalese. 

G. Urvl. Above and the sides jackal colour, or fulvous iron gray ; 
abdominal aspect of the neck, chest, and belly, with the entire limbs, 
dusky brown, a lateral band on either side the neck, from the gape to 
the shoulders, white ; size and aspect of the preceding ; fur of two 
sorts, and very abundant ; hair very long, and laxly set on ; quadran- 
nulated with black and fulvous ; anterior and posterior extremities of 
equal strength, and the nails simply ambulatory, being suited neither 
to raption, scansion, nor digging ; for the rest, the general form of 
the feet as in the preceding, 

P. S. The whole of the above animals were discovered by me 
several years back (1823-1829), and might have been described much 
sooner, had I not deemed it improper to hazard the multiplication of 
imaginary species by characterising from one or two specimens. There 
is not one of these species of which I have not procured several speci- 
mens at all seasons, and either alive or just killed. The indications of 
the catalogue are such as to entitle me to date from its publication 
(originally in 1829). But, in truth, my object has been, and is, much 
less to share in the scramble of nomenclators, than to ascertain the 
habits and structure of species. 

Nothing is so vague at present as the true limits of species, and as 
my first aim was rather to find resemblances than differences, so per- 
haps it might wisely have been my last. 

If, however, any person who chances to lay hold upon a single 
shrivelled skin, may forthwith announce a new animal, the real student 
of nature must be content to leave what is called discovery to the 
mere nomenclator ; and the science must continue to groan under an 
increasing weight of fictitious species. 


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1836.] Occasional existence of fresh water in the ocean. 239 

VII. — Note on the occasional existence of fresh water on the surface of 
the ocean. By Mr. C. Brown low. 

It is stated in a recent paper by Arago, on the subject of Artesian 
Wells, upon the authority of one of our most accurate observers— Bu- 
chanan— that, when on his way to India, he found fresh water more 
than one hundred miles from land, to the eastward of the Bay of Bengal. 
Arago has adduced this fact to prove, that springs rise to the surface 
of the globe from unknown depths. He is doubtless correct in this as. 
sertion, as long as he confines his observations to land phenomena — 
many causes, however, led me to doubt that fresh water could rise to the 
surface at sea, among which may be enumerated the effects of tides, 
the disturbance and friction of one fluid passing up through the other, 
and the strong affinity which aids their combination while thus in motion. 

The fact that fresh water deposited in the shape of rain, remains 
unmixed with the salt water beneath, for many hours, during calm wea- 
ther; that it is found at sea, around the mouths of large rivers, during 
serene days, at an almost incredible distance, led me to seek for an expla- 
nation of Buchanan's fact, in some less embarrassing theory than the one 
which Arago has adopted. I accordingly applied to Mr. Sinclair, one of 
the most experienced and intelligent of the members of the Pilot service, 
who acquainted me with the following fact. 

In the month of October, 1803, in connection with Branch Pilot Bason, 
he took charge of the Gungava, an Arab ship, from Muscat, laden with 
horses. The passage of the vessel had been long and tedious, and they 
were deliberating on throwing their horses overboard, when one of the men, 
who had been bathing on a hatch, came and reported that the water along 
side was fresh ; a bucket was thrown over, which went something below 
the surface, and the water brought up was salt!— on further examination, 
it was found that the water on the surface was perfectly fresh. The vessel 
was supplied from this source, and the cargo saved. Another member of 
the same body informs me, that during the Burmese war, he obtained 
fresh water thus when taking troops to Rangoon*. 

It appears more reasonable to account for this fact, by referring to the 
increased impulse of the waters discharged from the Ganges during the 
rains to the quantity of fresh water actually deposited on the surface of 
the sea, at this season of the year, and to the laws of the specific gravity 
which determine the relative positions of fluid bodies, than to adopt a 
theory which at once sets these aside, and does violence to an established 
principle in physics : for these reasons 1 think Arago's inference open to 

* These instances occurred over that remarkable part of the bay, the " swatch 
qf no ground," the depth of which renders Arago's theory still more untenable ! 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

240 Note on the Cervus Duvaucelii of Cuvier. [April, 

VIII.— Note on the Cervus Duvaucelii of Cuvier, or C. Elaphoides and 
Bahraiya of Hodgson. 

In the number of the Journal for last November, p. 648, PL VIII. Mr. 
Hoimwon hag given the specific characters, and a figure of the head and 
horns, of a deer which he describes as a new species under the name of 
Cervus Elaphoides. The author of this notice came to know this species 
iu February 1834, from a fine specimen shot by Mr. Monet inajhii 
near Muzaffernagar, in the Kadir of the Ganges. Finding no mention* 
made of it in Hamilton Smith's very complete Synopsis of the tribe in 
Griffith's Translation of the Animal Kingdom, he was, like Mr. Hodgson, 
led to consider it as an undescribed species, to which he attached, in his 
collection, the specific name of C. Enctodocerus, and " Bara Sinha," of 
the natives. But he subsequently found that it was known to Cuvier as 
a distinct species. In the fourth volume of the Ossemens Fos*Ues 9 third 
edition, p. 505, the horns of the animal are described under the name of 
C. Duvaucelii, in honour of his step-son, who sent them to Cuvier from 
India ; and iuPlate XXXIX of the same volume, he gives outlines of three 
varieties of horns (figs. 6, 7, and 8,) which put it beyond all doubt that 
the C. Duvaucelii of the Oss. Fossi., and the Cervus Elaphoides of Hodg- 
son, are the same species. Cuvier b words are these : 

" Cet infatigable naturaliste M. Duvaucel, me met encore a meme 
de faire connoitre a roes lecteurs deux especes de cerf des Indes entiere- 
ment nouvelles pour les naturalistes. 

« La premiere, &c. (he then goes on to describe the C. WaUichii.) 
Nous navons que les bois de l'autre espece, mais ils suffisent parfaitemeut 
pour la caracteriser. 

" A la premiere vue on les prendroit pour ceux d'un vieux cerf common, 
et bien des voyageurs ont du s'y tromper, mais c'est toute une autre cour- 
bure, et une autre distribution d'andouillers. 

" Le Merrain se dirige d'abord un peu un arriere et de cole*, et de sa 
partie superieure se recourbe en avant, en sorte que sa concavity est en 
avant comme au cerf de Virginie; mais cette courbure n'y est pas si forte. 

" 11 ne donne qu'un seul andouiller de sa base, dirige' en avant. 

« Les autres naissent de sa partie supeneure et posteneure, et se dirigent 
en haut, et un peu en arriere et en dedans. 

«< Ils sontan nombre de deux, oude trois, et 1 mfeneur qui est ordinaire- 
ment le plus grand, se bifurque ou se trifurque suivant l'age ; en 
sorte qu'au total on peut compter dans les bois que nous avons sous les yeux, 
et que nous representor pi. xxxix. figs. 6, 7, et 8, de cinq k sept corn 
a chaque perche ; quelquefois il y'a un petit tubercule dans 1 aisseUe de 
l'andouille de la base." 

• Except in the note p. 116, vol. IV. where Hamilton Smith quotes 
Cuvikr's name, with a conjecture that it applied to some species of the group 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQLC 

Jcttr. ds . Srr. 


.Ittscrijbtictt ft />"//*///'// f 'SW /> 1$$ / 



dmr tip 

(vrtttx Diin/ttrr/it Cm\ [Oh*. j % v*s. IV. PWXIXj 


Digitized by VJ \J \J V I 

J 83 6.] Note on the Cervus Duvaucelii of Cuvier, 241 

" II est fort a desirer que Too obtienne promptement une description 
slu pelage de oe beau oerf ; maw en attendant nous croyons devoir lui 
donner le nom du naturalise qoi l'a fait connoitre, et nous l'appelerons 

• < Copies of Cuvier's figures are annexed, (see PL VI. figs. 6, 7, 8) which 
^4iJfer imljr from Mr. Hodoson's to the extent within which varieties 
I 'tjepewlent on age and individuals range. - ., . • 

- • i*!$*4* designation of Cervus Elapkoides, must therefore give nlace tu 
.tWofC Duvaucelii. * 

The chief anatomical peculiarities of the bead, as compared with .the 
Jarao of the Himalaya**, taken as the type of the Rusas, are these. The 
ijead is narrower for its length, and more elegant in its proportions, 1 ^*an 
HI the Jarao. The pedicile* of the horns are shorter, and more approxi- 
mated on the brow. The muzzle is longer and more slender. The inter- 
^axillaries are broad* as in the Rusas, and their ascending apophysis joins 
ski to the nasals by a wide base. The nasals are alen4er, and run up into 
the frontal in a line with the anterior margin ofc the orbits : in the Jarao, 
Site' point of union is considerably lower, tfreir lower extremity projects 
a little way beyond tbe intermaxiljaries, and a re-entering angle is fcdfe < 
between them at their tips. . -The nasolachrymarv figure is a wide trana- 
fium, whereas in the Himilayah Jarao, it i» a long, triangular slit. 'Pbe 
depression for the tuborbitary sinus occupies less space than in the Jarao, 
|fot it is deep and .well defined- "The lachrymal bone, at the upper angle 
#f the depression in the C. Duvauctjii, is perforated by; a ^ery large oval 
hole ; whereas in the Jarao it is imperforate. The chaffron has a slight 
rise on the nasals, sinks considerably in a transverse hollow between the 
orbits, and then starts with great prominence in the ridge which runs 
ajong the suture of the frontals, so that the plane of this ridge cuts that 
•f the parietals nearly at a right angle. In the Jarao, the sink between 
the orbits is shallower, the ridge less salient on the frontals, and the 
kngle more obtuse. 

t With regard to the indigenous names of the C. Duvaucelii, Mr. 
jHodoson gives the Nipalese name of Bahraiya, and says it is known in 
the western tarai as the Mahd. To C. Elaphus of the Nipalese sal forest, 
lie gives the name of Bdra sinha. 

. There is great confusion in the Indian designations of the deer tribe. 
Bara Sinha is a notable example. Hamilton Smith applies it (his Biiren- 
stig'ha) to the C. Hippelaphus, one of the Rus<*ys ; Mr. Hodgson to one of 
the Elaphine group; and in the Tarais to the west of the Ganges, so 
far as our experience goes, it is given to the Cervu* Duvaucelii or Ettr- 
phoides, of Hodgson. That it is inapplicable to the C. Elaphut, it is perhaps 
sufficient to mention, that the name of Bdra Sinha is very common in th e 
Tarai westward of the Ganges, whereas the Cervus Eiapfius is quite 
unknown in this tract, so far as we happen to know. Sportsmen westward 
from the Ganges, call the C. Duvaucelii, the Bdra Sinha, from the snugs 
and antlers being frequently twelve in number, In the adult animal, anj 
this seems* very good reason for the name, Mah^i, which Mr. Hodgson 
2 i 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

242 Note on the Cervus Duvaucelii of Cuvier. [April, 

applies to the species, we have always understood to belong to the Rasa 
of the Himalayan ; this name being given in Sub- Himalayan tracts ; and 
Jarao (or Jerow) in the interior of the Hills, to one or more species, but 
these strictly confined to the Rusa group. Mr. Hodgson's authority, as the 
first among Indian Zoologists, will give great weight to such names as he 
attaches to the deer tribe; and it is most desirable, that those most 
generally in use should be selected. If those who have the opportunity, in 
different districts, were to communicate the names by which they know the 
different species of the deer tribe, much of the vagueness which at present 
attaches to the native designations might be got over. 

The following names are in common use in the plains and hills westward 
of the Ganges, their synonyms are also given. 

Merg, applied, as a general designation for all the deer tribe ; Cervida 
and CaprkUe. 
J hank, applied to all the Cervidas, but more especially to the large species. 
C. Duvaucelii, Cuv., and Elaphoides of Hodg., called Bara Singka, 
Bahraiya of the Nipalese, Hodo. 

C. Hippelaphus ? and AristoleKs, or Rusas, called Mahd in the Sub- 
Himalayan tracts, and Jarao (Jerow) in the interior of the mountains. 
Syns. Saunter of Bengal and Jarai of Nepal. 
C. Ratwa, Hodo., called " Kukar'—Ratwa of Nepal. 
A. Ghoral, Hardw., Ohoral everywhere. 

A. Thar, Hodo., called " Sarao" (Surrowa) in the hills between the 
Ganges and Tonse ; between the Tonse and Sutlej called " Elmos" the 
Thdr of Nepal. 

A. Tetracornis, called "Chouka" or "Chousinga" Chikara on the 
authority of Hardw. ; but this name applied to the 

A. Acuticornis ? or Subulate ? an elegant small sized antelope, with horn 
on the females, numerous about Delhi, and there called " Chikara." 

Capra Jharal, Hodg. (Quadrimamnm ? see p. 254) called Tehr and 
Thdr ; Jhar&l of Nepal. 

C. Ibex ? called Sakeen in Kan£war. This species, which is strictly an 
Ibex, is got along with the Bhuroor. It does not appear to be known to 
Mr. Hodgson ; Major Kennedy had two stuffed specimens at Subatu. 

Ovis Nahoor, Hodg., called Bhuroor near the source of the Ganges ; 
Nahoor of Nepal. 

The Antilope Cervicapra, (Hiran ;) Cervus axis, (Cheetul;) C. Porcmus, 
(Parah;) Antilope Picta or Damalis Resia, (Nilgao,) are so generally 
known by these names, that it is hardly necessary to mention them; 

Note. — The animal to which the above principally refers was known to Mr. 
Hodgson from 1820, when there was a live one in the Durbar Menagerie at 
Katmandhu, though not accurately observed by him, he had, and used, the occasion 
of another specimen being there in 1825, to note the characters of the beast. 
Monsieur Duvaucbl was his friend and correspondent, and was assisted by him 
to the utmost ; two of his collectors lived in his house at Katmandhu for a year 
(1827-8,) and were furnished out of his own stores with sundry specimens. 

M. Duvaucbl may therefore have procured the beast from him, or through 
him ; it is certain that Mr. H. knew this stag before the latter came to India. — Ed. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Horary Observations of the Barometer, $c. 


IX. — Horary Observations of the Barometer, Thermometer, and wet- 
bulb Thermometer, made at Calcutta on the 2\st and 22nd of March, 
1 836. Hy Mr. H. Barrow, H. C. Mathematical Instrument-maker. 

■ ■ 



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.2 £ S 




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:£ -B 

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6 A.M 


74, C 













30,0 1 (j 










































? 975 

















1 81,0 










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der and light- 








ning, which 








continued part 








of the next day. 















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77 5 


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Hie above observations were made with a Barometer in every re- 
spect the same as the one used on the 21st and 22nd of December last, 
except that the bulb of the attached Thermometer is inserted in 
the Barometer cistern to better ascertain the Temperature of the mer- 
cury. The reduction of the Barometer to 32° is made by the formula 


t ~ 32 X.003 So and a constant 030 added for capillarity. 

H. B. 

2 i 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

244 Horary Observations of the Barometer, %c. [ApriI* 

Note. — On referring to my manuscript meteorological table for the 
month of March, I find that an error of 05 has been made in the 
printed entry of the two barometers at 10 a. m. on the 21st, which 
should stand 29,899 and 29,947. After correcting these, it will be 
found that to reduce Mr. Barrow's observations to terms of the baro- 
meter I have hitherto registered # 015 must be added to the corrected 
column at 32° : and to compare them to the new standard by New- 
man '029 must be deducted. 

These discrepancies are nothing more than index errors ; but as it 
is a matter of some importance to know which gives the correct alti- 
tude, and why an instrument commissioned with such precautions from 
the best maker at home should stand three or four hundredths of an - 
inch lower than tubes made, filled, boiled, and measured in Calcutta ; I 
have with Mr. Barrow's aid remeasured the scales of the several 
instruments respectively from to the 30 inch mark, by a standard 
brass scale of Trouqhton's at the temperature of 95°. 

Mr. Barrow's scale was laid off by himself exactly 30,000 inches* 

My compensation barometer to a scratch on the glass origi- «» 

nally marked by myself with the same care, was found on L 30,000 

remeasurement to be quite correct J 

Newman's Strd. 1st trial 29,658 + 1,176— 0,814= 30,020 -| 

2nd do. 28,746 + 1,176 + 0,100=30,022 1 30,020 
3rd do. 28,848+1,176 =30,018J 

The principal difficulty in measuring the column of Newman's in* 
strument was to find the distance from the lower end of the ivory 
cone (or the level of the mercury in the cistern) to the upper part of 
the cistern : this I made by several trials 1,173 to 1,176 ; Mr. Barrow 
made it 1,182 and 1,183; Mr. Pearson 1,172: I have taken it at 
1,176 as the mean, and feel confident the error of the whole measure- 
ment does not amount to 0,005 inch. The readings therefore of this 
instrument in every instance will be ,020 too low. 

I am reluctant to suppose Mr. Newman should have sent me a 
barometer at such a vast cost so carelessly verified ; but such seems to 
be the case from the above measurement, wbich is confirmed by the 
register ; for allowing ,009 for the expansion of the brass scale, and 
adding it to the index error above, we find almost the exact amount 
by which the new instrument stands lower than my former standard 
which latter has been compared by three opportunities with the Royal 
Society's barometer and found to agree very closely. Mr. Newman 
neglected to make this comparison, although I particularly requested it. 

J. P. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1866.] Asiatic Society. 245 

X. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 
Wednesday Evening, the Uh May, 1836. 

The Hon'ble Sir Edward Ryan, President, in the Chair. 

In reference to the resolution of the last meeting, the President stated, 
that he had addressed the following letter to the Governor General, 
whose acceptance of the office of Patron he had now the pleasure to 

Asiatic Society 1 $ Apartments, May 2nd, 1836. 
My Loan, 

I have the honor to inform yon, that at a Meeting of the Asiatic Society, held 
on the 6th April last, it was resolved *' that the Right Honorable Lord Auckland 
should he respectfully solicited to accept the office of Patron ;" and it was further 
determined, " that the President of the Society should he requested to communicate 
their wish to bis Lordship, and to ascertain his pleasure on the subject." 

As President of the Society, I have the honor to communicate their wishes, and 
respectfully to request you will inform me whether it is your Lordship's pleasure 
to accept this Office. 9 

I am, My Lord, 

Your Lordship* s most obedient servant, 

£. Ryan. 
The Right Hon'ble Loan Auckland. 

Government House, May 3rd, 1836. 

I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, and to assure you, that I 
gratefully accept the honorable title of Patron of the Asiatic Society, and shall 
be glad if, at any time, I should find it in my power to promote the objects of 
so excellent and so interesting an Institution. 

I am, 
Most faithfully, &c. your's, 
Hon'ble Sir Edward Rtan, Auckland. 

&c. &c. &c. 

Lieut.-Col. Caulfield, proposed at the last Meeting, was ballotted for, 
and unanimously elected a Member. 

Mr. R. W. G. Frith was proposed as a member of the Society by Mr. 
Jambs Pbinsep, seconded by Mr. W. Martin. 

Mr. William Brucr, proposed by Mr. Pearson, seconded by Babu 
Ram Comul Sen. 

Mr. James Prinsep proposed Dr. Lumqua, as an Honorary Member on 
the occasion of his return to China, seconded by Dr. Corbtn. 

Read a letter from J. C. Morris, Esq., Secretary Madras Literary 
Society, acknowledging the receipt of the Index, and the Oriental Works 
lately transmitted. 

The Secretary submitted to the Meeting the Proceedings of the Com. 
mittee of Papers and Museum Committee, relative to the system of paid 
Curatorship, of which the experimental year sanctioned on the 6th May, 
1835, had just expired. 

[These proceedings are given at length below.] 

The President reminded the Meeting of the alternatives suggested by the 
Report of the Committee : Members were to determine whether a paid Curator 
should still be maintained, under the certainty of the income of the ensuing year 
not being sufficient to cover even the ordinary expences, including the volume 
now in the press ; — whether donations could be reckoned upon ; — or whether 
the vested capital should be touched. Babu Ram Comul Sen had proposed, that 
the latter should be devoted to the publication of the Researches, an applica- 
tion which might accord with the original intention of the donors. There was 
still an alternative— would any zealous Member undertake to look after the 
Museum gratuitously ? All other offices in the Society were gratuitous ; the 
Secretary, the Treasurer, although their labours were very heavy, even the 
Librarian, Dr. Buxlini, received uo pay. If none offered to lend their aid, it 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

246 Asiatic Society. [April, 

was evident they must have a paid Curator, if the Museum, which was so essen- 
tial to the prosperity of the Society, were to be maintained at all. 

Babu Ram Comul Sen explained, that the invested sum of 17,000 Rupees 
was part of a legacy of 20,000 by the late Mr. Bruce ; this sum the Society 
had resolved to reserve, and to devote the interest of it to the printing of the 
Transactions ; he therefore now wished to see the sum made up to the fall amount 
once more; the interest 1000 per annum, would pay for the publication of a 
volume in four years, about the average hitherto issued. 

The Secretary had, with the President, misunderstood his colleagues* meaning 
in Committee ; he seconded his motion now most warmly ; as long as the prin- 
cipal remained, it put the Society beyond the danger of dissolution : even 
if deserted by all its Members, there was a fund to keep up the rooms, the 
library, and the name of the Institution at least. 

The publication of the present volume was the chief cause of the deficit in 
our budget : it would be an expensive volume from the number of plates ; but 
the prosperity of the Society was even more concerned in the immediate and 
full publication of the fossil discoveries in Northern India, than in the main- 
tenance of the Museum. It should be remembered, that M. Bouchez, the Assist- 
ant and Working Curator, would be competent to set up all new specimens, and 
preserve the present collection ; and could Dr. Pearson be persuaded to lend 
his gratuitous supervision (or the next year, after that the printing might be 
suspended, and he might again be put on pay. There was still another plan by 
which 1200 rupees might be saved, that of making Members pay for the Journal 
now issued gratis to them, or rather paid for out of the general fund. 

Captain Peii berton and Dr. Corbyn considered the support of the Museum 
as a main cause of the Society's flourishing condition, and thought it would 
bring an accession of Members that would cover the ex pence ; they therefore 
moved as an amendment : — 

Resolved, that with reference to the probable advantages in a pecuniary 
way to the Society, from the continuance of the Museum, and in the 
absence of any other alternative, it is expedient that the Curator's esta- 
blishment should be maintained another year on the present scale ; and that 
the funds necessary for its support, in case of a deficiency of income, should 
be supplied from the money now invested in paper. 

The amendment was carried by a majority of seven to five, the Pre- 
sident not voting. 


Read a letter from His Excellency General Saint Simon, Pair de France, 
Governor of the French establishment in India, forwarding- on behalf of 
Monsieur Garcin De Tassy, a copy of his edition of the text of Kdmar&pa 
in Hindustani, of which he had before presented the translation; with other 
copies for distribution. 

Journal Asiatique, Nos. 85, 86, 87, 88, were presented by the Asiatic 
Society of Paris. 

Madras Journal of Literature and Science, Nos. 10 and 11, were pre. 
sented by the Mad. Lit. Socy. and Auxiliary of the Royal Asiatic Society. 

Meteorological Register for March 1836 — by the Surveyor General* 

The Indian Journal of Medical Science, No. 5 — by Dr. F. Corbyn. 

Read a letter from Dr. Lumqua, presenting to the Society 352 volumes: 
of valuable and useful Chinese books, of which the following is a catalogue. 

1. 5 vols. Tai hdk chung yong, 1st vol. works of the grandson, THt-sU, and 

of a disciple of Confucius. 

Shiong-lon-hdr-lon, 2nd and 3rd vols. Confucius* conversation 

with his disciples. 

Shiong mdng-hdr-mdng, 4th and 5th vols, ditto grandson's 

scholar's work Mang. 

2. 5 vols. Tai hok chung yong chli, &c. Explanation of the above, 5 vols. 

3. 3 vols. Hao-king, Confucius' works on moral duties. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Asiatic Society. 247 

4. 3 vols. Ski Hmg, "| ,,._„*. 

5. 7 ▼oil. SAtf Icing. ^Ancient reoordi collected by Confucius. 

6. 6 vole. Lai ki. J 

7. Chan-t$ao, Confucius' works, moral tales. 

8. 2 vols. Kd yfi, Ditto and his disciples' conTersations on the creation. 

9. -i Honghi M pen t Chinese Dictionary, by the Emperor of Honghl, 

10. J 32voU * 130 years since. 

11. 8 vols. Y-tk*p yat ftfi, Chronology of Kings' Ministers from the begin- 

ning to the Ming dynasty inclusive. 

12. 10 vols. Qontnngtan yH t Statistics and Customs of the Canton provin- 

ces, a new work of some reputation. 

13. 32 vols. Kad Tai Sing, Laws of the Tai Sing dynasty. 

14. 14 vols. Po-ong. Cases, arguments, and royal decrees of the present 

15/ 4 toIs. S«i-un-to*, Collection of difficult cases, with decisions. 

16. 5 vols. Lung to kvng-ong, of the same nature. 

17. 4 vols. Ttang tai un iok t additions to No. 15. 

18. 38 vols. Shan-ten-thang kdn, history of gods and saints. 

19. 1 vol. Yau-fo-chi ndm, the compass of childhood, (on their diseases., 

20. 5 vols. JTem-JWni-mo? /o, on Anatomy and Surgery, with prescrip- 

21 1 vol. Yaufofdtfal, (Director of childhood,) medical. 
22.' 6 vols. Yaufo ttap thin, Collections of aU the authors on diseases of 


23. 6 vols. Y-fong pan cho, a glossary of medicaments and ailments. 

24. 8 vols. Wdnpingfoi chh*n f prescriptions for the cure of every case 

surgical and medical, of all ages. 

25. 4 vols. Nd chan phhi, on the moral preservation of the life, and on sane- 


26. 6 vols. Chhang ttb ting cha yet t Aft, Chang tsn sing on horoscopy, or 

selection of fortunate days for building, marrying, &c 

27. 6 vols. Puk-yik, on fortune telling. 

28. 9 vols. Son-fd, the accountant's guide. . x .. . 

29. 2 vols. To-tak-king, book of the To (philosophers) religion. 

30. 8 vols. Wud-fdt-tay-thing, book of synonymes. 

31. 6 vols. Kong-tttloifu, complete epitome of Natural History. 

32. 5 vols. Shing yfi hao, mythology of heaven, earth, animals, mankind, (a 

kind of Lempriere,) for enriching language, with anecdotes. 
33 2 vols. Ying-nd, abridged general history. 
34.' 8 vols. Yong chi ttuin ch&, Yong chi's collection of poetical extracts. 

35. 4 vols. Ch6-M, specimens of elegant prose writing, by Cho-tbu. 

36. 15 vols. Md»-ttui*, collection of best essays. .».,.«««. 

37. 4 vols. Ttdm long tttmg tttii, ditto of best poetry on the affections. 
38 10 vols. U-mdn. Best specimens of ancient composition. 

39! 5 vols. T,hong-tt*. Poetry of the Thong dynasty. 

40 7 vols. Y~wai-ttdp. Poetry adapted to expression of feelings. 

41*. 4 vols. Chung-wd-/ung tto kthong. Customs of the Chinese empire. 

42.' 5 vols. ShU-pan. Forms of petitions, letters, &c. .... . m 

43 20 vols. Lao-ttingtanttdp, (a new work,) customs, ceremonies, letters, he. 

44. 4 vols. Kai-yan-y. A poetical book of jests. 

45. 5 vols. Sft-sA* king mant thi. Novelties of the four seasons. 

46. 2 vols. Sit-yok. Gems of good writing. 

47. 4 vols. Twn than. Chinese Directory of general knowledge and court 

guide of salaries, &c. 
The following Burmese and Talain manuscripts were presented by 

Capt. W. Foley : 

F Languagt. Character. 

No. 67. Vajira Buddhi Tika, Pfli, , Barma. . . 312 p. 

68. Wessantara jataka, Danakhanda 3rd, Pali-Talaw, Talain. .. . 64 p. 

69. Ditto. , chha khattiya ditto, ditto 40 p. 

70. Ditto. , ditto, ditto, ditto 34 p. 

7 1 . Janaka jataka, ditto, ditto, ditto 52 p. 

72. Tikanipata, ditto, ditto, ditto 48 p. 

73. PattMna, ditto, Pali, Barma. .. 672 p. 

Digitized byLjOOQlC 

248 Asiatic Society. [Afhil, 

Pa8obal Aucher's Armenian translation of Milton's Paradise Lost, 
was presented by Mr. Johannes Avdall. . 

Mr. Hodgson, Resident in Nepal, forwarded to the Secretary several 
specimens of the drawings prepared for his proposed Illustrations of the 
Geology of Nepal. 

Subscribers had held back from patronizing hit work because no mention is 
made of price in Mr. H.'s Prospectus. Without consulting publishers at home, 
this cannot be done with any certainty ; bnt as a guarantee that the charge shall 
be below actual co$t, Mr. Hodgson states that he is willing to devote 3000 
rupees towards the publication, of what has already cost him so much to accu- 
mulate. Any subscriber may withdraw hereafter should he disapprove of the 
terms ; in fact, as he quaintly but truly observes, he does not seek to put himself 
under obligation to others, but rather other* under obligation to Aim, by his 
devotion of time, labour, and money to this grand object*. 

Resolved, that the Asiatic Society subscribe for two copies of Mr. 
Hodgson's work, and that the Prospectus be circulated among its Members. 

The Second volume (or rather the preface) of the Sairul Mutakherin^ 
was presented by Maulavi Abdulmojid the editor and publisher. 

Museum and Antiquities. 

An elephant's tooth, carved all over with images of Gautama, an object 
of considerable curiosity and antiquity, procured in a cave near Mouimein, 
was presented by Captain W. Foley. 

Dr. Wallich presented in* the name of Captain Bogle, a wooden stand, 
ard taken from the Bhotia army. 

(See Plate VI. fig. 4.) It is a bit of plank mounted on a staff, painted red, 
with an image of Buddha, belligerent (?) on one side, and a Tibetan inscription 
on the back, (copy of which has been sent to Mr. Csoma KOrOsi for transla- 
tion. " The Demangari Raja always had it carried before him with great 
solemnity, and under the special keeping of a large guard of honor, who how- 
ever in the affair of Subang-kotta ran away without it, and it fell into our 

A Burmese musical instrument was presented by Ensign Phayre. 

A small antique Persian image, dug up by a peasant near Bushire. By 
Cant. J. Heunell. This is depicted as fig. 3, of Plate VI. 

Mr. Avdall presented three Arsakian and one Sassanian coin. 


Read a note from Johannes Avdall, Esq. on the reverse legend of some 
of the Indo-Scythic coins found by Mr. 0. Masson at Begram in the 
Kohistan of Kabul. 

A census of the Armenian population of the city of Calcutta was also 
presented by Mr. J. Avdall. 

Read a letter from Ensign New bold, forwarding for presentation to 
the Society an account of the 3rd of the four Menankabowe states on the 
Malay Peninsula. 

Read a letter from Major Jame* Low, dated Province Wellesley, 10th 
February, forwarding two manuscripts on Siamese literature, games, 
and music, and on the nature of the Siamese government, with specimens 
of Burmese and Malayan music. 

• In any other country it wonld be termed national object, but here such a 
term might be misapplied ! In France, the Government, alias the nation 9 
publishes M. Jacqubmoct's works, — purchases M. Ventura's collections, 
— devotes an annual grant to the Asiatic Society of Paris of 12,000 francs, as 
part and parcel of the national instruction system. — We need not pursue the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Asiatic Society. 249 

These manuscript* form a part of a mast of papers which the author had 
compiled many years ago, with the view to giving a connected account of Siam. 
The publications of Mr. Crawfurd and others on tout country, which satisfied 
public curiosity then, caused him to lay them aside ; the present however contain 
facts either new or more circumstantiallv'detailed than hitherto. 

A brief description of Masnd, or Farid Shakarganj, was received from 
Munshi Mohan Lal, at Dera Ohdzi Khdn, 


Captain W. Foley submitted a paper, illustrated by specimens, and a 
map of the geology of the country in the neighbourhood of Maulmein, 
(correctly Maulamyeng.) 

It was from a cave In the limestone range on the left bank of the Gyeng 
river, the Dsmethm cavern, that the elephant's tusk, carved with images of Buddha, 
and the Pali manuscripts above mentioned, were obtained. 

A paper by B. H. Hodgson, Esq. on three new species of Paradoxurus, 
found in the Nipel valley, was submitted. 

A collection of 148 mounted birds, six birds' nests with eggs, six mam., 
malia, one reptile, and the head and legs of various birds, were presented 
by R. I nous, Esq. 

These formed part of the Macao museum lately abandoned. It had been 
proposed to transfer the whole collection to Calcutta, and as far as concentra- 
tion is beneficial, it is to be regretted that this munificent intention had been 

A collection of mounted birds, procured by the Curator, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Calcutta. 

Specimens of shells, presented by Wu. Bruce, Esq. 

A stuffed Alligator, preserved and presented by Dr. Evans. A small 
specimen was also exhibited to the Meeting by the same gentleman, who 
remarks : 

" This is a specimen of the broad-nosed species, common to most parts of 
India, and the kind generally found frequenting old tanks, jheels, and jiallahs, 
and that seldom attains to any very large sise. It measures eight feet two inches, 
and is evidently not a very young animal. 

" In comparing it with the small specimen in the glass case, which was taken 
alive from the Uooghly, it would appear to be a distinct species ; as I find a con- 
siderable difference in the proportionate length of the tails of the two animals, 
and also in the number of the spinous processes, the large, haviog only 35 
from the insertion of the thigh to the tip of the tail, while the smaller has 42. 
The number of carinated tubercles on the neck varies also, but this latter deviation 
may arise from difference of age or other circumstances ; they both correspond 
as to number and position of their teeth, the upper jaws having 36, the lower 30, 
and so disposed as to alternate with each other when closed : the larger animal 
has agaio two perforations at the extremity of the nose for the admission of the 
two long sharp teeth of the lower jaw, which are not perceptible in the smaller 

"Both have the power of diffusing a strong musky odonr when irritated, and 
which I find is derived from two glands opening externally, and situated on the 
inner side of the ramus of each jaw. 1 ' 

A skull of a Chinese, presented by Mr. W. Carr. 

An Albatross, and a collection of shells and insects, presented by Mr. 
J. T. Pearson. 

Proceeding* of the Committee of the Papers and the Museum Committee, 
assembled at the Asiatic Society s Rooms on Friday, 29th April, 1836. 
The Curator read the following Report upon the Progress of the Museum 
daring the last year : . 

In reporting on the present state of the Museum, we must revert to what it 
was last year, when the Society appointed me its Curator ; in order to enable 
you to form an opinion as to the usefulness or otherwise of that appointment. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

250 Asiatic Society. {April, 

Many here present may recollect at that time the general bad state of the 
Museum ; the dark and dirty condition of the cabinets ; the want of arrange- 
ment of the specimens ; and the dampness of the apartments containing them ; 
altogether giving a deplorable proof of neglect t and few who do recollect this, will, 
I hope, be inclined to doubt that a great improvement has been effected. 

The first step was to divide the Museum into two distinct parts ; one 
consisting of the works of art ; the other of the productions of nature. The 
numerous valuable specimens of the former, being lost in the rooms below, 
were removed into the entrance hall, stair- case, and gallery, where they now 
are, and where tbey are seen, as we all know, to the greatest advantage : and 
their removal allowed of the apartments they occupied being entirely devoted to 
the Natural History portion of the Museum. 

On examination, the specimens of Natural History were found, for the most 
part, in a very neglected state. In osteology, they were numerous, and some 
of them very valuable ; but many were more or leas mutilated, and the teeth of 
the skulls lost ; while no catalogue, nor even memorandum, of the greater 
portion could be found. The first care was to remedy this : the broken spe- 
cimens were repaired, so far as they could be repaired ; and a catalogue was 
made, which includes every thing concerning them, that can be gleaned from 
the Researches, and other quarters ; whether, as to the specimens themselves, 
or the names of the donors. In making this catalogue, some difficulty was ex- 
perienced from the want of any notices of the specimens ; and from there being 
no objects of comparison, by which to discover the species of an animal of 
which we had, perhaps, but a horn, or a single bone. 

While this was going on, attention was also directed to the formation of a 
cabinet of reference to compare the fossil remains, in which the museum is so 
rich, with the living congeners, of the animals to which they belonged. This 
is, in its very nature, a tedious and laborious work ; but already there have 
been articulated and set up, skeletons of a monkey, weasel, cat, rat, musk-deer, 
horse, parrot, and tortoise. The rhinoceros, which was before but badly put 
together, has been made the most of that its condition would allow ; and an 
elephant's skeleton ; and those of another horse and tortoise are being prepar- 
ed. As this branch of the museum is of the greatest importance, I am anxious 
to render it as complete as possible ; and with this view, have written to various 
individuals, likely to further our object, who have promised the bones of the 
camel, wild buffaloe, large deer of various kinds, the large bullock of Upper 
India, the tapir, and the alligator ; and we may expect soon to receive them. 

The most valuable specimens in the osteological section of the museum are, 
the skulls of the Malacca tapir ; the Dugong ; the Van Diemen's Land tiger, 
(whose dentition has been heretofore mistaken in all works of Natural History, 
until it was corrected in a paper, published last year in the Journal of the 
Asiatic Society, written from this very specimen ;) and the jaw-bone of the 
gigantic ape shot by Capt. Cornefoot in Sumatra ; a specimen unique, and 
valuable as the most lasting, and most striking remains of an animal so strange, 
that did not this exist, the whole story might be looked upon as a fable. 

The specimens of mammalia are but few in number, aud their condition on 
my taking charge was any thing but satisfactory. Some were in such a state of 
decay as to admit of nothing being done to improve them. Such waa the case 
of the Thylacinus Cynocephalus, (Van Diemen's Land tiger,) to which I before 
alluded, its skull and paws having been all that could be retained, — a circum- 
stance, however, in. the individual instance which turned out fortunate, as 
thereby its dentition was discovered. This department of the Museum is 
increasing, and in a few years I hope it will be worthy of the Society. 

In ornithology, although the specimens were rather numerous, their condi- 
tion was so bad that four-fifths were thrown away. But great accessions have 
been made during the year ; and we are promised specimens from all quarters. 
I have myself procured in the neighbourhood of Calcutta more than 100 birds ; 
and these, together with several valuable donations, have put the ornithological 
department on a tolerably respectable footing ; and I am therefore proceeding 
with the catalogue. This catalogue I propose to make something more than a 
mere numerical one, having been favoured with the valuable notes of Mr. C. W. 
Smith, with liberty to make extracts from them ; which, together with my own 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Aiiatie Society. 251 

observations daring several years, will enable me to correct many errors, both 
of description and habit, that hare been committed by the best naturalist! re- 
garding the birda of India. I may here state, that by following this plan, the 
Catalogue of the Museum of the Asiatic Society may be made a work of autho- 
rity, such as to do credit to the Institution by which it is published. 

The reptiles in the Museum are numerous and valuable ; but they cannot at 
present be properly displayed, owing to the want of jars, in which to place 
them. Among them are many of the rarer Indian serpents. To my friend Lieut. 
Chiene, the Society is indebted for many specimens daring the past year. 

In ashes the collection is not very extensive, though it contains some of 
the rare kinds. These also cannot be shewn, until our supply of jars and bot- 
tles shall arrive from Europe. In this branch, Lieut. Montriorr, of the In- 
dian Navy, and Mr. Shaw, of the Surveying Vessel Flora, have been the 
principal donors. 

There was no cabinet of insects belonging to the Society. The whole of the 
specimens in this department consisted but of a few preserved in spirits ; and 
those purchased along with the Sylhet collection of shells. During the rains I 
employed my servants to collect *, and they procured what may be considered a fair 
sample of the Bengal Coleopterous and Hemipterous insects of the season. They 
consist of very many genera and species, and in individual specimens amount to 
several hundreds in number. The collection is purposely rich in duplicates, to al- 
low of some being placed in the cabinet of the Society ; and sent to various societies 
and scientific men. I am also selecting for the Society's cabinet a series of 
duplicates from my own ; which, as it is the result of the labour of nine years in 
Bengal, Behar, and Orissa, contains many specimens but rarely to be procured. 
At present our whole collection is scarcely large enough for systematic arrange- 
ment ; the specimens therefore are placed according to their locality and donors; 
a plan which has also the advantage of marking their geographical distribution. 

The American land and fresh-water shells, presented by Dr. Lea, and those 
from Sylhet ; together with a few specimens presented by Lieut. Hutton, and a 
small number of marine shells, composed the Society's collection of shells. We 
have also had a few presented during the year ; and I have been enabled to add 
considerably to this branch of the Museum, by collecting the land, fresh-water, 
and marsh shells of the neighbourhood of Calcutta, and by transferring duplicates 
from my own cabinet. 

I may sum up this part of the report by stating, that, during the past year 
there have been added to the Society's Museum, in osteology, 19 crania, nine 
complete skeletons, and between three and four hundred detached bones of 
various animals ; 12 specimens of mammalia; 133 mounted birds; from 30 to 
50 reptiles, and 15 fishes ; in all upwards of 500 specimens of the vertebrated 
animals ; and of the invertebrata, we have had 150 shells, several Crustacea, and 
several hundred insects : that many of these are rare and valuable ; many as yet 
nndescribed, and one bird, the Urinorynchus Oriseus, is all but unique. 

To facilitate the collection of specimens for the Museum, a paper of brief 
directions for collecting and preserving them was written : this has been exten- 
sively circulated. A paper on the same subject was also composed, in which ample 
details were given ; and this was published in the Journal of the Society. We 
are now reaping the benefit of these instructions, and we shall do so still more 
as the seasons for collecting come round. 

With reference to catalogues, I have before stated that, that of the osteologi- 
cal section of the Museum is now in the printer's hands ; as is also that of the 
mammalia. The catalogue of the birds is in progress ; and in consequence of 
the aid I shall derive from Mr. Smith's notes, it will, I trust, be valuable when 
completed. That of the reptiles and fishes cannot be undertaken until we have 
the means of displaying those objects. That of the shells must be delayed 
until the promised description of the land and fresh water shells, by Mr. Ben- 
son, shall be published. In the mean time, no want of a catalogue will be felt in 
this branch of the Museum ; the name of each specimen being written, together 
with its locality, on the ebony tablet, upon which the shell is placed. 

One very important object to the Society is, I conceive, to become the means 
•f extending a knowledge of the natural productions of India, to scientific men 
in other countries. I have prepared duplicate specimens of land and fresh- 
2 k 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

252 Asiatic Society. [April, 

water ihells to tend to England, France, America, the Cape of Good Hope, 
and the Isle of France. I have also prepared duplicate specimens of insect* 
from my collection, to send to various scientific societies and individuals in 
England. And I have sent some specimens of birds, purchased in Calcutta, to 
a gentleman, Monsieur Virot, who is celebrated for his labours in Taxidermy at 
the Cape. These were transmitted through Sir Charlks D'Oyly, who had 
kindly undertaken to forward them ; and 1 took the liberty of sending them in 
the name of the Society ; though, of course, as 1 was unauthorised to do so, I 
did not bnrthen the Society with the expence of the purchase. It has been 
proposed to Monsieur Virot, to send African birds to our Museum in exchange, 
and Sir Charles has no doubt of his acceding to the proposition. Should he 
agree, the Society will perhaps give me permission to forward to him the dupli- 
cates now upon the table. 

With reference to the financial part. Of the 50 rupees monthly for contin- 
gencies, I have given 40 to M. Bouchke for his assistance ; and subsequently 
increased his salary to 50 Compy.*s rupees, by reducing my own from 150 Sicca 
to 150 Compy.'s rupees ; by this the Society also is a gainer to the amount of a 
few rupees. Of the sum for contingencies, all has been expended, and about 180 in 
excess. This sum I am prepared to refund, should it be thought proper for 
me to do so. 

It was stipulated, that I should give up my occupation as Editor of the 
India Journal of Medical Science ; and that I should rent a house near the 
Society's, if procurable, or entertain the means of daily attendance. I gave up 
the Editorship of the Journal on the publication of the number following my 
appointment. But with regard to the house, I found insurmountable difficulties 
in the way ; none being procurable but the one immediately opposite, and that 
at a rent far exceeding my means to pay. 1 had recourse, therefore, to the 
alternative, and my attendance has been regular, always once, and generally 
twice, a day. 

With reference to the present year, (should my appointment be renewed,) I do 
not anticipate the expences will equal those of the past ; the cabinets, being 
now nearly complete, I propose to finish the Ornithological and Conchological 
catalogues, and to arrange the fishes, reptiles, and insects. With Mr. Prinskp's 
aid too, the fossil remains will be examined and the new ones described. While 
generally, the new specimens in various departments of the science will be pre- 
pared and arranged in the Museum, as they come in. We have reason to believe 
these will be very numerous. 

Such have been the labours of the past year, and what I propose for the 
present. I could have wished to have done more, particularly in completing 
the catalogues ; but the difficulties in arranging a collection of Natural History 
from the beginning, are greater than any one not conversant with them can 
imagine. In all departments there was here much to be done ; and of some 
there was not a vestige when I took charge. The Museum will now, I 
trust, go on thriving, and be worthy the name of the Society to which it 
belongs. Its establishment, as a focus into which may be collected the natural 
treasures of the East, is an object I have long had at heart : before I was a Mem- 
ber of the Society, several years ago, I wrote to the President, and proposed 
what has now been accomplished, and what it will be my pride to be permitted 
to sustain. I intreat you to carry it on upon its present footing, for at least 
another year ; when I am sure you will be as anxious for it to continue, as I am 
myself. The attention of mankind is now directed to the natural sciences, as 
is sufficiently proved by the publication of so many books concerning them ; and 
none is more attractive than zoology. To the attention the Society has lately given 
to these sciences, the great increase of Members is to be attributed ; an increase 
during the last year unparalleled in its annals ; but which I believe will be fully 
equalled or surpassed in the present. Its reputation will also, I doubt not, be 
as much enhanced by the researches of its members in Natural History, as it haa 
been, and is, by their labours in the learning of the East. 

Gentlemen, upon this point I may quote the words of our illustrious founder, 
who said, that, the inquiries of the Society " will be extended to whatever is 
performed by man, or produced by nature." The former part of this prediction 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Asiatic Society* 25& 

our predecessors have accomplished with ability and success ; it it our's to perform 
the rent. And safely may we prognosticate, that, under those who now direct 
its proceedings, the Asiatic Society of Bengal, will, not only folly uphold the* 
reputation it has so well merited, by inquiries into whatever is performed by 
man : but, . also maintain it, and increase it, by researches into the productions 
of nature. 

J. T. Pearson, Curator, Museum, As. 8oc, 
Calcutta, Ut May, 1836. 

Resolved, that the Report be adopted and presented at the next Meeting, 
and the excess of expenditure for contingencies above the sum noted on 
the 6th May, 1835, (about 200 rupees) be recommended to be sanctioned. 
Resolved further, that the Committee are highly pleased with the ar- 
rangements adopted by Dr. Pearson in the Museum, and with the pro- 
gress it has made under his supervision ; and they have no hesitation in 
recommending to the Society a continuation of the same system which has 
proved so beneficial and effective during the experimental year. 

The Treasurer, Babu Ram Com vl Sen, having laid before the Committee 
a statement of the funds of the Society, and an estimate of the calls on 
them during the ensuing year. 

Balance of Cash, 1,325 15 9 

Government Paper, 17,500 

18,825 15 9 

Number of Subscribing Members, 92x64 = per an. 5,888 

Estimated Receipts. ■■ ■ ■ 

Balance of Cash, 1,325 15 9 

Estimated Collections, 5,600 

Interest on Paper, 875 

Income, ■ 7,600 15 9 

Estimated Charges, 

Establishment and Charges, 2,875 

Cabinets for fossils, &c. (ordered), 310 

Journal Subscription, 1,200 

Repairs of the House, 200 

Printing 20th Volume, 3,000 

One month Curator's salary due, 200 

Excess on Contingent Bills of do. say, 200 

Total Charge, 7,985 

Add Money advanced by the Secretary for \ jgg 1519 

Cabinets, &c, J 

8,171 15 10 

Deficiency on the ensuing year, 571 1 

Resolved, that upon the above view of the means of the Society, it does 
not seem possible to provide for the payment of 200 rupees per mensem, 
for the support of a Curator's establishment during the ensuing year, 
without encroaching upon the vested funds of the Society. The Com- 
mittee therefore leave it for the consideration of the Members at large, 
whether some other means may not be adopted for raising the amount 
necessary for this very desirable object. Various plans have been sug- 
gested in Committee, such as; — 1. reservation of the vested fund for the 
publication of the Transactions ; 2. voluntary donations, from such mem- 
bers, as may be interested in the support of the Museum, and from the 
public ; 3. charging for admission of visitors. These plans the Committee 
deem it advisable to leave open to discussion in the Society at large, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

254 Miscellaneous. [Apeil, 

trusting that some expedient may be devised for upholding the Museum, 
which they do not think it will be possible to maintain in a state of effici- 
ency without having a paid Curator. 

Edward Ryaw, 

Asiatic Society's Room*, > 
April 29, 1836. J 

XI . — Miscellaneous. 

1. — Postscript to the Account of the wild Goat of Nepdl, printed in the Sept. 
No. of the Journal, page 490. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

Carefully as I thought my account of the wild goat of Nepal, recently 
published by you, was executed, I find that there is one material error in 
it, vis. the statement that the species has only two teats or mammn. A 
recent dissection of a fine male led to the notice of the fact tbat there are 
four teats, which fact was confirmed by the examination of two live fe- 
males. There can, therefore, be no question tbat this species of goat has 
four teats : and the circumstance is so remarkable, that I propose to sub- 
stitute the name Quadrimammis or four-teated, for the popular name of 
Jharal, under which 1 described it. Deer are distinguished by four teats, 
goats and sheep, heretofore, by two; the intermediate genus antilope, by four 
or two, in the several species. Capra Quadrimammis vel Jharal, by its four 
teats, offers a singular and unique approximation (in this genus) to Cervus ; 
and another proof that the infinite variety of nature cannot be designated 
by our artificial signs and peremptory divisions. Antilope, Capra, and 
Ovis, how shall we contradistinguish them ? Solid-cored horns, in the 
first, is no unerring mark : and now we have a species of the second, and 
a beardless species too, abandoning his congeners to ally himself with 
Cervus, quoad the number of mamma. 

S. — Notice of the Basitosaurus, a new marine fossil Saurian, discovered in 
America. By H. Piddinoton, Esq. 

The discovery of this most gigantic fossil species is due to Judge Breb 
of Arkansas, by whom, in 1834, the first fossil vertebra was found in the 
marly banks of the Washita river, in the Arkansas territory. In the 
latter end of the year, more vertebra, fragments of the lower jaw, &c 
were discovered in Alabama, about 30 miles north-west of Chairborne ; 
another portion of jaw, with several teeth ; an os humeri, several immense 
vertebra ; numerous fractured ribs ; a molar tooth ; the extremity of a 
tibia ; portion of the shoulder, pelvis, &c. &c. were now found : and 
recently (May 1835), another skeleton has been discovered, and a large 
collection of the fossil remains is promised. Near the same spot a speci- 
men of the caudal vertebra of the Mosaurus or Maestricht monitor was 
also found. 

It is assumed, that the bones, though great disparity exists in their 
proportions and size, constitute portions of one species, and the structure 
of the lower jaw, which is hollow, place it amongst the Saurians as a lost 
genus. The comparative smallness of the bones of the extremities seem 
to indicate the tail as the principal organ of motion, and the superior 
extremities must have been fins or paddles. 

The train of vertebra extending upwards of 100 feet in length in one 
locality, and estimated to be 150 feet in the Arkansas specimen, shew, that 
this gigantic animal must have probably attained upwards of this length, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Miscellaneous. 255 

meriting thus most fully the name Basilosaurus ; which our honorary 
member, Dr. Harlan, Professor of Comparative anatomy to the Philadel- 
phia Museum, has bestowed upon it. In the Transactions of the Geologi- 
cal Society of Pennsylvania, which I have placed upon the table for the 
inspection of members, previous to sending it up to Dr. Falconer, is a 
detailed paper by Dr. Harlan, and two beautiful plates, illustrating this 
splendid discovery. 

H. P. 

$.—The Balloon. 

We should not be exercising due vigilance as editor of a scientific 
journal, were we to omit recording the first ascent of a balloon from the 
plains of Bengal on the 21st of the past month (March.) M. Rorertson, 
the aeronaut, a Frenchman, who had made sixteen previous ascents in 
various parts of Europe, came expressly to India for the purpose of asto- 
nishing the natives with the novel tomasha of a human being wafted out of 
sight into ethereal space in his fairy car : and such competition is said to 
have prevailed at Paris*, for the glory of being the Jirtt, that M. Rorert- 
son was fain to hurry hither before the balloon itself was ready. The 
bad success of his attempt may be partly attributed to the imperfect 
manner in which this indispensable article was supplied here. 

The local and pecuniary arrangements seem to have been very ill judged; 
the selection of a spot of difficult access, at the further end of Garden 
Reach, tended only to prevent those who had subscribed from attending ; 
choking the only land road, and the river, with non-paying visitors, who 
expended, what would have amply remunerated the aeronaut, in convey- 
ances thither ! The distillation of the gas was effective, and the balloon 
rose well, but ere it had attained a mile of height, it was seen to return so 
rapidly earthward, that great apprehensions were entertained for the 
traveller's neck. It appeared to us that when M. Rorertson entered 
the car, and attached the valve-strings to the netting, the valve was pulled 
open, thus enabling the gas to escape freely from the first ; for the silk was 
found quite sound at its return. The aeronant himself talked of a sudden 
collapse of the balloon from condemnation of the gas ; but this was a 
deception : when it began to fali rapidly, the resistance of the air below 
pressed up the slack of the balloon like an umbrella, and aided in driv- 
ing out the gas from the open valve above ; in fact, the car was supported 
in its descent as by a parachute, and could not consequently quicken its 
pace to any dangerous extent. 

The experience of such an accident should very much aid to increase the 
confidence of the aeronaut ; for it is plain that with a little contrivance the 
balloon may in all cases be made to act as a parachute on the loss of its 
gaseous contents. We trust the next ascent will be made under more auspi- 
cious circumstances, and we hope that it may be possible to turn it to some 
small use in a scientific point of view, by ascertaining at least the decre- 
ment of heat and moisture at increasing altitudes, as well as the height of 
the reverse current of the upper atmosphere. 

[This notice could uot find a place last month. — Mr. Robertson has since 
departed for the inure cheering prospects of an ascent at Lucknow.] 

* This competition reminds us of the rivalry in America to supply us with 
ice, which has at last led to a confirmed and durable scheme for regaling us with 
that luxury at a very cheap rate. Having noticed at length the first ice cargo, 
we have thought it unnecessary to recur to the subject ; but the completion of a 
permanent ice-house will enable us hereafter to judge, of the best mode of preserving 
the frozen element. The tan bed intended for this object, from becoming wet, had an 
opposite effect, and was indeed nearly the cause of a conflagration! while the car- 
bonic acid gas extricated from its fermentation, killed a man who incautiously 
\ to examine the chamber. 

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No. 53.— May, 1836. 

I. — Joh6le and its former Dependencies of Jompdle Gominchi. By Lieut. 
Nbwbold, A. D. C. to Brigr. General Wilson, C. B. 

JoK6le. Of Johdle, the third of the four Menangkdbowe states, still 
less is known than of Rumbdwe and Sungie Ujong. 

An Englishman of the name of Gray, (whose information is to be 
taken, however, with caution,) is said to have been the only European 
who has penetrated into the interior of this state. He passed through 
part of it in 1827, on his return to Malacca from Pahang, whither he 
had performed a journey overland, across the peninsula, to barter 
opium for the gold dust of the latter place. 

His route lay through Naning, part of Rumb6we, Srimendnti, 
Jompdle, Ulu Seruting, Ulu Brapgh, and Ulu Pahang. The journey was 
performed in 14 days. 

From Tabu, in Naning, to Jompdle, he was four days passing over 
mount Lanjut, to the villages of Gadang and Tanjong ; over mounts 
Miko, Pabi, and P&nting Pdhat, through the villages of Passir, Juno, 
and Pila, in Srimendnti; and from Pila to Jompdle, " one day's 

Mr. Gray describes the country he passed through, to have been 
in a state of high cultivation, particularly at Miko, and in the vales of 
Punting Pdhat, Juno, and Passir. ^ 

He observes that the paddy at Miko is preferable (o that of Malacca, 
and that it is supposed by the people that the ground there is better 
for cultivation, one gantang of seed never producing less than a hun- 

The produce of mount Miko is sapan wood, dammer, and canes of 
the species termed Pinang-lawyers in abundance. Jompdle, he con- 
2 L 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

258 Johdle and its former Dependencies of [Mat, 

jectures, to be about 90 miles distant from Malacca. Pahang is esti- 
mated at 300 miles distance from Jompdle. From Jompdle to Pahang 
the journey is by boat down the river Seruting to the large lake of 
Braugh, called Tassek Braugh; which is said by Mr. Gray to be 
nearly fifty miles in circumference, and is formed by the flow of water 
from the neighbouring mountains. 

If this account be correct, the lake Braugh exceeds in dimensions 
the recently discovered inland lakes in Sumatra. 

The natives, however, have described this lake to me to be of much 
less extent ; narrow but long. Its communication with the Pahang 
river, which empties into the China sea, is by a river called the 

Regarding the navigation of these rivers, Mr. Gray observes : " In 
some parts of the Seruting and Braugh, a brig might go up, and in 
other parts, nothing but a small boat ; on account of the water being 
above the fallen trees, so that the boat must be lifted before it can 
proceed, on account of the overflowing banks of the river." 

The Pahang river, from the place where it receives the waters of 
the Braugh, down to the town of Pahang, is wide and deep. These 
streams are deepest in the months of November, December, and Janu- 
ary. From the month of March to that of August, Mr. Gray was 
informed, that it is impossible to proceed from the Seruting river to 
Pahang, on account of the paucity of water. The general depth of 
these rivers, in January, he ascertained to be between 40 and 60 feet ; 
but on his return in February, he found their depth diminished by one- 

There are a few villages on the banks of these rivers, but for the 
most part they are covered with lofty forests, tenanted by the rhino- 
cerous, tapir, tiger, elephant, and scarcely more civilized Jacoon. 

Mr. Gray met with great kindness and hospitality from the inha- 
bitants of the different estates through which he passed. He fell, 
however, a sacrifice to his exertions, dying of jungle fever, contracted 
during the journey, twenty-five days after his return to Malacca. 

Boundaries. — Johdle is bounded on the north by Uld Pahang and part 
of Rumbdwe : to the south by part of Naning and Mtiar or Segdmet : to 
the east by Segdmet, and to the west by Srimendnti and part of Rurnbdwe. 
The boundaries with Malacca are from Bukit Putt us to Battang Malacca, 
and from Battang Malacca by Bdnkdng* Chdnddng to Mount Qphir. 

* Bdnkdng Chonddng is m large tree, growing in the foreit that separate! Anahtm 
from Mount Op Mr. The tree was still in existence when I visited Mount Ophir 
in 1833. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Jompdle Gominchi. 259 

With Segamet and Mdar, its boundaries are Murbdwe sa rdtds (the 
hundred Marbdwe trees) and Bdnkdng Chdnddng; with Rumbdwe, Bukit 
Pabi : and with Srimendnti, Bukit Vila. 

Population, %c. — The population of Johdle is estimated at 2,080 
inhabitants. The principal villages are Nuri, Londong, Tney t Tdman, 
and Bennong. 

Johdle is governed by a Panghuld and Ampat Sukd. The former, 
like his brother chief of Sungie Ujdng, is elected by the Sdkds, and by 
the Bdtin dd ablas, or twelve heads of the Jacoons. 

The name of the present Panghuld is Abu Bbkr, or Banchita, 
and his title Johan Lilah Percdsseh ; he resides at Nuri, is an inte 1 ^- 
gent looking person ; plain, simple, and collected in manner, and much 
respected by his people. 

The tribes are those of Bodoanda, Sa Meldngan, Tiga, Battu, and 

Srimendnti and Jompdle, were formerly considered dependencies of 
Johdle, but now assert their independence, as also does Gominchi. The 
Panghdld, Lkssyk, of the latter place died lately, and his brother Maham- 
mkd Kari succeeded him. Pdndok Passir, a small state under the 
influence of Srimendnti, was also a dependency of Johdle, and is ruled 
by a petty Panghuld of its own. 

Besides the usual rights of revenue, the Pangh&ld of Johdle levies 
ten per cent, on the produce of the tin mines, together with a tax on 
the gold of Gominchi, which will be shortly alluded to. 

Trade. — The trade of Johdle consists chiefly in gold dust ; 20 catties 
of which are said to be produced annually. Tin, about 300 piculs. Fruits, 
ratans, jaggery, and fowls are brought in considerable quantities down 
to Malacca. 

Jompdle. — Jompdle was anciently a dependancy of Johdle, but is now 
nominally governed by Raja All a no, a son of the third Menangkd- 
bdwe prince, Raja Ham. The Panghdld and Ampat Sdku exercise 
almost independent sway. 

The name of the present Panghuld is Has sain ; the tribes are those 
of Bodoanda, Sa Meldngan, Andk Malacca, and Tiga Buttu. 

Jompdle is in the high road of the Pahang traders travelling across 
the peninsula to Malacca ; it is situated on a small river of the same 
name, which flows into the Muar river, [one of the largest streams on 
the western coast of the peninsula,] by which it has communication 
with the Straits of Malacca. By the rivers Seruting and Braugh, an 
easy intercourse from November or October to February is kept up 
with Pahang and the eastern coast. The Raja here levies a duty on 
the opium, tobacco, cloths, iron utensils, salt, &c. passing through 
2 l 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

260 Johdle and its former Dependencies of [Ma*, 

Jompdlc to Pahang, as well as on the gold dust and silk cloths of Pahang 
returning to Malacca. 

Jompdle produces a considerable quantity of tin, sapan wood, rice, 
dammer, ratans, and a little gold, which is sent down the Mdar river 
to Malacca (eight days pull), and also to Pahang. 

The population of Jomp6le is estimated at 2,000 ; it is divided into 
three Mukims ; viz. those of Limbdjon, Tur&ntong, and Qualla Lenney. 

Gold. — The following account of the gold mines at Chimendros, with 
the exception of the part relative to the assaying of the metal, which is 
from personal observation, is almost entirely drawn from native 

Bukit Chimendros is a hill situated in Gominchi, a territory subject 
to the Panghtilti of Johdle, and bordering on the eastern frontier of 
Naning. It is covered and surrounded by an uninhabited forest of 
great extent, intersected by numerous rivulets, which derive their source 
from the hill. 

Veins of quartzose rock run over it at various depths (generally 
from 12 to 20 feet) below the surface, forming the matrix in which* 
the gold is found in small broken streaks. 

The rock is enclosed in a bed of a sort of white clay, indurated more 
or less, termed Ndpal. 

The method pursued by Chinese and Malays for separating the 
metal from its matrix resembles that adopted by the Hungarian 
miners, with this exception, that the process of amalgamation is not 
practised by the former for this purpose. The Kling assayers of gold, 
however, avail themselves of it in their vocation, as will presently 

The Malay miners, as soon as the precise spot and minute have 
been determined by their diviners, Pdwangs, or other charlatans 
supposed to be skilled in discovering the hidden treasures of the earth, 
commence clearing the ground of trees, brushwood, &c. and then 
proceed to remove the roots and vegetable soil by means of Biltongs 
and Chonkoles, (the Malayan adze and spade,) until the bed of Ndpal 
is laid bare. These implements are now put aside, and a heavy 
sort of iron crow-bar, (Perjong) is had recourse to. 

The first layer of Ndpal is soft and whitish ; the second has a red- 
dish tint. The last is a black incrustation resembling brick in hard- 
ness, and hence called by the natives Tambiker Qudli ; this is commonly 
two fingers' breadth, in thickness, and being removed, discovers the 

• A specimen of this rock, in which a small portion of gold is imbedded, or 
rather disseminated, has been forwarded to the Society. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1838.] Jompdle Gominchi. 261 

white vein of rock, the matrix of the gold, and termed the Beting. It 
is generally between three and four feet in diameter : underneath lie* 
a bed of whitish earth, below which gold is never found. 

The next process is that of breaking up the Beting, for which pur- 
pose the Perjong is employed. From the extreme hardness of the 
rock this is a very laborious and tedious taeJu The coarse pieces are 
then pounded in a sort of large mortar cut from the quartz rock. The 
pulverized stone is then passed through sieves (Kisge) of ratan, and 
carried in small baskets to a running stream, where the smaller stony 
particles are washed away, while the gold dust, with the grosser pieces, 
sink to the bottom of the conical vessel in which it is subjected to the 
action of the stream. 

The refuse is picked out, and the gold dust again carefully washed 
and collected in a cocoanut shell or leaf of the Pallas tree, and con. 
veyed to the Bongsal, where it is dried by means of a red hot piece of 
charcoal being repeatedly passed over its surface. After the adherent 
finer particles of the sand have been removed, it is weighed into 
quantities, generally of one tael each, which are carefully folded up in 
small pieces of cloth. 

These packets constitute the Bunkals of commerce. 

In Sumatra, according to Marsdbn, the parcels or Bulses, in which 
the gold is packed up, are formed of the integument that covers the 
heart of the buffaloe. 

The Bunkals are, as in Sumatra, frequently used as currency instead 
of coin. 

The weights* for gold formerly used as Chimendros and Toon (a 
place about half a day's journey thence) are as follow : 

2 imall s&gaa (Sdga kechil) = 1 large sfcga (saga besar). 

8 Sdga betdr, = 1 Maiam. 

16 Maiams, = 1 Tael or Bunkal. 

20 Taeli,.... = 1 Cattie. 

The Saga is a sort of small scarlet pea with a black spot, the 
Abrus Maculatus. 

Besides Chimendros and Taon, I have not heard of any place on the 
peninsula where gold is obtained from the solid rock. On Sumatra 
it is frequently found in this state. 

The gold dust at Pahang and Jellye is procured in the same manner 
as that in the mines at the foot of Mount Ophir, already described in a 
paper published in this Journal ; (vol. ii. page 49 7. J 

The mines at Reccan are estimated to produce annually about 20 
catties of gold dust. 

* At Malacca 10 Sdga b$sdr or 4 K&pongt are equal to one maiam. 

Digitized by VjOOQLC 

262 Johdle and its former Dependencies of [Mat, 

The Panghdld of Gominchi first levied a tenth on the produce of 
these mines, but in consequence of large quantities of gold dust being 
secretly carried off, before the tenth had been levied, he substituted a 
sort of poll tax, amounting to a maiam of gold per annum, from each 
person working at the mines. 

The Panghdld of Johdle is in the habit of sending five or six buffaloes 
a year to the mines, receiving for every head of cattle two taels of gold. 

These heavy drawbacks have caused the mines to become unpro- 
fitable to the speculators, and almost deserted. The former of these 
imposts, I believe, could readily be endured ; but the latter ad libitum 
sort of exaction destroys all hope of reasonable profit. 

The following is an estimnte of the various degrees of purity of 

gold dust, produce of the peninsula. It will be necessary to premise, 

that mutu, is a term denoting the degrees of fineness for gold, of 

which there are 10, as fixed by the native assay ers. Gold of 10 mutu 

is equal therefore to gold of 24 carats : gold not reaching eight mutti 

is called mas muda, or young gold ; and gold from eight to 10 mutd, 

tuah, or old gold. 

Gold of Reccan, 9* mlS/tf 

Mount Ophir, 9£ „ 

Chimendros and 1 0l 

Taon, J ** " 


J J il V>. I 9* 



From Calantan gold of 10 miitd is sometimes obtained. 

The assayers of gold are generally Chuliahs or Klings, who acquire 
by constant practice the power of determining to the fraction of a 
mutu the purity of any specimen of gold dust brought from the east- 
ward*. As they would be perhaps liable to imposition were this the 
only trial they subjected the metal to, they have recourse to the 
Battu uj{ or touchstone. This is a roughish black stone, apparently 
basalt, brought from continental India, and generally set in a small 
frame of bronze or brass. 

The assaying needles are generally from 20 to 24 in number, ranged 
on a string, and alloyed in known proportions of copper and silver, 
marked on the surface, from three to 9f mutd. The needle and gold 
to be assayed are rubbed on the touchstone in parallel streaks, in the 
usual manner ; a lump of the adhesive wax called Lilin kaldldt is then 
applied to the surface of the touch-stone, which brings off the two thin 
lamina of gold. 

• The natives are, I believe, totally ignorant of the assay by cupellation and 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Jomp6le Gominchi. 263 

The difference between the two being more visible on the wax 
(which is coloured black for this purpose with a fine charcoal made 
from the plantain leaf) than on the stone. This is the reason the 
native assayers give for the removal of the streaks of gold from the 
stone to the wax, though to me no difference was perceptible : possibly 
the following may afford another clue to the practice of the natives in 
this particular. 

In this wax the impressions of the gold, which would be lost on 
the stone, go on accumulating ; a ball of it, which my native inform- 
ant had used for the last 30 years, he supposed to contain above two 
taels of gold. 

The metal is separated from the wax by means of heat applied gra- 
dually, in such proportions as barely to cause the wax to pass off in 
the form of smoke : the residuum is then subjected to the process of 
amalgamation. Half of the gold thus obtained is dedicated in alms to 
the poor, or on religious offerings, at the shrine of some favorite Saint 
or Wali; generally to that of Mi ran Sahib at Nagore. 

The calculation of a Malay, long employed in the mines at CAtm«i- 
dros, makes the average quantity of gold produced from 40 lbs. of the 
pulverized stone, 24 grains of pure metal. Lumps of virgin gold, 
weighing from five to six taels, have been found in the alluvial soil here 
and at Toon. In Jelly e, a mass weighing upwards of a cat tie has been 
discovered : this will appear trifling if placed in comparison with that 
which Rkaumur mentions as having been shewn to the Royal Academy 
at Paris, weighing 448 oz. Helms affirms that when one of the highest 
mountains of Paraguay fell down, about 50 years ago, there were disco- 
vered in it pieces of gold weighing from two to fifty pounds each. 

Seal of Johole, dated A. H. 1216. 

[The date on the seal is reversed, a mistake that we have not unfrequently 
observed on Indian coins with Persian inscriptions. As this is the last Essay on 
the Malacca States with which Lieut. Nbwbold will be able to favor us, it may 
be as well to point out where the preceding are to be found : 

Visit to Mount Ophir, vol. II. p. 497. 

Account of Naning, „ III. „ 601; IV. 297. 

Ditto the four Menangk&bowe States. „ IV. ,, 241. 

Ditto SungieUjong, „ IV. „ 5J7.— Ed.] 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

264 Tibetan Inscription on a Bhotian Banner. [Mat, 

II. — Interpretation of the Tibetan Inscription on a Bhotian Banner* 
taken in Assam, and presented to the Asiatic Society by Captain 
Boole. By M. Alexander Csoma Korosi. [See PL VI. fig. 3.] 

[In a letter to the Secretary of the Asiatic Society ; see also Proceedings of the 
Asiatic Society, 4th May, 1836.] 

According to the request conveyed in your letter of the 30th April, 
I have translated the piece of magical superstition which you have 
faithfully transcribed from the Bhotian board. With exception of the 
salutation at the beginning and the conclusion, and a few terms in the 
middle, the whole is in the Tibetan language. The purport of it, as 
will be evident from the tenor of the translation, is, to obtain the 
favour and protection of several inferior divinities, to increase the 
prosperity, &c. of the person and family for whom the ceremony 
was performed, and this magical piece was erected or set up. 

It may be that the flag-staff, with the wooden board containing 
this inscription, was carried before the Tibetan chief in his march, and 
eo used as an ensign in war ; but it is more probable that it belonged 
originally to the house top or terrace of the prince in Bhotan : for 
the houses of great personages in that country are generally decorated 
with such ensigns of victory at the four corners of the terraced roof. 
They are called in Tibetan tW***^ rgyal mtshan (ensign of victory)* 
and always contain inscriptions of similar purport with this. 

In regard to the orthography of the piece, it frequently occurs in 
Tibetan writings and books, that the vowel signs are removed from 
their proper places, on account of the dependent letters of the line 
above ; several cases of this occur in your transcript. The intersylla- 
bic points at the end of a line are generally also omitted, except with 
the conjunction ^5* which will also be remarked here. I have made 
a copy in Roman characters, and have also endeavoured to make a lite- 
ral translation : the words in Italics I cannot properly interpret. 

Om svasti, pronounced by the Tibetians om soti, is rendered by them 

* ♦ % J5> ex 

in their language W ^y^ WS'gV-OT om bdt-legs-su gyur-chig i 
" Oh may it please, may it be prosperous." 

Inscription on the back of the wooden Board (fig. 3. PL VI.) 

<*£ tt t&Vfr srsfa'if **§y a*f<v T *yss v 
<*T3rq*r svlvor *w*jq* *i^q t sr*' £n 
y v *^*r a* £*i«r #wtw *r *il* qi*x. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Tibetan Inscription on a Bhotian Banner. 265 

W Wl 1 ^V<* 1* *Hc; 3 zj§- jiv ill* 
*T 3*<fc' IT 4* <$W *ISV #* QV §V ^ 

»V*fX*5'§ T *T V&T WOT | ? *JQ* «V*qS*l 
*™'*NV *va*f§<* it 

Om iTasti Lha Srio «d£ ftrgyad thams-chad dang 

lo sla shag dus ts'his-la ifrang vahi ^zah tkar ts'hls 

lha ta ftdag Aln rigs sogi dr6gs-pa ytso Akhor 

khyab-mjug (for Ajug) Rahala (for Rahula) ki-kang (for kaukar) Yii'h^l dot 

ma pi -ling khra ti'ha togs ^nyan-po Adr£ Srin dang 
phyogs mts'hams steng hog ^nas-pa mams dang 
khyad-par-dn nyi-ma dl-ring gang-la rgyu rahi sa ftdag 
Snang srid lha srin sogs thams-chad trid-pa 
Huhi phyag rgya Adi-la /tos-shig, Snang srid lha srin 
8di ftrgyad khcd rnams-kyis, Thub-pahi &stan-pa 
la rab-tu dad- pah i rgyu tbyor sbyin-pahi Mag 
po Akhor dang 6chas-pahi ts'h6 dang Asod 
nams </pal dang Abyor-pa thams-chad 
sla-va yar-gyi fio /tar gong-nas gong-da 
Aphel-zhing rgyas-par mdzad-du ysol.— 
Om aiani nikani abhila man* data 
Mantrayi Sv&hd, Sarva mangalam. 


O ye divinities ! all hail ! — (Ye) all the eight classes of the divine 
imps (S. Rakshasas) ; also ye gods, regents of the planets, constella- 
tions (in the path of the moon), and of the lunar days, having your 

'For Q5 *| # '*>'aXS*. * For *f*|X.. 

2 M 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

266 Note on the Indo-Scythic Coins of Beghrdm. [Mat, 

influence upon the year, the lunation (or lunar month), and the dif- 
ferent seasons or periods ; ye possessors of the earth or land (land- 
proprietors), all the eight kinds of the Nagas (Hydras), &c. Ye power- 
ful chiefs and attendants, Vishnu Rahul a, and the menial (instru- 
mental cause) Vis'h|i ; ye goddesses (or nymphs) pi-ling -khraa ts-'ha, 
&c. ; ye fierce inferior imps, who dwell in (or towards) the cardinal, 
intermediate, zenith and nadir points (or in the ten corners of the 
world) ; and especially ye divine imps, &c. who are rulers of those 
regions, wherein the sun this day is moving ; ye all look on this emblem 
(seal, image, or signed writ, &c.) of Hu, the regent or governor, (or 
set up, or erected by Hu.) Ye divine eight principal imps (Rikshasas), 
rulers of the world (or keepers of light), I beseech you, that you will 
make that this patron, the bestower of charitable gifts, for obtaining 
the fruit of his works and actions, who is very faithful to the doctrine 
of the Muni (Shakya), may together with his household or family, 
increase more and more, and abound in life, fortune, (prosperity,) 
honour, and in all his substance or wealth, like the increasing face of 
the moon. Om akani nikani abhila mandate, mantryi, SvAhd ; Sarva 

Tettelia, 9th May, 1836. A. C. Korosi. 

III. — Note on some of the Indo-Scythic Coins found by Mr. C. Masson 

at Beghrdm, in theKohistdn of Kabul. By Johannes Avdall, Esq. 

M. A. S. 

[Read at the meeting of the 6th May. ] 

The results of the valuable researches of Mr. C. Masson, Dr. 
Martin Honiqbbrgrr, lieutenant Burnbs, the late Dr. Gerard, and 
Keramat Ali, in the vast field of the numismatology of ancient 
Bactria and other parts of India, must have excited a deep interest 
among the antiquaries of Europe. It must also be highly gratifying 
to the lovers of this important science on this part of the globe, to 
observe the unabated zeal and assiduity with which these researches 
are continued by eminent numismatologists, with a degree of success 
exceeding their most sanguine expectations. 

Of the Indo-Scythic coins, discovered by Mr. C. Masson at 
Beghram, in the Kohistan of K&bul, and described in the 28th number 
of the Journal of the Asiatic Society, the one bearing the Greek 
legend Nanaia, has, it appears, attracted much attention. He is 
persuaded to think it to be identical with Bibi Nanni, or " the Lady 
Nanni," a name given by the Muhammedans to the numerous shrines 
or Zidrdts, as he calls them, found in those regions of Asia. The 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 836.] Note on the Indo-Scfthic Coins of Beghram. 267 

Hindus also seem - to attach to them a peculiar sanctity, claiming in 
the Bibi NannS, a personation of their favourite goddess, Pdrbatu 
These are all, however, mere conjectures, the real meaning of the 
Greek legend remaining yet to be explained. 

In a subsequent number* of the Journal of our Society, a far differ- 
ent explanation of the Greek legend is given by its indefatigable 
Editor, which is, perhaps, a near approximation to its true meaning. 
There the goddess Nanaia is represented to bear a close analogy, in 
name and character, to the Anaitis of the Greek, and Ana hid of the 
Persian, mythology. This hypothesis is based upon the authority of 
Strabo, quoted by Colonel Wilford. A goddess called by the 
former Anaia, is considered by the latter to be equivalent to the 
Sanscrit Andyasd devi. But, how far the deity, recognised under the 
one or the other appellation, can be supposed to be identical with 
Nanaia, remains yet to be ascertained. 

Anahid was the tutelary goddess of Armenia, during its continuance 
in the darkness of idolatry. She is also known in our mythological 
works by the names of Artemis and Aphrodite, being supposed to have 
sprung from the froth of the sea, and descended from Zevs, Aramazd 
or Jupiter. Anahid or Anaid is considered by us to be identical with 
the planet Venus* and the letters composing it being inverted, it reads 
Diana, which is equivalent to Artemis, by which name the goddess of 
hunting is invariably designated throughout all the Armenian books 
treating of the ancient mythology of our country. 

The word Nanaia, or Narnea distinctly occurs in the second book 
of the Maccabees : " For, when the leader was come into Persia, and 
the army with him that seemed invincible, they were slain in the 
temple of Nantea, by the deceit of Nanaa's priestst." It was in the 
compass of the temple of this goddess, that Antiochus the Great was 
put to death. She is also called \\%u,%Lmj Anaia, or ^Jl^-m Naneas, 
the genitive of which, according to the Greek termination, is written 
'^JUrmj Nanea. It has its derivation from the Persian language, 
literally meaning maternal or motherly . To the honor of Nanaia, 
or Nanaa, many temples were raised in Armenia, the most magnificent 
of which, according to the authority of UL*-/ ? * i **V M » Agathangelus, 
existed in a village called |B»A^» Thiln, situated in Upper Armenia. 
This idolatrous temple was razed to the ground by Suae Gregor 
Lusavorich, and a splendid church erected in its stead. D«<-^ 

Op^^jtf /3 itf f.«K.itf M ,c.1r 4«&f.&7><2 flpkl?* Iffy ^«"*t*Y»iA U^W4<»«'{a& f-^. 

* Journal of the Asiatic Society for September, 1S34. 
f II Book of the Maccabees, chap, i., v. 13. 
2 m 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

268 Nate an the Indo-Scythic Coins of Beghrdm. [May, 

\;u m% m ^ ^H **•* <\*~jC jv+kr ■**■*«* •#■***** iV&fr-f-* 

mump Jmqmi/lrmiJ' 'A Wfrf* •£ mmmmmu ^kH^l? 1 ULt7 R"lP»* •"t^**^ 

^ x* " Saint Gregory and the king (Tiridatbs) broke down 
the golden images of the Anahitic deity, and reduced the temple to 
utter ruin, having divested it of the gold and silver belonging to it. 
Thence they crossed the river Goyle, and demolished the Kanaiatic 
temple, dedicated to the daughter of Aramazd, in the village of Thiln. 
The treasure contained in these two temples being collected, were 
appropriated to the sacred purposes of the church of God, to whom 
the spots were also consecrated." 

By the authority of this ancient historian, a philosophical inquirer 
will be convinced of the similarity of the characters of Anaitis and 
Nanaia, and of the difference of their names. It is true that they 
were both the daughters of Zbvs or Aramazd ; but an identity of their 
persons cannot be inferred from this relative circumstance. TTie 
progeny of the father of the gods is supposed to be nearly as numer- 
ous as the offspring of the late lascivious monarch of Persia, and it is 
highly probable that Anaitis or Anaid, and Nanaia or Naiuta were 
distinct deities. This probability is borne out by the fact of there 
having existed in Armenia two distinct temples, in which these two 
goddesses were respectively worshipped by our pagan ancestors, 
under distinct appellations. 

* This is an extract from the historical work of Agathangelus, who is the 
oldest Armenian historian, being Secretary to the king Tiridatbs, and having 
flourished in Armenia in the beginning of the fourth century. Anahitic is 
a literal translation of H>«»4««Hr-r1> > and Nanaiatic is exactly rendered for 
«^u/fc4-«4«A 5 D0 th used in the text adjectively. The derivative particle 4"*» 

attached to Ul>«^A«* and \~*k-» is equivalent to the English particle tie; for 
example, Asia, Asiatic, Oangtt, Gangetic, Sfc. 

Note. — Mr. Avdall was not aware that Dr. Swinbt had pointed out the 
coincidence of Nanaia with the Nancta of Maccabees. This fact I added to 
my paper among the addenda of 1834. The name I afterwards found in 
Herbelot'8 Bibliotheque Orientale, (folio edition,) so that the identity that I 
had ventured to anticipate with the Anahid or Anais of Persia, and the AnAyasA 
devi of Col. Wilford, was then considered to be perfectly established. Mr. 
Avdall'8 note was elicited by Mr. Masson's conjectures as to the inscription 
at B&my£n, referring to the same deity. In Plate VI. of the April number, 
his sketch of the supposed characters is given j but I can hardly yet feel assured 
ef their beiug letters. — Ed. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1886.] Notes on the Geology, *c. of Maulamyeng. 269 

IV. — Notes on the Geology, fa. of the Country in the Neighbourhood of 

Maulamyeng (vulg. MoulmeinJ. By Capt. W. Foley. 

[Submitted at the meeting of the 6th May.] 

The town of Maulamyeng is situated on the left bank of the Martaban 
river, the channel by which the Than-lweng, Gyeng, and Attayen dis- 
charge themselves into the sea. Properly speaking, Maulamyeng 
may be said to mark the junction of these three rivers, as the N. E. 
extremity of the town approaches to within a very short distance of 
the confluence of the Attayen with the Gyeng and Than-lweng; it 
would also be more in accordance with usage, if in the room of " Mar- 
taban river," (the name by which it has been hitherto known to the 
British,) the designation of " Than-lweng river" was given to the 
channel above-mentioned ; the Than-lweng, being the largest of the 
three rivers, is entitled to the pre-eminence of holding an uninter- 
rupted course to the Gulf of Martaban. 

Immediately opposite to Maulamyeng, and separated from it by the 
Martaban river, (in this place about 1 J mile wide,) are the northern 
end of Phullughewn Island and the town of Mowtumma, backed by a 
bold and interesting chain of mountains ; to the north are the Than- 
lweng river and Joe-ka-beng range of limestone ; while on the eastern 
and southern sides, the town and cantonment of Maulamyeng are 
bounded by the Attayen river, and a long line of sandstone hills, a 
continuation of the Mowtumma chain, which, leaving a passage for 
the river, re-appears at the Kyeit-san-lan Phyd*, and is seen taking 
its course to the south to the right of Gnang-dey and Gneedone. 

The general aspect of the country is mountainous, the mountains 
taking a N. N. W. and S. S. E. directionf. The most conspicuous 
of these, from its superior elevation, is the Zingyet Thowng, situated to 
the N. W. of Mowtumma ; it attains an elevation of 3000 feet above 
the level of the plain, and is seen at a considerable distance by vessels 
approaching the coast ; as might have been expected, the Gulf of 
Martaban, with the country in the neighbourhood of the Sitang river, 
were visible from a pagoda placed upon a pinnacle of the mountain, and 
to which I had ascended on a clear day. Great labour has been 
expended on this quarter of the Zingyet Thowng, with the view of 
making it more attractive, and rendering the ascent less irksome, than 
it would naturally have been from the precipitous nature of the rock : 
steps have been cut into the mountain, and the several projections 

• Maulamyeng pagoda. 

t The direction is exceedingly rariable ; it is sometimes N. W. and S. £., 
making a corresponding difference in the inclination of the strata* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

270 Notes on the Geology, 4c. of Moulamgeng. [May, 

removed or sloped away. A brick wall (about 3 feet high) extends 
on either side of the road from the foot of the mountain to one-third 
of its acclivity ; this is succeeded by a dry wall, composed of pieces of 
rock placed loosely together, and continued to the top. The pagoda 
is small and void of all interior ornament ; three handsome bells are 
attached to the court- yard, one of which bears an inscription, having 
reference to the period of its fabrication, and the various metallic sub- 
stances of which it is composed. 

Adopting the nomenclature of MacCulloch, the rocks under 
review are of the primitive and secondary class ; all more or less dis- 
tinctly stratified, and of a highly crystalline or compact nature. The 
Zingyet Thowng is principally composed of gneiss, and covered witb a 
forest more or less thick, according to tbe depth of the soil on whicb it 
reposes ; in places where the rock approaches the surface divested of 
vegetable mould, little or nothing is seen save a few stunted bushes 
and patches of parched grass, that had been produced during the rainy 
season ; these become more perceptible as one advances towards the 
summit, which, with the exception of one particular spot, the site of 
the pagoda, and terminating in a peak, is either round backed or 
cristated. The interior of the gneiss presents signs of disintegration 
from constant exposure to the atmosphere ; indeed, the rock is in some 
instances so decayed that it crumbles to pieces in the hand ; but for 
the stratification, it might be taken for a species of fine grained 
granite : if 1 mistake not, granite has seldom been found stratified ; 
gneiss will therefore be the more appropriate name. It must, however, 
be observed, that the stratification of the rock is in some places indis- 
tinct and irregular, the inclination of the strata being sometimes to 
the northward, and not unfrequently to the southward, of west. 
Under this gneiss probably repose the quartz-rock granite and mica 
slate found extending from the sea (in a N. N. W. and S. S. E. 
direction) towards the Kye'kmi pagoda. I regret much that it was 
not in my power to ascertain, by a personal and minute examina- 
tion, whether such is actually the case ; my visit to Ky&mi was 
unfortunately confined to a short walk upon the beach, where these 
rocks are found lying in the following order ; they are all regularly 
stratified, the several strata of no great thickness, but dipping into the 
ground at an angle of 75° or 80° ; commencing from the jetty, and 
advancing by the pagoda to the west, they were observed as follows : 

1 . Red iron clay (the result of decomposed sandstone ?), enclosing 
nodules of quartz ; this clay is cellular, of a ferruginous appearance, 
and has the property of becoming hard on exposure to the atmosphere. 
Q. Is this the laterite of the western peninsula ? 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Note$ on the Geology, *c. of MauJamyeng. 27 1 

2. White quarts-rock, alternating with 

3. Argillaceous schist; bine or yellow, and slightly talcose. 

4. Quarts-rock, white, or pale yellow, and containing a few scale* 
of mica. 

5. Talcose-schist with thin layers of quarts, alternating. 

6. A white granite with mica abundantly disseminated in large 
yellow scales. 

7. Pink, or red, quarts-rock. 

8. A grey siliceous substance (resembling chert), with veins of 
quartz, and succeeded by 

9. Gneiss, similar to that of Zingyet, but more decomposed, from 
the action of the salt water, — this is probably a continuation of the 
Zingyet gneiss. 

10. Red iron day; the same as No. 1*. 

The above constitute the whole of the primitive rocks observed in 
the neighbourhood of Maulamyeng, and with which I am at present 
so little familiar: the secondary rocks, or those now about to be 
noticed, are of a different character, formed under other circum- 
stances, and at a different epoch. 

The first of these, is the sandstone of Mowtumma and Mau- 
lamyeng ; with little variation in the line of bearing, the inclina- 
tion of the sandstone strata is diametrically opposite to that of the 
gneiss, quartz-rock, and mica-slate, &c. It has been already shewn, 
that the strata of the last mentioned rocks dip to the westward at a 
very great angle, whereas the dip of the sandstone strata is generally 
to the N. E., and the angle of inclination not exceeding 40° or 50°. 
This sandstone is more frequently white, presenting spotted delinea- 
tions of a pink or red colour, and is, in some instances, so highly 
impregnated with silica, that it becomes difficult to distinguish it from 
quarts-rock. The less compact portion of the rock. is generally inter- 
sected by veins of quartz. In many instances, the base of the sand- 
stone is an argillaceous cement, impregnated with oxide of iron, which 
gives a red colour to the rock, and renders it more liable to decompo- 
sition ; large masses of this substance are found either alternating 
with, or resting unconformably upon, the rocks of both classes ; in the 
latter case, transported from its parent rock (the sandstone above 
noticed), and assuming the appearance of a hard ferruginous brecciaf. 

The sandstone hills have an undulating appearance, being free 
from the contortions and asperities peculiar to the limestone rocks in 

• See Dr. Benza's observations on the filon of kaematitic iron in the tienitic 
granite of the Neilgfris, vol. IV. p. 424.— Ed. 
t This rock is the same aa that noticed at Kyekmi, (No. 1.) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

272 Notes on the Geology, S&. of Maulamyeng. [Mat, 

their neighbourhood. Attaining a considerable elevation, and run- 
ning parallel to each other with a distance of some miles between 
each chain, these mountain ranges form extensive valleys, covered 
with water during the S. W. monsoon, and devoted for the greater 
part to the cultivation of paddy ; what remains untilled abounding 
with long grass, the coarser kind serving for house-thatch, and the less 
rank affording pasture for cattle during the dry season. Except in 
the immediate neighbourhood of the limestone, where a fine black 
loam prevails, and on the banks of the riven and islands formed by 
the constant accumulation of mud and silt, transported from a clay- 
slate and limestone country, the greater part of the soil found in the 
plains contiguous to Maulamyeng is an arenaceous clay, mixed with a 
small portion of saline and vegetable matter*. 

The only ore that has been hitherto found in connection with the 
sandstone is a " Sulphuret of Antimony" in a vein of quartz ; it is 
found in the neighbourhood of Guangdey, and appears abundant. 
Leaving Maulamyeng, and proceeding to the north, a few limestone 
hummocks are seen on the right banks of the Than-lweng river, form- 
ing part of the long but broken chain extending to the south-east vi& 
Joe-ka-beng, Damatha, Nyown-beng-zeite, and Kyema-row. With an 
aspect so different from that of the sandstone, these limestone rocks 
present peculiarities of structure deserving mention ; although imme- 
diately succeeding the sandstone, the S. W. chains of limestone, or 
those first seen in contact with it, (advancing to the N. E.,) present 
little or no signs of stratification. The limestone appears in detached 
masses, rising, as it were, perpendicularly out of the earth ; and as 
each mass preserves a similar direction with the one preceding it, the 
range has, at a distance, the semblance of an extensive chain, conti- 
nually broken and interrupted by some great convulsion in nature. 
That the sea has covered the whole of this country, and probably at 
no very distant period of time, is perceptible at the first view. Pour 
distinct epochs would also seem to be marked out. The two first 
will include the formation of the primitive and secondary strata ; the 
third, the up-heaving of these strata ; and the fourth, the presence 
of the sea upon the whole. The shattered and divided limestone, 
with Its mural precipices and caverns ; the saline depositions so con- 
stantly met with on the plains, and other appearances of a no less 
conclusive character, attest the former existence and desolating 

* This saline matter is in some places so abundant, that the soil is collected by 
salt manufacturers for lixiviation ; the liquid is strained off, and subjected to the 
usual process of evaporation. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Notes on the Geology, *e. of Maulamgeng. 273 

power of the ocean*. As has been already observed, the sandstone 
rock is regularly stratified : the dip being (generally) to the N. E., 
and its angle of inclination from 40* to 50° : on the contrary, the 
limestone that immediately succeeds it is (to all appearance) unstra- 
ined, or the inclination of its strata discernable only from the fissures 
in the rock, so great, as to merit for it the appellation of vertical. It 
may, however, be remarked, that this peculiarity of structure is per- 
ceptible only in the Joe-ka-beng and Movmah chains of limestone ; s 
advancing to the N. £., and passing another range of the sandstone 
before noticed, the stratification becomes more apparent, at the same 
time, that the line of bearing, dip, and inclination of the strata are 
exactly similar to the sandstone at Mmdamyeng. 

The general structure of the limestone h mural, possessing consi- 
derable height but little breadth ; the angles of the projecting points 
are sharp, and as the little vegetation produced is restricted to a few 
stunted trees and shrubs, the rock has a remarkably rugged appear- 

The height ofJoe-ka-beng, the most elevated point of the S. W. chain, 
is probably as much as 2000 feet above the level of the plain ; it has 
a. small pagoda on its summit, which on a clear day is visible at a 
distance of 20 miles; but with this elevation, its greatest average 
breadth will not be more than 300 feet. The limestone is of a grey 
or lavender-blue colour, sometimes presenting spotted delineations of 
white, yellow, ochre yellow, and red; of a fine compact texture, 
rarely granulated ; fracture fine and splintery ; faintly translucent on 
the edges; and frequently intersected by veins of calc-spar, corre- 
sponding in every essential point with the English " mountain lime- 
stone," or " secondary limestone" of Jameson. Another characteristic 
of this limestone is that it is cavernous. The caves are of considerable 
magnitude, and from their containing (occasionally) inscriptions 
having reference U> the fabrication and sculpture of the several images 
and temples therein placed,, are interesting both to the antiquarian 
and the geologist. The principal caverns are those at Y4ts4y, Tyok- 
hla, Joe-ka-beng, Damatha, Nyown-beng-seite, and Phobia. Surrounded 
with jungle, these limestone caverns are not unfrequentJy tenanted by 
birds and beasts of prey. A great quantity of bat's dung is collected 

• The average elevation of the plains above the level of the sea, at high-water,. 
will not exceed six feet at the present time, while it is evident, on examination, 
that the banks contiguous to the sea, and subject to the influence of the tide, 
have been continually raised by successive depositions, and are still receiving 
deposits of silt or saline matter on every high rise of tide,, or inundation pro- 
duced by the freshes during the S. W. monsoon. 
2 N 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

274 Notes on the Geology, be. of Maulamgeng. [Mat, 

from the Tyok-hla cavern, and used by the natives in the manufacture 
of saltpetre. 

Damatha Cavern, (western entrance,) situated on the left bank of the 
Gyeng river, and about 1 2 miles distant from Maulamgeng. 

The mouth of this cavern is almost entirely closed by a brick wall : 
a small passage on the left affording entrance. It is spacious within, 
being about 220 feet long, 100 feet broad, and 25 feet high. The 
singularity attached to the cavern arises from its extending right 
through the hill, so that entering on the western side, one may pass 
out through the eastern mouth of the cave. The stalactites are 
numerous ; several are of an immense size, and daily becoming larger 
from the continual supply of water, impregnated with calcareous mat- 
ter, percolating through the hill, and giving a new crust to those 
already formed. Stalagmites likewise exist, but are generally much 
concealed from view by bat's dung, with which the floor of the cavern 
is covered. As is the case with all the larger description of caverns, that 
at Damatha is crowded with images of Buddha in wood and stone ; he 
is represented in his usual sitting posture ; in some instances, arrayed 
with the "glories," but more frequently without them. The work- 
manship is very inferior, and little attention seems to have been paid 
to the polishing of the stone, which is a fine crystalline marble, and 
naturally well adapted for sculpture. Exposed as these rude monu- 
ments of art are to the ravages of a damp atmosphere, as well as to 
the contamination of birds and beasts of prey, such extra labour would 
have been but fruitlessly bestowed ; the natural white colour of the 
marble is either entirely defaced, or it has acquired the crystalline, 
reticulated appearance peculiar to the stalactite. Fronting the eas- 
tern entrance, and placed over the larger Phyd, is the following 
inscription written in the Thalian tongue, and specifying (as I am given 
to understand) the time that had elapsed since the cavern was first 
consecrated for the reception of the images*. The country was at 
that period in the hands of the Pfy-gof government, and as marks 
of great age are evident throughout the whole of the works contained 
in the cavern, it is probable that some centuries have gone by since 
they were executed. 

Passing out of the Damatha cavern on the eastern side, and following 
the limestone range to the south, a smaller cave may be observed 
within a few yards of the summit of the hill, which is in this place 
about 500 feet above the level of the plain; the ascent to it is 
extremely difficult, owing to the precipitous nature of the rock. A 

•See note at the end of the paper and the inscription lithographed in 
PI. X.— Ed. f Pegn. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Notes on the Geology, *c. of Mauiamyeng. 275 

large brick and mortar image of Gautama guards the entrance of the 
cavern, which measures 18 by 22 feet, while its average height will be 
as much as 20 feet. This small cave had been but lately selected by 
the Phdngi, for the better concealment of a quantity of manuscripts 
written in the Thalia* or Burmah character, and secreted in the upper 
part of the Damatha cavern at a time that the country was invaded by 
the Tshdn*. 

The manuscripts were placed in wooden boxes, elevated upon raf- 
ters ; many had become perfectly rotten, and others were fast has- 
tening to decay from constant exposure to damp. 

It may be remarked, that curiously carved elephant's teeth were at 
one time to be found in these caverns, along with their less costly 
companions in wood and stone : these are now exceedingly scarce ; 
the greater number have either crumbled into dust, or divested of the 
gilding and characteristic features of the Buddhist saint, have been ex- 
posed for sale in the bazar : some few have met with a better fate, and 
are probably now adorning the cabinets of the curiousf. On a survey 
of the general devastation that prevails throughout these limestone 
caverns, it may reasonably be doubted, whether the hand of man has 
not proved equally destructive with time, and the elements, in oblite- 
rating much that had claim to notice by reason of superior antiquity, 
or novelty of design. The mutilated statues and broken shrines 
strewed around the caves too well attest the intrusion of other than 
Barmah devotees, and point out the havock provoked by avarice, a 
fanatic zeal, or the more reprehensible disregard of what is due to the 
feelings of a conquered people. 

Notwithstanding its exceedingly compact nature, perhaps no rock 
possesses the property of decomposition and solubility in water to 
such a degree as the limestone here treated of. Hence the rich 
plains in its vicinity, and the no less fertile islands continually formed 
and nourished by the carbonaceous particles transported from a lime- 
stone country by the Than-lweng, Gyeng, and Attayen. This tendency 
to wear is particularly manifest at the Phaboumg Thoumg, a limestone 
hill on the right bank of the Attayen, and not far removed from the 
site of the late town and fort from whence that river derives its name. 
A cavern may be observed in this rock that has evidently been formed 
by a mountain torrent, which, coming from the interior, rushes through 

* Siamese. 

t I was fortunate enough to obtain three of these teeth : they appear to be of 
as immense age; the ivory of the smallest tooth is completely decayed. I 
have also some of the manuscripts above alluded to, and reserve the whole for 
presentation to the Asiatic Society. (See Proc. As. Soc. 6th May.) 
2 n 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

276 Note* on the Geology, fa. of Maulamyeng. [Ma*, 

it to join its' waters with the At toy en ; with an average elevation of 
15 feet above the surface of the. water, and a diameter of nine feet, 
the cavern continues to cover the stream to the distance of 80 yards 
or more beyond its place of junction with the river. In the dry season, 
the stream is comparatively tranquil ; but in the S. W. monsoon, 
when it is greatly swelled, and becomes tremendously rapid, it rises to 
the summit, and by its overwhelming force and the constant attrition 
of its waters on the limestone rock adds considerably to the dimen- 
sions of the cave. 

Beyond the Phabowng Thowng, and on the right bank of the 
Attayen river, are the hot-wells. They are three in number, and 
about two miles distant from the old town of Attayen, of which 
nothing now remains save a few bricks to. point out the site of the 
wall that surrounded it. A dense jungle of reeds and long grass 
covers the ground, extending to the hot-$pring$ and the limestone 
rocks in their neighbourhood. The largest of the wells is of a circu- 
lar form, and apparently deep ; its diameter is probably as much as 
60 feet. An efflorescence of the salt it contained was perceptible on 
the brick wall by which it is enclosed ; the taste of the salt exceed- 
ingly bitter, not unlike that of " sulphate of magnesia*. 9 ' The spring 
was in a state of active ebullition, and much steam arose from its 
surfacef ; on the immersion of a therm, bulb, the mercury rose to 
137° Fahrenheit. The springs evidently contained much rain water 
collected during the S. W. monsoon, and which, overflowing the 
banks, is disengaged by means of small rivulets that discharge them- 
selves into the Attayen. Within a short distance of the hot-springs, 
I noticed water that had a dark colour, and a disagreeable foetid odour, 
like that of " sulphuretted hydrogen ;" this water was cold, although 
contiguous to the hot- springs. Both cocoanut and palmyra trees 
were numerous on the spot, and did not appear to suffer from their 
vicinity to the hot-wells ; a fine young pipal tree grew luxuriantly 
on the bank of the largest spring : on the contrary, the trees situated 
near the water supposed to contain " sulphuretted hydrogen'* were of 
a diminutive size, and had a sickly appearance. 

Advancing beyond Moumah, another or second range of sandstone 
is seen to cross the Than-lweng river, and take a similar direction with 
the limestone on which it reposes ; the rock is of the same compact 
or siliceous nature as that of Mowtumma and Maulamyeng, but cover- 
ed, for the greater part, by an upper stratum of red iron clay, accom- 

• A bottle of the water, taken from the hot spring, haa been presented to the 
Asiatic Society, 
t When visited by me in Dec. 1835, at an early hour in the forenoon. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1636.] Notes on the Geology, fa. o/Maulamyeng. %lf 

panied with steatite, a mineral not unfrequently found associated with 
this clay in other parts of the coast. This range is less wooded than 
the sandstone to the southward, and has the ferruginous appearance 
peculiar to the soil. 

Approaching to the village of " Hmeebong," one cannot but b e 
struck with the singular appearance of the limestone rock on the right 
bank of the Than-lweng : the limestone appears, as usual, in large 
isolated masses ; but the form assumed by some of these is remark- 
ably grotesque, at the same time, that the stratification of the lime- 
stone is more perceptible at this place than it has hitherto been. The 
following may be taken as a tolerably correct representation of these 
rocks, as seen from the neighbourhood of Hmeebong. (See fig. 2.J 

Still ascending the Than-lweng, and passing the island of Colon by 
either channel, the river becomes more rapid, owing to the rise of its 
bed and the limestone reefs that cross it for several miles to the north ; 
the eastern channel is that generally navigated : its left bank is high 
and precipitous, abounding with the cellular red iron clay so plentiful 
at Maulamyeng and Kythni: from its position, the clay appears to 
have been transported to its present site at a comparatively recent 
period, and subsequently to a change in the course of the Than-lweng ; 
for it not only reposes horizontally upon the limestone rocks, but is 
found reclining upon a thick stratum of round pebbles and coarse 
gravel, in every respect similar to that found in the bed of the river at 
the conclusion of the rainy season*. This conglomerate is perhaps 
best viewed at an escarpment of the bank a little beyond Chamyah, 
and the great probability of its containing organic remains merits for 
it the particular attention of the geologist. 

The limestone rock had been hitherto observed in broken but elevated 
chains on either bank of the Than-lweng, and with the exception of 
the few reefs before alluded to, seldom seen to stretch across and 
disturb the river in its progress to the south : leaving Colon Island 
and proceeding towards the Yengbieng Kyowng the case is far different ; 
the country becomes more mountainous, at the same time that the 
rocks appear distorted and thrown about in the utmost disorder : it 
seems as if a chasm had been suddenly formed in the mountains, and 
a passage thus opened to the Than-lweng. Piled upon each other in 
the utmost confusion, the limestone rocks not only form a wall on 
either side of the river, narrowing its bed, and thereby adding to the 

* This change of course might hare been produced by the sadden deposit of 
the clay ; and which accumulation and deposit can only be accounted for in 
the same manner as reasons are assigned for the singular appearance of the 
limestone rocks. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

278 Nates on the Geology, 8rc. of Maulamyeng. £May, 

rapidity of the current, but spreading themselves across, obstruct its 
passage, and render the navigation extremely dangerous at any other 
time than the N. E. moon soon. The current of the river is very 
strong near Miang and Mye-an, but the principal rapids are met with 
in the neighbourhood of Tovmg-bio-myo : I accompanied Sir J. Dick- 
son, K. C. B., to this place in March, 1835, and we found it impossible 
for our boats to proceed further ; indeed our return was not effected 
without considerable risk, owing to the force of the current, and the 
numerous eddies produced by the inequalities on the bed of the Than- 
Iweng, which is in this place extremely deep. Accidents continually 
occur : a boat once drawn within the vortex of the whirlpool is inevi- 
tably lost ; both boat and crew are sucked down, and never known to 
make their appearance on the surface. 

At the mouth of the Yengbieng Kyowng, a spot rendered peculiarly 
attractive by the beauty of the surrounding scenery, the limestone is 
seen gradually passing into clay-slate ; the limestone has a Blaty frac- 
ture, becomes earthy, and is of a darker colour ; the transition is at 
length so perfected (to the view) that but for the effervescence produced 
by the nitric acid, it becomes, in some instances, extremely difficult to 
detect the presence of the limestone in the argillaceous schist, with 
which it is intimately blended. At a short distance beyond the Yeng- 
bien Kyowng, a few blocks of a grey siliceous rock may be observed 
at the foot of a hill on the left bank of the Than-lweng* ; the hill is 
high,* of a conical shape, and covered with a thick forest and under- 
wood. Iron ore is found in considerable quantities both on the hill, 
as well as in its vicinity ; and small grains of iron pyrites are abun- 
dantly disseminated in the rock. This is succeeded again by the 
slaty limestone, and finally by the blue clay-slate that crosses the river 
at the Towng-bio rapid. Large masses of slate repose on either bank, 
surrounded by a micaceous sand and pebbles (consisting for the most 
part of talcose slate), brought down from the upper country during the 
S. W. moonsoon. A dyke of porphyritic felspar intervenes between 
the slate strata ; the felspar rock is of a deep yellow, and studded 
throughout with small circular pieces of the same mineral, of a lighter 
colour. I regret much that I had not leisure to pay a proper degree 
of attention to the structure of this rock ; our party arrived on the 
ground late in the afternoon, and we left the place early on the fol- 
lowing morning ; but short as was my stay at the Towng-bio rapid, I 
have often since dwelled in pleasing recollection, on the wild and 

• The rock is extremely hard, and slightly impregnated with carbonaceous 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 836.] Notes on the Geology, SfC. of Maulamyeng. . 279 

majestic scenery so bountifully bestowed by nature on this part of the 

A desire to become better acquainted with the geology of this part 
of the world induced me to pay a visit to the Ayein Kayeng. The 
following notes, having reference to the geology of that country, are 
extracted from my journal, with the view of rendering the description 
of the rocks before mentioned more complete. 

" Leaving my boat at Mye-an, and advancing in a N. £. direction 
towards the village of Yeng-bien, a mass of regularly stratified limestone 
makes its appearance on the left of the road ; it forms part of a broken 
chain extending N. N. W. and 8. S. £. The stratification of the 
limestone is remarkably distinct ; the dip of the strata £. N. £. 

" Proceeding from thence up a dry nullah, covered with fragments of 
slate and sandstone, the ascent lay over the blue clay-slate that is first 
seen reposing on the limestone at the Towng-bio rapid. The slate is 
covered with a forest of fine young male bambus, runs parallel with 
the limestone, and may be as much as 900 feet above the level of the 

" Bidding adieu to Yeng-bien, and advancing in the same direction to- 
wards Melayo, Tlgunnty, (TshangeleeJ and Bo-thowng, the rocks are of the 
same nature as those encountered in route from Maulamyeng to Towng- 
bio-myo; viz. limestone, alternating with sandstone and clay -slate ; the 
sandstone becomes extremely compact and siliceous in the neighbour- 
hood of Bo-thowng ; the limestone presents itself in the usual broken 
masses of various extent. But the clay-slate of Bo-thowng differs in 
colour from that of Towng-bio, being either pink or reddish brown, with 
a fine silky texture. The route from Tigunn^y to Bo-thowng is diffi- 
cult and dangerous from the precipitous nature of the rock which is, 
at the latter place, as much as 2000 feet above the level of the plain. 
The ascent is also much impeded by the leaves and clay-slate pebbles 
profusely scattered about, and leaving little footing for the traveller on 
a path so inclined. Descending on the eastern side of the hill, the 
path (if it may be so called) lay over masses of the same pink- 
coloured slate, watered by a stream that precipitated itself over the 
rock, and rendered the descent a matter of no small difficulty ; after 
proceeding a hundred yards or more, in that direction, the route lay 
to the left ; a second ascent was here commenced, and passing a few 
heaps of stratified limestone alternating with the slate, I arrived at 
that part of the mountain called Bo-thowng : silver ore is said to exist 
in a limestone rock at this place, and judging from the numerous 
excavations that had been made by those in pursuit of the precious 
metal, no little labour has been used in the endeavour to discover it. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

280 Notes on the Geology, <*c. of Maulamyeng. [May, 

I had neither time nor opportunity for ascertaining whether silver ore 
does so exist ; pieces of copper green, iron pyrites, and lead ore*, deem- 
ed useless and cast aside by those in pursuit of silver, were strewed 
around the place, and for the first time, in this part of the world, I 
observed Anthracite dispersed in thin seams through the limestone 
rock. The figure of the limestone is not a little singular ; emerging 
from the clay- slate at the upper part of the mountain, and confined to- 
a line of 20 or 30 yards, the strata rise at a considerable angle, at- 
taining an elevation of 90 or 100 feet, so that the exterior form of the 
limestone is that of a huge block, resting upon the hill, unconnect- 
ed with any rock of the same class. This structure is common to 
the limestone throughout the whole of the Bo-thowng chain; but 
notwithstanding its peculiarity of form, the stratification is perfectly 
distinct ; the dip of the strata being to the N. £. or £. N. £. precisely 
similar to that of the sandstone or clay-slate, with which it alternates." 
The above notes were hastily arranged on my return from Maula- 
myeng ; my residence at that place was necessarily short, and I am aware 
that much still remains deserving the attention of those who will pos- 
sess the leisure and opportunities that I was not fortunate enough to 
enjoy. The field is stored with much that is valuable to the Antiquarian, 
the Botanist, and the lover of Natural History. I trust that others 
will, ere long, lay before the public the treasures it contains. 

Note. — The inscription brought by Capt. Foley, from the Damatha 
cave, is certainly the most enigmatical that has yet puzzled the anti- 
quarian. I have lithographed it in Plate X., and with the assistance 
of Ratna Paula, now furnish a copy in the Roman character : 
Line 1.— sakkarak lri kun, 30—65 nhafi, sakkarak lrl kun, 4015061, nhafi, 
sakkarak kun lri. 
2.— 50— 45 nhafi, sakkarak lri kun, 603304 nhafi, sakkarak lri kun, 

790 nhafi, sakkarak 
3.— lri kun, 370 nhan, sakkarak lri knn, 408—409 nhafi, takkarak, lri 

kun, 604 — 30 nhan nhafi. 
4.— sakkarak lri knn, 3096-5-0 nhafi, sakkarak lri knn, 303—50 nhafi, 

sakkarak lri 
5.— knn 508309 nhafi, sakkarak lri kvn, 306060 nhafi, sakkarak lri knn 

6.— nhafi sakkarak lri kun, 407—50 nhafi, sakkarak kun lri kun, 6030304, 

nhafi, sakkarak lri 
7.— kun 401501 nhafi, sakkarak lri kun, 305602 nhafi, sakkarak lri kun,, 
503—704 nhafi. 

All that can be predicated of this curious text is, that it contains 
either some profound and unintelligible calculation, or that it is a. 
• On analysis, it appeared to be an " artenUte of Jearf." 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 


VoUV. Pl.V/1. 


JWJyJpar Porphyry 

Coogld — — — 

Digitized by VjOOQLC 

1 836.] On the Revolution of the Seasons. 28 1 

chronological register of mythological times : — if the latter, the names 
of the reigning monarchs are omitted as immaterial, and the simple 
fact announced, " in the year so and so, so many reigns ;"-»-but even 
this is conjectural, and unless errors have been committed in copying 
the figures, they do not run in any seeming order. The word sak- 
kardk is the Talain rendering of the Sanscrit sakardj, year ; in Barmese 
written sakkarbj : the terms Iri kun and nhah are unknown to my in- 
formant. J. P. Sec. 

V. — On the Revolution of the Seasons. By the Rev. R. Everest. 

In the Journal of April 1835, I gave the result of a comparison of 
the amount of rain-fall at Calcutta, with different positions of the 
moon, as far as regards her declination. The averages shew that a 
greater quantity of rain fell on the days when the declination was 
large, say from 20° to 28°, than when it was small. Now, as there 
are some years in the lunar cycle in which the declination never 
reaches to 20°, it followed, as a probable, though not a necessary, 
inference, that in those years there would be a deficiency of rain. 
Shortly afterwards I met with this note, (Humboldt's New Spain, 
translated by Black, vol. ii. page 86.) " Toaldo pretends to be 
able to deduce from a great number of observations, that the very 
rainy years, and consequently the great inundations, return every 19 
years according to the terms of the cycle of Saros — Rosier, Journal 
de Physique 1783." The recurrence seems here spoken of as an 
exploded error. 1 have therefore used whatever means lay within my 
reach to obtain information as to what really has been the variation 
of the seasons in this country for a long time back, and I will now 
state the results. But I must first premise respecting the note just 
quoted, that great inundations are not a necessary consequence of very 
rainy years. Should the rain fall regularly or equably, it will be less 
likely to occasion an inundation, than a much less quantity falling in 
a very short time. This will be more particularly the case in rocky 
and mountainous countries, where the channels are more easily choaked. 
In wide-extended plains, like those of the Nile and the Ganges, the 
rise of the river will form a more probable criterion of the amount of 
the rainy-season, though not a certain one. To revert, however, to 
the point proposed. The year 1829, was that of the minimum decli- 
nation of the moon, and from the early part of 1827, to the end of 
1831, the declination is never stated in the Almanacks at above 20°. 
For this, or rather for a period somewhat more extended, viz. from 
1826 to 1833, inclusive, we have the following facts recorded. 
2 o 

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282 On the Revolution of the Seasons. [Mat 1 , 



1828* f Great d** 011 ^* m N. S. Wales; Lieut. Brereton's Travels - 


1832. Public prayer by the Emperor of China for rain on account 
of extraordinary drought. Minimum of rain by Calcutta Register. 

1833. Great drought through all the Upper Provinces, extending 
from Bundelkhand to Kashmir. 

Let us next turn to Mr. Ktd's Register of the Height of the HugU, 
(see Journal, April, 1835 ;) and as that has been objected to as evidence, 
I must be allowed to say a word in its defence. It is true that the 
level of the Hugli at Calcutta is affected by the tides in the Bay ; 
but according to Mr. Ktd's account, such an occurrence is very rare, 
an inundation from the sea not happening more than once in a century. 
Remembering then that the ninth year before 1829 or 1820, was that 
of the moon's maximum declination, we find that the three or four 
years immediately before or after that were higher, on the average, 
than those farther off. Again, if we take 1811, the ninth year before 
1620, and 18 years before 1829, we find that in the years nearest 
to it the river was lower than in those farther off. If we take 
the joint evidence of the height of the river, and the Calcutta register, 
we may assume that 1813 was the minimum year of rain ; the 10th 
year after that or 1 823, was the maximum year of rain t and in the 
ninth year again after that, or in 1832, came a minimum again; a 
period of 1 9 years, or a complete lunar cycle, having intervened between 
one minimum and its succeeding one. 

With a view of ascertaining whether such a variation held in other 
localities, I obtained from the collector's office here, a memorandum 
of the character of the seasons as to rain for 21 years back. It was 
dictated from memory by an old native officer of the establishment, 
who would of course have the records of the office to refer to ; and 
these in a climate where the crops depend so much upon the quantity 
of rain, would of themselves be a tolerable guide. 

It begins thus: 1812, great drought; 1813, moderate; 1814 to 
1823, (both inclusive, a period of 10 years,) four years very abundant, 
four years, abundant, two years moderate. From 1824 to 1833, (both 
inclusive, a period of 10 years,) one year very abundant, two years 
abundant, three years moderate, three years, drought; one year, 
1833, great drought. The seasons of great drought are here placed 
21 years apart, instead of 19, as in the former case. Evidence of this 
kind, like that from the height of the river, though not free from 
objection, can hardly be deemed unworthy of credit, when it is corro- 
borated from other sources. There is one advantage, however, which 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 836.] On the Revolution of the Season. 289 

information of the two kinds above-mentioned, possesses over the 
results of a solitary rain-guage, however carefully kept, viz. that they 
are an index, imperfect as they may be, to what has happened over a 
large tract of country ; whereas the rain-guage can only inform us 
as to one particular spot, and rain-guages in general are so much 
affected by peculiarities of situation, that the results afforded by any 
one singly, must be considered as liable to doubt. To obviate this 
objection, I have placed together in a table all the different series 
procurable, of a date posterior to 1 820, (see Table No. 1 .) Most of 
them are to be found in the different Nos. of the Journal ; and the 
localities are between Dacca, (£. Long. 90°,) and Delhi, (E. Long. 78°,) 
between Nagpur, (Lat. 21°, North,) and Delhi, 28° 4(T (N.) To these 
are added the observations at Madras, which I have obtained through 
the kindness of the Astronomer there ; at Macao, in China, (Journal, 
July, 1832,) and at Edinburgh, (see Brswstbr's Philosophical Journal, 
passim.) In Table No. 2, are given the only three series that I 
have for the years between 1 800 and 1 82 1 . The two first (Madras and 
Macao) are merely the preceding parts of the series given in Table 1 . 
Hie last from Carlsruhe, in Sweden, is given in the Edinburgh Philoso- 
phical Journal for 1821, there quoted from the Bibliotheque Universelle 
for November, 1820. The original appears to be given in French 
inches and lines, and I have not reduced them to English measure, 
as the doing so would not affect the question at issue, viz. whether 
some years of the lunar cycle are more rainy than others. Now to 
make a more correct comparison of the different years, we must first 
reduce the numbers given in Table 1. to a common mean. Thus, we 
have Dacca for eight years, (1827, 1828, 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832, 
1833, 1834,) and the mean of the different sums given is 72*80 inches ; 
at Calcutta, for the same eight years, the mean is 60*37 inches. The 
difference between these, 12*43 inches, we may reasonably suppose to 
be owing to the localities. Subtract, therefore, from each item of the 
Dacca series, the mean difference 12*43; the remainders will be 
reduced to the mean of Calcutta*. Proceed in a similar way with the 
other series, only of course where the climate is drier than that of 
Calcutta, the mean difference must be added, and not subtracted. 
The series in Table No. 2, may be included in the comparison by 
treating them in a similar way, and then considering them only accord- 
ing to their position in the lunar cycle. Thus, if we take 1821 for 
the first year of the cycle, 1803 (or the eighteenth year before that) 
may also be reckoned as the first year ; 1802 and 1820, will of course 
be the last years. Place the whole in columns numbered according 
to their distance from 1802 and 1820, and an average may be taken 
• The more correct mode would be to multiply the Dacca series by ®£5. — Ed. 
2 o 2 

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284 On the Revolution of the Seasons. [May, 

of the whole, as in Table, No. 3. From this it appears that the 
average of nine years nearest the maximum is 66*34 inches, and 
of nine years nearest the minimum, 61 '21 inches, making a dif- 
ference of 5*13, or nearly ^th of the whole between the two periods. 
If it be objected, that such a difference is too trivial to be decisive, we 
may answer that the difference shewn in the table is less than the 
real one. In all the' series, except those of Dacca and Macao, a quan- 
tity has been added to bring them to the mean of Calcutta, and of 
course where two quantities differ, and a third quantity is added to 
each, they are brought nearer to a ratio of equality*. 

Secondly, if we consider each series separately, (see Tables 1 . and 
2,) we shall find that each confirms the opinion of the years of ma- 
ximum declination being the most rainy, except the Macao one, in 
which the reverse holds good. Thus the average of 1812, 1813, 1814, 
and 1815, (four years near the minimum,) is 80*50 inches. That of 
1816, 19, 20, 21, 22,23, 24, (seven years about the maximum,) is6l*46. 
Again, that of 1 825, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 3 1 , (seven years about the mini- 
mum,) is 71*00 inches. So that this guage, as well as the others, 
favours the idea of a recurrence contemporaneous with the recurrence 
in the lunar cycle. We may here remark, that the idea of certain 
localities reciprocating, or experiencing at the same time contrary 
variations of climate, appears, at first sight, more probable than that 
the quantity of precipitation over the whole globe should be abundant 
for a series of years, and then deficient, the great cause of evaporation, 
viz. the heating power of the sun, remaining all the while the same. 

It will be noticed, that among the series are two from northern 
Europe (Edinburgh and Carlsruhe). The inference might have been 
drawn without them, but they were added, as being the only others 
of any length I had at hand, to complete the cycle. Notwithstanding 
the testimony of the Swedish guage, it is very doubtful whether such 
a variation as is there shewn is general over Europe. I say so : First. 
Because of the way in which the idea is treated in the note from 
Humboldt above quoted. Secondly. From the silence of modern 
writers in meteorology respecting it. Thirdly. What English registers 
I have been able to examine (and they are for short periods, not 
above three or four years) do not shew a preponderance of rain towards 
the maximum declination of the moon, but rather the reverse ; so that, 
from that, as well as from other sources of information, we might 
conjecture the variations there would rather agree with those of the 
Macao guage, than of the Indian ones. 

In naming the places visited, either just before, or after the year 
1829, by drought, the following was omitted: " During the three 
* Thii would hare been obtiated by following the coarse mentioned in the 
note, page 283.— Ed. 

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On the Revolution of the Seasons. 


yean prior to 1834, there had been a complete drought, which had 
brought a famine upon these islands, and, in consequence, some 
thousands of the inhabitants had died." — Sketches of Cape de Verd 
Islands. — United Service Journal, July, 1835. As these islands lie 
in a latitude between that of Calcutta and Madras, the fact is inter- 
esting, but I have no accounts to refer to for the state of things 
during that period, in the intervening countries of Egypt, Abyssinia, 
Arabia, and Persia. 

Lastly. It will be objected, that a regularly ascending and descend- 
ing series has not been made out. 

This is true ; but as the number of series from which to take the 
averages has increased, so has the tendency to it become more appa- 
rent. There is one circumstance, however, which may serve to prevent 
a regular ascent and descent from ever becoming perceptible, viz. 
the place of the perigee. Having been lately engaged in an examina- 
tion of barometric heights with regard to this, I have noticed that the 
average amount of variation from the mean, either in excess or defect, 
is greater about the time of perigee, as it also is about that of maximum 
declination. Now there are some years in which the day of perigee 
coincides about the solstices with that of maximum declination, and 
these years are usually the extreme ones, both of moisture and drought. 
I subjoin a sample. 

and Max. 


ladras, 32.27 
Lacao, 95*70 

The three numbers in the Calcutta guage are, one, the highest, and 
two the lowest up to 1 833 ; the six numbers in the Madras guage are 
the four minima and two maxima noted up to the same period. Of 
the three numbers from the Macao guage, one only is an extreme, 
but the other two are very large either way. Some other circum- 
stances, also, would lead to the belief, that peculiar localities receive 
the changes both of drought and moisture earlier than others. Thus 
the last drought was at its height in Bengal in 1 832, and also at 
Madras ; but it did not reach either Delhi or the Nilgherries to the 
westward until 1833. This of course introduces a new source of 

There is one other way of attempting to trace the variation of the 
seasons, and that is by a comparison of the prices of corn in different 
years at different places ; but this must be deferred for the present. 






and Max. 

and Max. 

and Max. 

and Max. 

and Max. 


South Decl 

South Decl. 

South Decl. 

North Decl. 












77-08 27-62 








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On the Revolution of the Seiuoit*. 







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Digitized by VjOOQLC 

288 Discovery of Fossil Bones in Western India. [May, 

VI.— Recent Discovery of Fossil Bones in Perim Island, in the Cambay 


[Read at the meeting of the let June.] 

The following notice of the interesting discovery of this new deposit 
of fossil hones has been obligingly communicated tome in a letter from 
the Baron Hugbl, dated at Bombay the 1 7th April. Although its pub- 
lication anticipates the arrival of the specimens themselves, it would be 
an injustice to science and to Dr. Lush to delay for a moment so 
important an announcement. The acknowledgments of the Society are 
due both to the discoverer and to the Baron Hugbl, for the preference 
given to our museum for their preservation. I hope the circum- 
stance may lead to fresh exertions in the valley of the Narbada, where 
doubtless much still remains to be explored. — J. P. Sec. 

" You will receive shortly a few fossil bones from Perim Island, in the 
Cambay Gulph. Dr. Lush has the merit to have found them, but with- 
out exploring them at all. I had no time to go over from Surat, where 
Dr. Lush showed me them. I requested him to send them to you through 
Mr. Wathbn. One is an imperfect bone of a mastodon or elephant — 
another the head of a boar unknown, and one belonging, I think, to a 
' Rongeur;' but what induces me particularly to wish them at Calcutta 
is, that there is a horn in its matrix, which, connected as these fossils 
must necessarily be with those of the Narbada, might belong to that 
species of Bos mentioned in your Journal : it is decidedly not of a 
Buffalo. I was so anxious to reach Bombay, that I could not possibly 
go to Perim myself. I did however manage to send a boat over ; and 
I received yesterday 4 1 pieces of fossil bones : the'greater'part belonging 
to the mastodon latidens, of which the teeth, in a perfect state, did not 
leave any doubt ; some of the bones are of an immense size, one frac- 
tured piece of the tusk measuring from the centre to the outside of the 
circle 5£ which gives 1 0£ inches diameter, or 34 inches in circumfer- 
ence : some of them are in the same hard matrix you will see imbedding 
the horn ; some evidently rolled by the sea. There are some curious 
teeth among the fragments I possess, and two triangular shaped pieces 
similar to the horn of a rhinoceros : the teeth are however too large to 
belong to that animal. I may perhaps send the most curious specimens 
round to you ; but I am at this moment too much pleased with my dis- 
covery to part with them. It appears that the island abounds with fossils, 
and it is a clear proof either that the Narbada must have found only lately 
its way to the Cambay gulph, or that some other revolution must have 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1 836.] Discovery of Fossil Bones in Western India. 289 

separated the little island from KattiwJr. Having no opportunity to 
leave this for either Persia or the Cape, I may still perhaps he able to 
go to Perim and Gogo, to trace the fossils on the main land of the 
peninsula." Huoel. 

Since the above was set in type, and just before striking off the 
sheet, I have been favored with the subjoined additional information 
from a new correspondent, Lieut. Fulljambs, which I hasten to make 
known through the Journal, while I venture to assure him the thanks 
of the Society for his projected exertions to enrich its museum. Who 
will not become an enthusiast amid such discoveries ? It is but four 
years since the existence of strata containing fossil bones was denied 
in India, or at least supposed to be confined to Assam and Ava. We 
are proud to think that the Journal has been in some measure the 
humble means of stimulating the search which has been thus crowned 
with success in so many quarters. — Ed. 

" On my arrival in this part of the country in the month of April, I 
heard a report that some bones, turned into stones, as the natives 
called them, had been discovered on the Island of Perim in the Gulph 
of Cambay, and in latitude 21° 39'. 

I lost no time in going there to see if the report of fossil remains was 
correct, and although I do not pretend to be a geologist, or to know 
much about fossil osteology, still I consider my labours most amply 
repaid, by my first visit to the island ; for I obtained a most perfect 
specimen of the teeth of the mastodon ; one also that I think belongs 
to the palseotherium ; and the femur, vertebrae, and many other bones 
belonging to mammiferous animals now extinct. 

Being well aware from the perusal of your scientific Journal, how 
highly, and I might say justly, remains of this sort are prized, I shall 
take the liberty of forwarding to the Society for their acceptance a box 
containing specimens of these fossil remains. 

The formation in which they were discovered is a tertiary conglo- 
merate, composed of nodules of sandstone, indurated clay, and a small 
proportion of silex, cemented together by a yellow clay ; most of the 
fossil remains have been exposed to view, by the sea having washed 
off the upper part of the matrix, but still they are firmly attached to 
the rock, and the only way they were to be obtained, without breaking, 
was by stone-cutters carefully working all round them ; large quantities 
of petrified wood were lying about in every direction. 

The following is a list of the strata as they appeared to me, com- 
mencing from the surface, viz. 

1st. Loose sand and earth. 

2nd. Conglomerate, composed of sandstone, clay and silex. 
2 p 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

290 Discovery of Fossil Bones in Western India. [Mat, 

3rd. Yellow and whitish clay, with nodules of sandstone. 

4th. Conglomerate as above. 

5th. Siliceous sandstone with a few fossils. (Calcareous.— Ed.) 

6th. Conglomerate. 

7th. Indurated clay more or less compact. 

8th. Conglomerate, in which the best, and I may say nearly the 
whole of the fossil remains have been discovered. 

The deepest strata of conglomerate are about 3 feet, but they gene- 
rally do not run more than 18 inches to 2 feet, and for the most part 
lie horizontal. On the western side of the island, however, the strata 
are much disturbed, being fractured, and dipping at an acute angle to 
the east ; on the southern end of the island, sandstone appears below 
the fossil stratum of conglomerate, dipping to the north at an angle of 
25 degrees. 

There is a tradition among the inhabitants of Gogah, that the island 
of Perim was formerly joined to the main land, by means of a stone 
bridge, which has, in the course of time, been destroyed ; remains 
of some buildings are still to be seen, running into the sea in the shape 
of piers, &c. It must have been a very stupendous undertaking, for 
there is a channel now between the land and the island of the depth of 
75 fathoms, and nearly 500 yards in width. 

On the island there are the remains of a considerable fort, and 
buildings of Hindu architecture, for I observed in an old temple that 
had tumbled down, the broken figure of Buddha rudely sculptured in a 
sitting posture ; also the remains of a large tank wall, and bauli. Among 
the other curiosities of the island are two elephants cut out in the 
rock ; they are covered now by the sea except at very low water ; one 
is finished, and I should say, measured about 10 feet long by 8 or 9 
feet high. Capital fresh water is procurable on the island, 20 feet 
below the surface; it is found below the stratum of sandstone. 

I will here enumerate the varieties of specimens of fossil remains, 
which I think have been found. Teeth of mammoth ; ditto mastodon, 
paleotherium, hippopotamus, or rhinoceros, and a number of other 
•mailer animals. The head of some large saurian animal ; part of 
a tortoise ; ditto of elephant's tusks. Femora, vertebrae, and other 
large bones ; one shell in siliceous sandstone, and the half of a deer's 
foot. With this vast variety before me, it requires a person much better 
qualified than myself in the art to say to what particular animal the 
different specimens belong, and I therefore forward them with the 
hopes of hearing the opinion of the scientific in Calcutta. 

It has occurred to me, on reading over the Journal for Aug. 1834, 
that the conglomerate in which the fossil remains in the valley of the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

] 836.] Synopsis of Srwdlik Fossils. 291 

Nerbudda have been discovered, is very nearly similar to that in 
which the Perim fossil are found ; and if my conjectures are correct, 
we shall be able to trace the formation along the whole line of the 
Nerbudda valley and the greater part of the Kattiwar coast. Should 
such be the case, and I have but little doubt in my own mind that it 
will be so, what a vast field has thus been thrown open, for discovery 
and research ; I still hope to see my conjectures fulfilled with regard 
to finding coal in the Tajpipla or Kattiwar range of hills before the 
lapse of many years. 

Not wishing to take the credit to myself of having been the first 
person to discover these remains, I should mention that I believe Dr. 
Lush was the first ; he having, I understand, found a tusk of some ani- 
mal on the island. During a second visit to the island, I was accom- 
panied by three other gentlemen, who have most kindly given me 
permission to forward any part of the specimens so obtained, that 1 
think may be acceptable. 

Doubtless on further research and on breaking up the stratum, more 
perfect specimens of bones will be discovered : for I must mention that 
all those sent were covered at high water, the highest point of the island 
not being above 60 feet higher than high water mark ; the length of 
the island is about l£ miles to 2 miles, and in breadth £ to $ mile ; 
large sand hills are formed on the south-west side, and it is inhabited 
by about 12 houses of coolies, who cultivate bajri there during the 
monsoon. A light-house has been established there for some years, 
and kept up by the Government, of which a serang and five lascars 
have charge : the expenses are defrayed by levying a duty on all boats 

Should I be able to make any further discoveries either in fossil 
remains, or as to the formation of the Kattiwar hill, I shall trouble 
you with a further communication ; that is to say, should you consider 
the present worthy of occupying any part of the pages of your inter- 
esting Journal. Geo. Fuluambs." 

VII. — Table of Sub- Himalaya* Fossil Genera, in the Dddtpur Collection. 
By Lieut*. W. £. Bakbe and H. M. Durand, Engineers. 
The following table is intended to illustrate the proportion in which 
the respective genera have been found to occur, and is deduced from 
the specimens in our collection. 

The results might have been presented in a more simple form by 
confining the table to the two last columns ; but as information with 
regard to the number of perfect and imperfect specimens on which 
2 p 2 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

292 Synopsis of the Siwdlik Fossils [May, 

the entries admitted into these columns are based may be deemed 
interesting, the following headings under which the specimens were 
counted off are also given. 

Craniums, which title includes all specimens showing a considerable 
portion of the head. 

Upper Jaws. Allotted to such palates as possess either one or 
both lines of molars complete. 

Lower Jaws. Under this heading are numbered those lower jaws 
which are perfect, and also such as, though wanting the symphisis, 
present the line of molars complete. The shape of the lower jaws of 
the ruminantia renders them very liable to fracture immediately in 
front of the molars ; accordingly, a great number of half jaws are 
found, which, being deprived of their symphisis, afford no means of 
accurately joining together such of them as may have belonged to the 
same individual. Some pairs may therefore have been overlooked ; an 
error nearly inevitable, and which would account for the apparent 
excess of lower jaws in proportion to the upper. 

Fragments of Upper and of Lower Jaws. Within these columns, as 
the heading imports, fragments of maxillaries, containing one, two, or 
more molars, and also those detached molars, the maxillaries of which 
are not in the collection, have been ranged. 

As the table enters into no detail of species, the latest discoveries 
which it comprises may be cursorily noticed. These are a very perfect 
cranium and lower jaw of a species of Vulpes ; an equally perfect cra- 
nium and lower jaw of a species of the genus Gulo ; also an addi- 
tion to the Pachyderma, consisting of the anterior half of a head, of 
which the posterior half was unfortunately broken off ; and owing to 
the carelessness of the excavators, none of the fragments have hitherto 
been recovered. The lower jaw is locked within the upper ; so that 
the exterior surface, and the outline of the upper molars can alone be 
examined ; the characteristics of the teeth being thus imperfectly deve- 
loped, and the occiput wanting altogether, the specimen has been 
inserted in the table under the general title " Cuvierian Pachyderma :" 
by which, however, there is no intention of conveying the idea that it 
has been identified with any of the Pachydermata of the Paris basin ; 
for although it affords some analogies both to the Palseotherium and 
to the Anoplotherium, its essential peculiarities are sufficiently remark- 
able to cause it to be separated from either genus. 

In the present early state of the search, the accompanying list can 
only be considered as an approximation to the relative numerical pro- 
portions in which the different fossil genera existed. Viewed as such, it 
tends to prove that species of the genera Elephas, Mastodon, Hippo- 
potamus, Cervus, Antilope, and Bos, were abundant ; that the genera 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


in the Dddupur Museum. 


Rhinoceros, Equus, Sub, Canis, and Hyena, were of less frequent 

occurrence, and that the Camelidae and the Sivatherium were rare. 

The habits of these genera may be adduced as reasons for modifying 

this general summary of the state of a former zoological period. 

Note.— Having been favored with the perusal of the forthcoming paperi on 
the Hippopotamus, in the Asiatic Society's Transactions, it becomes requisite to 
remark, that the specimen placed under the genus Anthracotherium is the same 
which in a note at page 59, is considered by Dr. Falconer as belonging to a 
new genus, Cbserotherium. In our opinion, it is a new species of Anthracothe- 
rium, under which we have accordingly numbered it. Mr. Dawk has brought 
to our notice a specimen in his possession, which consists of the right half of a 
lower jaw belonging to the Hippopotami* Dissimilis of Dr. Falconer and 
Captain Cautley. It is valuable as showing two molars which have suffered but 
little detrition, and which, instead of the tapering conical collines, with summits 
elose to each other, as in the large Hippopotami, has its colline apices 
widely separated, the tapering taking place from the point of contact of their 
bases outwards : the outer side of each colline is nearly perpendicular, and from 
the manner in which the sloping and the upright surfaces meet, the colline top 
loses the mammillar aspect, assuming a flattened almost trenchant form. The 
wear indicated is the same as that describad in the paper above alluded to. 

Table of Sub- Himalayan Fossil Genera. 














— i 














s S 

| Total i 
| jaw. 



Uriua? .... 







































1 2 



Elephas,.. .. 



9 2 


31 61 

31 46 



1 56 doubtful 
> mutilated frag- 
J ments omitted. 


mus, .. .. 

1 1 
















1 1 



J Cuvierian. 






rium, .... 

























Ruminant ia, 








Cenrus, .... 

331 17 



r ^ 


1 Many doubtful 

A nt Slope,.., . 

8 18 35 





> fragments not 









J counted. 



Gariala, .... 

5 fragments. 

Crocodile, . . 

3 fragments. 

r& whole — many 


Ifiny s, .... 

1 fragments of 
] bothKmys and 
I Trionix 





April 97* A, 1 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

294 Note on the teeth of the [Mat, 

VIII.— Note on the Teeth of the Mastodon a dents etroites of the Siwdlik 
Hills. By Captain P. T. Cautlet. PL XI. 
[Read at the meeting of the 1st June.] 

Without further preface I refer the reader to the 1st volume of the 
Osemens fossiles, page 268. Figures 1 and 2, plate 4, under the head 
of " Divers Mastodons." 

These drawings were presented to Cuvier by M. Faujas, and the 
fossil was found near Asti in Upper Italy. 

Cuvier merely alludes to this fossil as one of the varieties into which 
the true Mastodon a dents etroites passes by a greater subdivision and 
an irregularity of position of the mamilla? ; the proportions of length 
to breadth of the tooth retaining their full and perfect character. 

By comparing the accompanying drawings with the figures above 
alluded to, there can be no demur, I imagine, in identifying the Siwalik 
variety of Mastodon now under review with the Asti fossil. It remains 
therefore simply to note the peculiarities in form of the tooth : al- 
though it may be a point of consideration hereafter, whether, , as the 
character of the tooth is so marked, and its peculiarities so rigidly 
adhered to throughout the whole of the remains found in the Siwiliks, 
it may not be placed under a sub-genus, that of " angustidens,' 9 with 
the specific denomination of M . Sivalensis. 

There is no cortical substance or crusta petrosa ; the tooth consist- 
ing of enamel and ivory only, the former being very thick and mas- 
sive, as is normal in the mastodons. 

The coronal surface consists of a double line of conical and obtusely 
pointed mamillse : those on the external side being in most cases per- 
fect, whilst those on the inner side are divided by a fissure or fissures 
into two or three irregularly formed obtuse points. These mamilhe 
are not, as in the true Mastodon angustidens, placed transversely or at 
right angles with the line of surface, but meet each other from right 
to left alternately, so that the furrow on one side is interrupted by 
the mamilla on the other ; and the mamillae on the whole line of tooth 
lock into each other in the same way that two serrated edges opposed 
to each other might be supposed to do, were they placed in contact. 

The outer surface of the enamel is smooth, and the space or furrow 
between each mamilla both on the external and internal surface is 
marked by a small tubercle, the presence of which however does not 
appear to be constant. 

The surface of the tooth of the lower jaw wears obliquely and out- 
wardly on the grinding surface, as in the ruminants, in which respect 
it differs entirely from the elephants. 

The wear of the coronals is marked at the commencement by irre- 
gularly lobed figures, which, as the detrition advances, become confus- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

1836.] Mastodon Angustidens. 295 

ed, and gradually unite, until the mamillae are worn away entirely, 

when the tooth is left with merely a Burface of ivory surrounded by 

The drawings are intended to represent the tooth at these different 
stages ; from the state of germ, to the old and worn down tooth, 
shewing the intermediate state of detrition at different ages. 

PI. xi. Fig. 1 . Fragment of tooth in germ, with the enamel on one 
of the mamillae fractured. 

Fig. 2. A very perfect molar of a young but adult animal, the front 
surface being moderately worn, and the rear portion in the state of 
germ; This is the right molar of the lower jaw. The length of 
this tooth is 9*2 inches or °234 metres, and the breadth measured 
on the base or lower bulge of the mamillae 2*95 inches or '074 
metres ; it consists of six pair of points or mamillae, with apparently 
(as the fossil is slightly fractured at this point) a bilobed talon in 
the rear. The coronal surface is here shewn. 

Fig. 3. An internal view of the same tooth. 

Fig. 4. An external view of the same, exhibiting the obliquity of 
wear on the coronal surface. 

Fig. 5 and 6. Fragment of a tooth of a greater age than the preceding. 

Fig. 7 and 8. Fragment of tooth with jaw attached ; this is a portion 
of the left molar of the lower jaw of an animal of the same age as 
that represented in figs. 5 and 6, distinctly shewing the cup-like 
cavities formed by the detrition and gradual junction of the ma- 
millae : the obliquity of wear towards the outer surface is here very 
distinctly marked. 

Fig. 9 and 10. Fragment of a tooth of the same age as the pre- 
The three last specimens have belonged to animals of nearly the 

same age ; the mamillae are much worn, and we see the gradual oblite- 
ration of their independent hollows, reducing the coronal surface to 

the appearance exhibited in figs. 11 and 12. 

Fig. 1 1 . Shews the detrition at an intermediate state between figs. 9 
and 10, and fig. 12. The posterior portion of this specimen still 
retains the encircling lines of enamel on the worn down points, 
whilst the portion in front has arrived at its last stage of wear. 

Fig. 12. May be considered as a representation of the tooth in its 
final state of detrition, when all marks of the mamillated form of 
crown is obliterated, and nothing remains but an outer border of 
enamel encircling a deep internal hollow of ivory. 
I wish to draw attention particularly to the alternating position of 

the mamillae, which I consider to be the chief specific character, and 

which is distinctly marked throughout the whole series ; and, referring 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

296 Meteorological Register kept at Bangalore. [Mat, 

again to the Asti fossil as figured in Cuvier, I think that a clear iden- 
tification is established. 

As my object in writing this note is simply to point out the dis- 
tinctive characters of the teeth of the mastodon a dents etroites, which 
have been found in the Siwalik hills, it is unnecessary to make any 
further remarks until we can enter upon a general description of the 
fossil mastodons and elephants of these hills ; noting however, that 
from the half of a lower jaw of this species, with its ramus attached* 
which is now in my possession, we may look forward to some pecu- 
liarities of form, differing very materially not only from the fossil and 
existing elephant, but also from the other species of mastodons. 

Up to this period I am only aware of the discovery of two species 
of mastodons in the Siwalik hills ; namely, the variety of M. angus- 
tidens which is the subject of this note, and the M. Elephantoides of 
Clift. The former is very rare, and the latter in very great abundance. 

IX. — Meteorological Register kept at Bangalore. By Dr. J. Mouat, 
Medical Surgeon, IZth Dragoons. 

If the accompanying meteorological table, kept at Bangalore, for the 
year 1835, be of any interest, you are at liberty to make any use of it 
you please. It has been drawn up for the medical reports, which I am 
in the habit of transmitting to the heads of my department, and the 
transcription of which is all the trouble it now gives. The original 
table, as kept every two hours for the entire of 1834 and 1835, are also 
at your service ; but they are two voluminous and bulky, I should think, 
for any useful purpose. The column of monthly average was obtained 
by adding the state of the thermometer, kept every two hours for the 
entire 24 hours ; dividing this by 12, gave the average for each day. 
These added together for the month, and divided by the number of 
days in the month, give the monthly average noted in the table. 

The wards of the hospital are visited by one of the medical pupils 
or apprentices every two hours from 10 p. u. to 4 a. m., whose duty 
it is to give medicine, &c. to the sick, and, at the same time, to mark 
the thermometer. The corporal of the guard, when relieving the sentries, 
is responsible, and sees this duty performed ; and, in the day time, the 
hospital serjeant, apothecaries, pupils on duty, &c. mark it, the rest 
of the 24 hours ; so that every source of error is endeavoured to be 
avoided. The thermometer marked S., or side, is fixed on the end of a 
shelf, some inches from the wall, and by its position, screened from the 
influence of the glare or reflected heat ; the other, marked C. or centre, 
is suspended from the centre of the room, about seven feet from the 
floor, and the general agreement of the two instruments is a pretty good 
guarantee for their accuracy. The apartment is the surgery of the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQLC 


Motto Mast/xLon AngustLAests 


Digitized by 


efdu/SiwaJdv MUs. 

Digitized by vjOOQ LC 

Digitized by VjOOQLC 


Meteorological Register kept at Bangalore. 


hospital, 1 2 feet square, with a door facing the east and a window to 
the north. The former always, and the latter generally, kept open . There 
are also two small ventilators on the west side, always admitting a 
circulation of air. 

The other table is from Sir. J. F. W. Herschel's suggestion of 
meteorological observations, &c. kept on four fixed days in each year* 
and the thermometer, &c. marked every hour. 

Abstract of Two-hourly Meteorological Register, kept at Bangalore, 1835. 

2 ^ 

c c 

Jan., { 

Feb., {%■ 
Marc, {§; 

April, { 

May, { 
June, | 

3al r, {g; 

Aug., {I 




Nov., lc 

Dec, { 

Ann. Avg., 

2 fi ►% « 





79 22 









a e 















73. S5 



26, 9* 

26, S5 

26. 7S 

26. S2 








a < 
I £ 







26.78 26.76 

26.42 26 60 


26. S4 

26.78 26.31 






16 Ky 








& V. 


S. W. 




Eas- Weather delightfully cool 
terly. and bracing— some foggy 
mornings, and after the 
24th, cloudy days. 
Eas- Weather cool and pleasant 
terly. — sun getting powerful. 
Ey. or Mornings cool, days hot, 
Sy. and at times close and 

oppressive— one shower 
of rain. 
Generally close, hot, and 
sultry— the air cool. 


V. and 

5 10 Ey. & 

N. B 


at v. 

3i>Ey. oi 
N. E 

ft Wv. 

Weather cool and cloudy— 
some heavy showers of 

Weather cool and pleasant, 
hazy or cloudy, with fre- 
quent showers, and some 
falls of rain. 

Weather cool and hazy, 
with heavy showers, and 

Weather cold and chilly, 
with constant showers, 
and some heavy falls of 

Weather cool, clouded, and 
pleasant — several heavy 
showers of rain. 

Weather cool and pleasant, 
with some heavy falls of 

Weather delightful, cold, 
bracing and generally 
cloudy, so me foggy morn- 
ings, and at times very 


N. E. Weather cold, bracing, and 
Xc Ey. delightfully pleasant and 

.26.95 162.82 26,89 44 
N. B. The Thermometers marked every two hours—the Barometer at 10 a. m. 
and 3 p. m. 

• This daily register of the Barometer, at 10 a. m. and 4 p. m„ would be par- 
ticularly acceptable, provided the instrument was a good one, which we almost 
ear could not be the case. (See below.) — Ed. 

2 Q 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Meteorological Observations, SfC 


X. — Meteorological Observations, taken every hour, at Bangalore, in the 
Hospital of H. M. 13M Dragoons, from 6 a. m. oftheZlst to 6 p. m. 
of the 2'2nd March, 1836, inclusive, in conformity with Sir W. Her* 
scheVs instructions. By the same. 

Hours of Ob- 
servation . 

March, 1836 
6 A. M. 21st, 

7 tlitto, 

8 ditto 

9 ditto, 

10 ditto, 

11 ditto 

12 Noon, .. 

1 v. m 

2 ditto,.... 

3 ditto, 

4 ditto, 

5 ditto 

6 ditto, 

7 ditto,.... 

8 ditto.... 

9 ditto, 

10 ditto,.... 

11 ditto..... 

12 Midnight, 

1 A. M. 22d, 

2 -ditto, 

3 ditto,. . . . 

4 ditto, 

5 ditto 

6 ditto, 

7 ditto,.... 

8 ditto,.... 

9 ditto, 

10 ditto, ... 

11 ditto,.... 

12 Noon. .. 
1 P. M 

2 ditto 

3 ditto,.... 

4 ditto 

5 ditto,.. . 

6 ditto,.... 





,0 1 
















Range of 2 

6 4 













Weather clear, cool, and pleasant. 

Calm ; the sun getting hot when exposed outside* 

Much the same ; sun getting very hot ditto. 

Ditto ditto ditto ; gentle breeze. 

Very hot ; some light clouds ; ditto. 

Sun hot, air cool, some light clouds, wind rising. 

Sun at times obscured, light clouds, and the air cool 
and refreshing. 

nitto, ditto, ditto. 

Ditto, ditto, ditto. 

Sun very oppressive, very little wind, and very hot 
and close ; some light cloud?. 

Very close ; the sun very hot, scarcely any wind. 

Getting cool, wind rising, and very pleasant. 

Calm and pleasant; sky clear. 

Ditto and very close ; light clouds ; some lightning ; 
S. E. 

Ditto gentle breeze ditto ditto. 

Gentle breeze ; some heavy clouds; Wy. ditto. 

Calm and very sultry ; some heavy clouds hovering 
about; some lightning ; S. ET. 

Slight breeze from S, E. ; sky clearer, some light- 
ning, N. W. 

Ditto, clear sky ; frequent ; ditto ditto. 

Cool and pleasant ; ditto ; gentle breeze from S. F. 

Wind rising and strong from S. E.; at times variable ; 
sky clear. 

Still strong breeze from S. E. ; at times Wy. do. do. 

Gentle cool breezes ditto ; cloudless sky. 

Ditto ditto. 

Very gentle breeze ; not so cool as at 5, but pleasant ; 

Clear and pretty cool ; very calm, but the sun get- 
ting hot. 

Ditto ditto, ditto ditto. 

Much the same, but the sun getting very hot, scarce- 
ly any breeze. 

Getting very hot, very calm and clear, slight breeze. 

Gentle breeze from N. ; sky clear, sun hot, but not 

Calm and sultry ; light clouds ; sun getting very hot. 

Sky clear and cloudless ; slight breeze from N.; sun 
very hot. 

Ditto ditto, hot and sultry. 

Ditto ditto, ditto ditto. 

Very sultry ; little or no wind ; sky clear. 

Ditto ditto ditto. 

Ditto ditto ditto. 

Hourly Mean 
Average, ...26,93 31.59 82.73 

N. B. The observations were made in an apartment 13 feet square. One ther- 
mometer hung in the centre, 7 feet from the floor ; the other, at the end of a shelf, 
some inches from the wall, and quite protected from reflected heat.— The room has 
a door facing the east, and a small window to the north, both left open*. 

* The march of the Barometer seems so sluggish that we fear the observer neg- 
lected to tap the tube previous to reading off— an indispensable precaution with 
ordinary instruments.— Ed. 

Digitized by VjOOQ LC 


Horary observations taken at Ddddpur. 


XI. — Horary Observations taken at Ddddpur, in conformity with Sir 
John Hers chefs Circular. By Col. Colvin, Lieut. Bakbr, and 
Lieut. Durand, Engineers. 
rThe original, whence we have with permission extracted these tables for pnblica- 
tionThas been forwarded to the Secy, of the South African Phil. Inst.J 

Barometrical Observations taken at Dtidfipur, Sept. 1835, 








?a . 





21 76- 

22 79-6 


80*4 { 























81' 87" 
80*8 B7*3 
81*2 88*1 
80-8 187*8 
79*8 196- 

79- '32*6 

6 127S* 7 
615 73* 
607 72*2 
607 71.5i 
620 70-6 
637 72* I 







Calm. Mist cannot be seen through for 300 

vards, appears less over head. 
Ditto ditto clearing off a little, with just a 

breath of wind from cast. 
Ditto ditto ditto objects becoming ^ble 
800 to 1000 yards off, air just perceptible E. 
Wind S. W. light and variable, clear except 
light wreaths of mist along the horizon. 
„ ditto very light ditto, with light low 
transparent clouds, apparently the re- 
mains of the mist. 
„ W. light ditto, still a few light clouds. 
,, W. light and variable,ditto ditto ditto. 
,, W, light breeze, ditto ditto ditto. 
„ W. ditto ditto ditto, except tbe 
line of mountains which is clouded. 
W, by N . ditto ditto ditto ditto ditto, 
" N. to S. E. in white masses. 

N. W. ditto ditto ditto ditto ditto N . 
"e. toS. E. ditto. 

Ditto ditto ditto ditto ditto ditto. 
'„ Ditto much fallen, ditto light clouds 
over the mountains and on the S. W. 
horizon. ,_ ' • 

„ Ditto as before, ditto ditto ditto ditto. 
„ Ditto ditto ditto, stars bright. 
„ Ditto light ditto ditto. 
„ Ditto breeze in gusts, ditto ditto. 
Ditto ditto light ditto ditto. 
Light air westerly ditto ditto. 
Ditto ditto ditto ditto. 
Ditto ditto ditto ditto. 
Ditto ditto ditto ditto. 
Ditto ditto ditto ditto- 
Ditto ditto ditto do dawn appearing. 
Calm, ditto mountains cloudless. 
Ditto ditto ditto. 

Ditto ditto, except light clouds over 
the mountains. 
Ditto ditto ditto ditto N E. to S. E. 
A very light air from E. ditto large 
white clouds on and behind the 
mountain range. 
Ditto ,, W. ditto ditto ditto ditto. 
Ditto ,, W. ditto masses of ditto 

ditto ditto N. by E. to S. E. 
N. W. light breeze, ditto ditto ditto. 
Ditto ditto ditto ditto ditto ditto. 
Ditto in gus'.s ditto ditto ditto ditto. 
ditto ditto ditto ditto ditto ditto ditto. 
W. ditto ditto ditto, mountains clear 

to N. cloudy to E. and S. E. 
W. light ditto ditto ditto ditto. 

-flfcemtio. «o»nM»eed .t 6-0-30- A. M. or si« ^^"^T^ftftgf e 


Barometrical Observations taken at Dddupur. 


Barometrical Observations taken at Dddupur, March, 1836. 


20 22 
m 23 


65 3 



70-2, 77"5 


G6-2 74-5 

by Cnry. 





3 60*4 
9 59 




















3 69 






























Bar. by 

























970 75 










•29* 128 


























897 66*4 
892 64-1 
698 61* 
894; 59*5 
884 59 
881 1 56* 5 
666 55*5 
854 03*2 
855' 52* 




3 2! 














28 994 


Wind E. 

Wind E. sky clear, over head liprht clouds 

to South, Sirmur mountains clouded. 
Wind E. light clouds over mountains ex- 
cepting the sub-Himalayas, which are 
Ditto ditto ditto ditto. 

Wind S. E. light but stendy clouds in di- 
rection of mountains cover more of the 
Wind E. Gusty, clear over head, light 

clouds all round the horizon. 
Wind N. by E. unsteady, clear over head, 
cloudy from N. W. to N. E. outline of 
mountains visible. 
Wind N. by E. unsteady, clear to S. W. 
Elsewhere clouded, stormy appearance 
to north. 
Wind N. light. Clear to S. W. Elsewhere 

light clouds, outline of hills visible. 
Ditto ditto ditto ditto ditto. 
Ditto ditto ditto ditto ditto. 
Wind S. E. night clear. 
Ditto very light, night clear. 
Clear. Clear star light. 
Ditto ditto. 

Wiud N. very light, clear star light. 
Ditto ditto ditto. 
Ditto ditto ditto. 
Ditto ditto ditto. 
Wind N. brisk, clear star light. Dawn 

Wind N. light, sky clear. 
N. by E. ditto ditto. 
Ditto ditto ditto. 
Ditto ditto ditto. 
Ditto ditto ditto. 
Calm, sky clear. 
Wind 8. E. light, sky clear. 
Ditto ditto ditto. 
Calm, sky clear. 
Wind S. W. light, sky clear, except light 

clouds over the mountains. 
Wiud W. light ditto ditto ditto. 
Ditto ditto ditto ditto. 
Ditto ditto ditto ditto. 

Time ascertained by one observation of equnl altitudes. Observation commen- 
ced at lOh. 21m. 31s. of 21st March, common reckoning, and was continued at 
exact intervals of one hour. (For convenience the minutes and seconds have been 
omitted in the table.— Ed.) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Horary Observations taken at Dddupur. 


Memoranda relative to the above Table of Barometrical obtervationt for Septem- 
ber 1835. By Lieut. Durand. 

Instruments employed. — Colonel Colvin's Barometer was made by Cart. 
The cistern is of ivory, the Instrument is adjusted for observation by 
bringing the surface of the mercury to a level with the slit in the socket 
of the stopcock of the cistern, by means of a brass screw at the bottom of 
the cistern. This instrument was, when compared with the standard 
Barometer in Calcutta, by J. Prinsep, Esq., found to be correct. 

Lieut. Durand's Barometer is one of Troughton and Simm's mountain 
Barometers. When compared with the standard Barometer, it stood 0.043 
too low. 

In order to determine the amount of change which the two instruments 
might have suffered, relatively to each other, in consequence of the jour, 
ney from Calcutta, a comparison was instituted between the heights shown 
by the two Barometers, during the month of June 1835 ; the following is 
the result. 

Height of Bar. 





Mean of the foregoing. 



80 .51 


10a. m 

4 P.M. 

10 A.M. 
4 P. M. 

28*69441 92.98 j 91.83 .84.145 
88.7035 88.616 87.8361 83. 

Gary's Barometer. 

TaoroHTOr* and 
Simm's Barometer. 

Whence may be deduced, that Cary's barometer suffered considerable 
derangement from the inevitable jolting, &c. attendant on so long a jour, 
ney. Trouohton's had evidently been lees disordered, probably but little 
so ; without a second comparison with the standard barometer, however, 
the comparative accuracy of Trouohton's rests upon supposition. 

Previous to the day on which the hourly observations were to commence, 
Cart's Barometer was accidentally put out of order, and it became requi- 
site to re-fill the tube with mercury ; this was accordingly effected, but 
the means for safely heating the filled tube not being at hand, and the 
tube appearing to the eye free from air, it was inserted into the instru- 
ment ; the observations show the great difference which this untimely 
accident caused in the heights of the two mercurial columns. 

Thermometers. — The attached thermometers of both barometers read 
off to degrees. 

The thermometer employed as a moist bulb, is one made by Trough- 
ton and Shims. When compared in Calcutta it stood 1*3 too high ; the 
scale is graduated to degrees. 

The detached thermometer also by Troughton and Stmms, reads off 
only to two degree divisions; when examined in Calcutta it was found to be 
0*4 too high. 

From the foregoing remarks on the thermometers, it is evident that the 
division of the scales of these instruments did not admit any perfect accu- 
racy in reading off the decimal parts of a degree : the decimal parts in the 
table are therefore only careful approximations, and under particular cir- 
cumstances, such as reading off at night, &c. small inaccuracies must have 
been unavoidable. 

Time. — The time of apparent noon and the rate of chronometer were 
ascertained by a series of observations of equal altitudes of the sun, on the 
1/th, 18th, 19th and 20th September. 

Location of Instruments. — The instruments were placed in a verandah 
facing the north, perfectly shaded, and sheltered from the wind, without, at 
the same time, hindering a free circulation of air. Cary's Barometer stood 
about 4/tf. 6, from the wall; Trouohton's about \ft. 6, from the wall, the 
space partitioned off and allotted to the instruments not admitting their 
further removal from the northern front of the building. 

Place of Observation. — Dado pur is situated on the right bank of the 
Jamna, a little below the junction of the Sombe : the position of the Canal 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

802 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [Mat, 

Department depot is somewhat north of the village, and is in latitude 
SO 9 12 N. and about longitude 77° 23' 45" E. as deduced from an obser- 
vation of the transit of mercury on the 5th May, 1832. The range of 
low mountains separated from the more lofty and older formations by the 
Kyadur Doon is about 20 miles from Dadripur. The word mountains 
which enters amongst the remarks on the particulars of the weather, must 
be understood to allude to the distant ranges of the Himalayas, and not 
to the low and neighbouring mountains. 

It is necessary to add,that the hourly observations were taken by Colonel 
Colvin, Engrs., Lieut. Baker, Engrs., and Lieut. Durand, Engrs. 

Dadupur, Nov. 2Uh, 1835. 

The same remarks are applicable to the March observations, Cart's 
Barometer not having been yet boiled ; the site of the instruments was 
changed, being now under a thatch erected for them in a free circulation 
of air. 

XII. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 
Wednesday evening, the 1st June, 1836. 

W. H. Magnaghten, Esq. Vice-President, in the ch «r. 

Messrs. W. Brucb and R. W. G. Frith, proposed at the last meeting, 
were ballotted for, and elected members of the Society. 

Dr. Lumqua, proposed at the last meeting, was, upon the recommenda- 
tion of the Committee of Papers, elected an honorary member. 

The Rev. R. Everest, requested his name to be withdrawn from the 
list of members.